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date: 18 October 2019

(p. 539) Index

(p. 539) Index

A
Abbasid states. See Islamic empire
ʿAbd al-Malik, 519, 528, 530, 532, 535
Abu Salabikh (Mesopotamia), 103
Achaemenid empire, 199–202, 208–15
Alexander’s conquest of, 324, 328, 333
Aramaic as lingua franca, 211, 212
coinage, 210
collapse of, 227, 329
compared with Umayyad achievement, 522–23
continuities in later empires, 334, 339
deportations, 212
dipolomacy, 209
economy, 211
Edomites and, 180
elites, 211
infrastructure and irrigation, 211
Jewish states and, 190
kingship and political structure, 208–9, 212–13
language, 211, 212, 213
laws and legal institutions, 213
military, 191, 209–10
new order of, 153
religion, 212
size of, 29
tribute, 210
Yehud and, 183
Achaians, 307, 311–18, 337
Adjudication, 21. See also Laws and legal institutions
Administrative power, 18
Aedileship (Roman empire), 393, 394
Aegospotami, 298–99
Agathocles (Syracuse), 292
Agesilaos (Spartan), 290, 296
Agobard (bishop of Lyon), 506
The agrarian sociology of ancient civilizations (Weber), 63
Agrippa, Marcus, 185
Agrippa I, 187
Aiakid kingdom, 332
Aitolians, 308, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 319, 337
Akarnanian Oiniadai, 316
Akhenaten (Egypt), 78
Akkadian language, 172
Akragas (Greece), 261, 285
Akropolis (Greek), 265
Alaric I (Goth), 499
Alexander IV (Hellenistic empire), 328
Alexander Jannaeus, 194
Alexander Severus, 415
Alexander the Great, 202, 210, 214, 227, 299–300, 311, 325, 326, 328, 333, 337, 428, 433
Alexandria, 261, 333, 344, 439, 484, 490
“Alluvial agriculture,” 69
Amasis (Egypt), 80, 81, 199
Ambrose, 515
Amenhotep III, 250
Amin, Samir, 23
Ammianus Marcellinus, 502
Amphiaraion of Oropos, 319
Amphiktyonies (Greek), 307
Amphissaians, 308
Amun-Re at Karnak (Egypt), 88
Amyntas III of Macedon, 316
Amyzon (Seleucid), 341
Anatolian states, 161–79
Hittites, 161–77. See also Hittites
Phrygia, 177–78. See also Phrygia
Anderson, Benedict, 440
Andragoras (Parthia), 203
Andreski, Stanislav, 38
Andreyev, Yuri, 291
Anitta (Hittite), 162–63
Annals of Thutmose III (Egypt), 78
Anšan (Mesopotamia), 125
Anthropological study, 7, 12, 20
of Egypt, 63
Evans and, 236
heterachy, 25
inter-civilization contact, 35
Antigonids, 329, 332, 333, 337, 339, 344, 350
Antigonos (“general of Asia”), 328, 329
Antigonos (Hasmonean king), 184, 192
Antigonos Gonatas, 329
Antioch, 484, 490
Antiochia, 261
Antiochos I (Seleucid), 343
Antiochos III (Seleucid), 203, 204
Antiochos IV (Seleucid), 329, 336–37, 343
Antiochos VII (Seleucid), 326–27
Antonine dynasty (Rome), 444, 446
Antonine plague, 444
Antoninus Pius, 204, 445t
Antony, Mark, 184, 185, 204, 344, 417, 422 (p. 540)
Apollo at Thermon, 319
Arabic language, 519, 533
Arabs, 208, 226, 227, 458, 475, 480, 483, 490. See also Islamic empire
Aramaic as lingua franca, 211, 212, 330, 534
Archaeology, 12
Byzantion, 484
Carthage, 362, 363, 373
Egyptian sites, 62, 72, 73, 77, 86
Germanic states, 514
Greece, 287, 293, 295, 333, 338
inter-civilization contact, 35
Iranian empires, 209
Jewish states, 183
Marwanids, 535
Mesopotamian empires, 121, 122, 124
Minoan Crete, 236, 237
Mycenaean centers, 242, 244, 245, 249, 252–53
Near Eastern city-states, 96, 97, 98, 101, 102, 106–8
Roman monarchy, 440, 443
Roman republic, 384
Archidamus, 296
Archontes (Byzantine), 485, 495
Ardashir (Sasanian), 205, 220, 223, 224, 227
Argos, 263, 273, 274, 279
Arianism, 511
Ariovistus (Germanic king), 428
Aristocracy, 19–20, 24. See also Elites
Carthage, 377–78, 380
European Middle Ages, 456
Germanic states, 509–12
Hellenistic empires, 330, 332–38, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 351–52
Roman monarchy, 427–38, 456
Aristotle, 62–65, 367, 369–71, 375
Arkadians, 264, 309, 311
Armenia. See Parthian empire
Arsaces (Parthia), 203, 216
Arsacid-Parthian empire, 215–18
art and culture, 217–18
feudalism and, 215
kingship, 216
military, 215–16
religion, 217
Artabanus IV (Arsacid), 205
Art and culture
Arsacid-Parthian empire, 217–18
Greek city-states, 268
Mycenaean period states, 252
Artaxerxes I (Persia), 202
Artaxerxes II (Persia), 202
Artaxerxes III (Persia), 202
Artemis at Kalydon, 319
Artemis Elaphebolia at Hyampolis, 318
Asclepiades of Mendes, 433
Assassinations of Roman emperors, 435, 446, 447
Assemblies (Roman empire), 387–88
Assurnasirpal II (Mesopotamia), 140–41, 146, 149
Assyrian empire, 137–50
civil servants, 143
collapse of, 148–50
diplomatic letters from, 143, 149
in eastern Anatolia, 162
economy, structure, and policy, 141–45
institutional hierarchy, 145
invasion of Egypt, 79, 82
kingship, 147, 149
Late Assyrian Period, 152
laws and legal institutions, 144
local civic institutions, 145
merchants, 144
Middle Assyrian Period, 138, 144
military, 142
patron-client relations, 144
peace, 149
propaganda, 146–47
religion and rituals, 147, 294
slavery, 143, 152
taxation, 142
tributes, collection of, 142
violence, 145
writing, 142
Astyages (Median), 199
Athena at Alalkomenai, 319
Athena Itonia at Boiotian Koroneia, 318
Athens
capital-intensive, 283, 292, 293
as city-state, 260, 263, 264, 268, 271, 272
cultural achievements, 296
economic services, 293
as empire, 279, 281m
military defeats of, 298
naval power, 284
religion and belief systems, 294
resident aliens, 288
slavery, 288
social customs, 288
Sparta vs., 290, 298, 299
subject cities, 289
taxes and government, 279, 291
victory over Persia, 284, 290
Atia (mother of Augustus), 433
Attalid kingdom, 327, 329, 333, 339, 343
Attika, 315
Attila, 458, 504
Augustus Caesar, 185, 187, 204, 327, 412–14, 417–23, 433
Aurelian (Roman emperor), 449
Aurelius, Marcus (Roman emperor), 446
Avidius Cassius, 204–5
Ayia Triada. See Crete
B
Babylon Epic of Creation, 107
Babylonians, 79, 123, 125, 127, 135–36, 150, 326
“Babylonian Talmud,” 225
Bagoas (Persia), 202
Baines, J., 236 (p. 541)
Baktria, 326, 343
Balance-of-power systems, 35
Balsam, 181
Ba’lu myth (Ugaritic), 111
Barbarians, 458, 498–502
Bar Kokhba Revolt (Judaea), 181, 217
Basileia (Hellenistic kingdom), 335–42
Battle of the Bridge (Arabs vs. Yazdgerd), 208
Bede, 503
Bertram of Le Mans, 512
Bikerman, E., 336, 343
Bisitun’s state power, 324–27
Blanton, Richard, 25
Blegen, C. W., 236
Boethius, 510
Boiotians, 307–11, 313–17, 319
Bonney, Richard, 36
“Bread and circuses,” 429
Breviary of Alaric, 506
Britain
imperial tradition in, 502
Rome’s abandonment of, 459, 501
Rome’s annexation of, 422, 446
Bruce Trigger, 13
Brumfield, Elizabeth, 7
Brutus, Marcus Iunius, 413
Bulgars, 481, 490
Bulk-goods networks, 34
Burbank, Jane, 27
Bureaucracy, 15, 83
Carthage, 369–70
Hellenistic empires, 342, 351
Islamic empire, 528, 533
late Roman states, 478
Mesopotamian empires, 127, 151
Roman monarchy, government without bureaucracy, 438
Burgundians, 459, 498, 499, 501, 502, 504, 505, 507, 510
Burke, Peter, 31
Butzer, Karl, 64
Byzantine empire, 475–97
apparatus of government, 476, 483–85
archontes, 485, 495
coinage, 487
collapse of, 491–94
Comnenian period, 487
economy, 487–88
elite-building compared to Ottoman devshirme (boys conscripted from Christian households for Janissary corps), 483
elites, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489, 492–94
emperor, 476
laws and legal institutions, 484
merchants, 492–93
military, 484, 486–87
political-historical overview, 480–82
political ideology, 488–91
political system, 482–83, 485
religion, 476, 488–91
ruralization, 484
size of, 475, 477m, 498
slavery, 479
surplus appropriation, 478–80, 482, 492
tax, 482, 484
themes, 484
trade, 492–93
urbanism, 485–86
C
Caesarea, 185, 186
“Caging effect” on population, 72
Caius Marius, 409
Cales (Roman colony), 405
Caligula, 414, 424
Caliphal theory, 528–32
Cambyses (Persian), 82, 183, 199, 201, 296
Campanella, Tommaso, 434
Campus Martius, 391, 392, 412
Canaan, 95, 107
“Capital-intensive,” 36, 292, 293
Capitalism, 29, 36
Capstone government, 17
Caracalla (Roman emperor), 205, 439, 447
Carchemish, 167, 171, 176
Carians, 79, 81
Carneiro, Robert, 12
Carolingian Francia, 505, 508, 512, 514
Carthage, 361–82. See also Hannibal
citizenship, 367–68
city administration, 375–76
coinage, 377
councils, 370–71
defeat at Himera by Gelon, 285
diplomacy and treaties, 377
early history, 364–67
elites and aristocracy, 377–78, 380
hyparchoi, 368, 371
invasion of Sicily, 285
kingship, 364
lack of common identity, 380
laws and legal institutions, 380
magistrates and bureacracy, 369–70
military and defense, 373–75, 376, 379
people’s assembly, 371
provisions, 377
religion, 375
revenue, 376–77
size of, 362, 362m, 364–65
sources on, 363–64
subject cities and peoples, 368–69
Syracuse vs., 292
taxes, 376
territorial administration, 371–73
urbanization, 375–76
Utica, 368
wealth, 379
(p. 542)
Cassiodorus, 503–4, 505
Cassius Dio, 421, 423, 433
Catholic Church. See Christianity
Censuses, Roman, 442
Chaldean tribal confederation, 150
Chalkideis, 310, 311, 315, 316
Chariots
Carthaginian, 375, 376
Greek, 338
Hittite, 168
Mycenaean, 249–50
Charles V (Habsburg), 447
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, 33, 34
Chiefdoms, 10, 242
Chilperic I (Merovingian), 510, 512
China’s Central Plain states, 10
Christian, David, 12–13, 17
Christianity
Catholic Church as official religion, 452–53
Germanic states turning to, 510–12
legal authority transferred to Church, 484, 489
monasteries, 511
monophysitism vs. dyophysite dogma, 478, 489
oath-taking and, 507
persecution of Christians, 205, 225, 452
Roman emperor’s adoption of, 452–53
Citizenship
Carthage, 367–68
Greek city-states, 269
Greek multicity-states, 296–97
Roman monarchy, 421, 439
Roman republic, 403, 404
Citizen-state, 32
The City of the Sun (Campanella), 434
City-states, 30–32. See also Greek city-states; Near East city-states
defined, 95–96, 263
origin of, 15
Rome as, 404
Civil service, 7. See also Bureaucracy
Egypt, 86
Roman republic, 387
Civil war
Greek city-states, 273
Islamic empire, 529, 533
Merovingian, 508
Roman monarchy, 415, 418, 424
Claessen, Henri, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19
Class conflict, 37, 40, 398–401
Classes, emergence of, 14
Claudius, 414, 424
Clay tablets, 121, 172, 237, 246
Cleopatra, 344, 417, 422
Clovis, 503
“Coercion-extraction cycle,” 36
“Coercion-intensive,” 36, 283, 292
Cohen, Ronald, 6, 13
Coinage
Achaemenid empire, 210–11
Byzantine empire, 487
Carthage, 377
Egypt, 81, 82
Greek koinon’s cooperative coinage, 309, 317
Hellenistic empires, 330, 345–46
Islamic empire, 519, 531, 533, 534
Roman monarchy, 446, 450
Cola di Rienzo, 431
Collective action, 45nn131–32
Collins, Randall, 40
Comes (Burgundian), 505
Comitia curiata, 387–88
Commercialization and types of states, 15
Comnenian period (Byzantine), 487
Conflict theory, 11, 12, 37
Constantine the Great, 449, 450, 452–53, 510
Constantine V, 490
Constantinople, 452, 454, 459, 475, 478, 481, 484, 489–90. See also Byzantine empire
Constitution of Kyrene (Greek), 269
Constitutions
Greek city-states, 269–70
Roman republic, 384–86, 397, 408
Consulship, Roman, 386, 388, 392, 394, 395, 397, 431
Cooper, Frederick, 27
Coordination problem, 69
Copenhagen Polis Centre’s Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, 305
Corinth, 263, 284, 289, 290, 297
Corpus Juris Civilis, 452
Cradle of civilization, 97, 149
Crassus, 204, 418
Crete, 236–42. See also Mycenaean period states
destruction and supposed Mycenaean invasion, 243
fifteenth-century BCE and Mycenaean mainland, 242–43
Neopalatial period, 241, 242, 243
Protopalatial period, 241
size and shape of Minoan states, 241–42
state structure and organization, 239–41, 240t
Croesus (Lydian), 199
Crone, Patricia, 9, 16–17
Cults. See Religion
Curiae (Roman empire), 387
Currency. See Coinage
Cursus honorum (Roman empire), 397
Cyprus, 327
Cyrus (Persia), 183, 199, 294, 296–97, 299
Cyrus the Younger (Persia), 202
D
Dacia, Rome’s annexation of, 422
Darius (Persia), 82, 201, 212, 214, 296, 325
Darius II (Persia), 202, 209, 299
Darius III (Persia), 202 (p. 543)
Darwinian theory, 12
David (biblical), 181
Davidides (biblical), 183, 193
Dead Sea scrolls, 193
Debt-bondage, 402
Deities. See Religion
Delian League, 202, 273, 274
Demetrios (Macedonia), 328, 329
Demetrius the Besieger, 300
Democracy, 270, 290, 297–98, 399
Demosthenes, 312
Demotic Chronicle, 82
Deportations
Achaemenid empire, 212
Assyrian empire, 138, 148, 152
Persian empire, 212
Sasanian empire, 222, 225
Description of the poleis in Greece (Herakleides Kretikos), 316
Desiderius of Cahors, 509
Despotic power, 18
Roman monarchy, 448
Devshirme (Christian boys conscripted for Janissary), 483
“Dialogue of Pessimism,” 146
Diamond, Jared, 10, 11
Dioceses, 450, 478
Diocletian (Roman emperor), 205, 415, 449, 450, 453
Diodorus, 287, 288, 293
Dionysius (Syracuse), 285, 291, 292, 293, 296
Dionysius II (Syracuse), 289, 296
Diplomacy
Achaemenid empire, 209
Assyrian empire, 143, 149
Carthage, 377
Greek city-states, 274–75
Hittites, 170–71
Persians, 209
Roman monarchy, 427–28
Roman republic, 404
Discourses on the Gods (Asclepiades of Mendes), 433
Distribution role of state, 21
Dobson, Brian, 423
Domitian, 424, 443, 444
Donner, H., 364
Dorians, 295
Downing, Brian, 37
Doyle, Michael, 27, 28, 29
Driessen, J., 250
E
Earle, Timothy, 9
Early hydraulic civilization in Egypt: A study in cultural ecology (Butzer), 64
Early-modern military mobilization, 420t, 421
Early state
defined, 6
end of, 14–15
Earthquakes, 253, 490
Ebla (Mesopotamia), 103
Ebroin (Francia), 510
Economy
Achaemenid empire, 211
Assyrian empire, 141–45
Byzantine empire, 487–88
Germanic states, 512–14
Greek city-states, 271
Greek koinon, 315–17
Hellenistic empires, 339, 346–48, 347f, 350
Hittites, 175
Near Eastern city-states, 113, 113f
Sasanian empire, 222
Ecumene, 440, 453
Edomites, 180
Egypt, 61–105
Alexandria capital, 84
annexation by Rome, 327
bureaucracy, 73–76, 81–83, 85–86
current trends in study of, 62–64
delegational systems, 85
development of state, 72–75
“dodecarchy,” 78
dynasties and dynastic cycles, 71–72
First Intermediate Period (2160–2055 BCE), 68, 75
fourth millennium BCE, 72–73
Hierakonpolis, 72, 86
Hyksos kings, 76
irrigation, 63, 64, 68–70, 72
kingship and administration, 62, 64–65, 84–86
law and legal institutions, 88
Memphis capital, 74, 81, 82, 86
Middle Kingdom (2055–1650 BCE), 61, 68, 75–84
military, 77, 79, 84
models of understanding, 64–65
monetization of, 81, 82
New Kingdom (1550–1069 BCE), 61, 63, 68, 76
Nile River and irrigation, 68–70
nomarchs, 75–76, 86, 87
nomes, 85, 86–87
Old Kingdom (2686–2160 BCE), 68, 73–75
parameters and boundaries, 65–68, 66–67m
Persian Rule (525–404, 343–332 BCE), 65, 82–83
“pharaoh,” 64–65
political economy, 64
prehistory, 70–71
property rights, 88
Ptolemies. See Ptolemies
religion, 80, 84, 85
Roman rule, 422, 431, 433, 442, 476
Saite Restoration (664–525 BCE), 61, 68, 79–82
Second Intermediate Period (1650–1550 BCE), 68, 76–78 (p. 544)
sources in study of, 62–64
state centralization, first phases of, 73
taxation, 85
temples, 87–88
Third Intermediate Period (1069–664 BCE), 78–79
trade, 72, 73, 80, 81, 82
urbanization, 86–87
viceroy’s role, 77
vizier’s role, 74, 88
warmaking, 73, 78, 84
“Egyptological” model, 65
Eich, Armin, 38, 291
Eich, Peter, 38
Eisenstadt, Shmuel, 15, 29, 425
Eisphora (Greek levy for military), 317
Elam, 124, 125, 126, 136–37, 141, 149
Elections (Roman republic), 397
Elias, Norbert, 432
Elites, 16–19. See also Class conflict
achaemenid empire, 211
Akkadian empire, 130–31
Arabs, 526–33, 527
Byzantine empire, 482, 485, 486, 488, 489, 492–94
Carthage, 377–78, 380
city-states and, 32
empires and, 27–28
Germanic successor states, 503
Greece in Bronze Age, 239–40, 243, 246, 248, 250–52, 254
Greek city-states, 270
Greek multicity states, 285–86, 289, 296, 299
Hellenistic empires, 330, 332–38, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 351–52
Hittites, 172, 175, 176
Mesopotamian empires, 133, 138, 139, 142–46, 151–53
Near Eastern city-states, 100, 102, 107–9, 111, 112, 114–16
Phrygia, 126
ritual and priestly elites, 22, 133
Roman monarchy, 415, 417, 429–30, 433–36, 438–42, 449, 453, 455–58
Roman republic, 395–401, 406–10
Sasanian empire, 221
state-elite relations, 22–25, 38–39
Ember, Carol and Melvin, 11
The emergence of civilisation (Renfrew), 236
Empires, 15, 27–30, 127. See also specific empires
Engel, Friedrich, 11
Enkidu (Epic of Gilgamesh), 106
Epic of Gilgamesh, 105–6, 110
Equestrian branch, 425, 430–31, 437, 446
Eretria, 263
Eridu (Mesopotamia), 106
Ertman, Thomas, 37
Eternal Peace (Justinian), 207
Eternal Treaty (Hittites and Egyptians), 171
Ethnos (Greece), 264, 304, 307
Etruscan city-states, 31, 292, 403
Euagoras (Salaminian king), 202
Eucharisticos (Paulinus of Pella), 501
Euergetism, 185, 186, 187
Eumenes II (Attalid ruler), 329
Eunuchs, 17, 140, 143, 429
Eurasia and Muslim-Chinese war, 522
Evans, Arthur, 236
Eyre, C. J., 69
Ezra (biblical), 183
F
Fabius Pictor, 384
Fargher, Lane, 25
Farrukhan (Sasanian general), 224
Fatimids, 491
Federalism, 32
Federal state or league. See Greek koinon
Fertile Crescent, 10, 34, 95–96
Feudal society, 70
Finer, Samuel, 7, 15, 27, 35–36
Finley, Moses, 236
First Punic War, 372
Fission, 10, 45n132
Flaig, Egon, 432
Flavian dynasty, 439
Forma et Expositio Legum, 506
Formula togatorum (Roman empire), 404
Frank, André, Gunder, 35
Franks, 459, 498, 502–4
Fried, Morton, 7, 9
G
Galaty, M. L., 239
Galilee, 181, 184
Galtung, Johan, 28
Gat, Azar, 31
Gaul, warfare in fifth century, 513
Gellner, Ernest, 15, 16, 19, 23, 69, 70, 430, 440
Gelon (Syracuse), 285, 288, 292
Generic states, 15
Germanic soldiers in Roman army, 458
Germanic successor states, 498–517
Campus Martius (March Field), 509
economic conditions, 512–14
elites, 503
establishment and nature of “barbarian” kingdoms, 498–502
kingdoms, 502–4
laws and legal institutions, 506–7
military and taxation, 458–59, 507–9
nobility and church, 509–12 (p. 545)
property rights, 501
Roman continuities, 459, 504–7
trade, 513
Germano-Roman kingdoms, 458–59
Germany, Rome’s attempted annexation of, 422
Geta (Roman emperor), 447
Giddens, Anthony, 15, 18, 22
Gift-giving in Hellenistic empires, 344
Gods. See Religion
Goldstone, Jack, 6, 18, 22, 27, 28, 38–39, 293
Gordian I and II (Roman emperors), 448
Goths. See Ostrogoths; Visigoths
Governors. See also Satraps
city, 74, 82, 108, 131, 134, 345
Islamic empire, 530, 533
provincial and regional, 125, 126, 130, 134, 135, 138, 140, 142–43, 171, 183, 220, 325, 337, 407, 431, 436–37, 447–48, 450, 530, 533–34
Roman provinces, 436–37
Great Pyramid at Giza, 74
Great Satraps Revolt (Persia), 202
Greece in Bronze Age, 236–58
chiefdoms, 242
collapse of, 252–54
fifteenth-century BCE Crete and Mycenaean mainland, 242–43
map, 238m
Minoan states on Crete, 237–42. See also Crete
Mycenaean period states, 243–52. See also Mycenaean period states
Shaft Grave period, 242
Greek city-states, 259–78
Archaic period, 260, 268, 270
art and culture, 268
citizenship, 269
civil war (stasis), 273
Classical period, 259, 260, 264, 265, 268, 270, 271
constitutions, 269–70
dependent poleis, 274
diplomacy, 274–75
economic and social life, 271
elites, 270
federations, formation of, 274–75. See also Greek koinon
finance, 272
government and political organization, 269–70
Hellenistic period, 260, 264, 265, 270, 272
housing, 265
laws and legal institutions, 268
military, 271
polis, extent and size of, 31, 259–64, 261–62m
polis as a city, 264–68
polis as a state, 268–72
relationship between poleis, 273–75
religion, 268, 271–72
Roman period, 264, 270, 272
wars between poleis, 273–74
Greek koinon, 304–23
coercion, cooperation, and negotiation, 310–12
coinage, 309, 317
ecology and economy, 315–17
interdependence of polis and koinon, 312–15
laws and legal institutions, 314–15
legitimation, identity, and religious practice, 317–19
map of, 305m
military, 311, 314
origins and development, 306–10
property rights, 315
taxes, 316–17
Greek language, 243, 330, 439, 519, 534
Greek multicity states, 279–303. See also Athens; Sparta; Syracuse
Archaic Period, 279
citizenship, 296–97
Classical Period, 279
collapse of, 298–99
cultural particularism, 298
documentation and sources, 286–87
domination vs. exploitation, 283
economic services, 292–93
elites, 285–86, 289, 296, 299
military power and resource extraction, 290–92
phoros (tax), 283, 290–91
political systems, coopertion, adjudication, and enforcement, 287–90
religion and belief systems, 294–95, 298
Sicilian settlements, 282m, 283–85
state formation in first-millennium BCE, 281–86
symbolic integration and identity, 295–97
warfare, 282
wealth, 293, 298
Gregory of Tours, 503, 513
Gregory the Great, 510
Griffeth, Robert, 286
H
Hadrian, 204, 436
Haggai (biblical), 183
Haldon, John, 6, 18, 22–23, 24, 27, 28
Hall, John, 16
Hall, Thomas, 33, 34, 38
Hamilkar (Carthaginian king), 365, 366
Hammurabi (Babylonian king), 114, 116, 125, 133, 163
Hannibal, 367, 370, 401, 418
Hanno (Carthaginian king), 365
Hansen, Mogens, 6, 30, 286
Hantili (Hittite), 164
Hasmonean kingdom, 184, 185, 192, 193, 194–95
Hattus/Hattusa (Hittite), 163, 167, 170, 173–74, 175, 177
Hattusili I (Hittite), 163, 164, 168, 169
Hattusili III (Hittite), 166, 171, 173 (p. 546)
Hayek, Friedrich, 315
Hegemony, 27
Assyrian, 138, 145, 148
Babylonian, 150
Iranian, 227
Mesopotamian, 104, 125, 127
Roman hegemony in Italy, 402–6
Roman hegemony in Mediterranean, 417–27, 444
Helck, W., 78
Hellas. See Greek city-states
Hellenika (Xenophon), 287
Hellenistic empires, 324–57. See also Macedonians; Ptolemies; Seleucids
basileia (Hellenistic kingdom) and kingship, 335–42
bureaucracy, 342, 351
conspicuous consumption, 344
currency, 345–46
diversity opportunity, 349
economy, 339, 346–48, 347f, 350
elites and aristocracy, 330, 332–38, 340, 342, 344, 346, 348, 351–52
Friends and royal court, 334, 336–37, 338, 340, 342, 346
gift-giving, 344
laws and legal institutions, 345
map of, 331m
narrative, genealogy, and structure, 327–35
nature of states, 351–52
property rights, 340
religion, 342
social history, 348–51
stability, 347
state power, 324–27, 350
taking, spending, and embedding, 342–46
taxes, 339, 343, 345, 349
warfare and military, 338, 343
wealth, 340, 344
Hephthalites, 207
Heraclius (Roman emperor), 208, 480, 526
Herakleia (Seleucid), 341
Herakleides Kretikos, 316
Herakles Kallinikos at Bisitun, 324–27
Herlihy, David, 512
Herod (Judaean), 184–85, 192, 193, 194
Herodian, 448
Herodotus, 62, 63, 65, 78, 80, 82, 210, 280, 283, 287, 291, 293, 365
“Heterarchy,” 25
Hieroglyphics, 81, 172, 236
Hieron I (Syracuse), 292, 296
Hieron II (Syracuse), 286
Hilakku kingdom, 176
Himera, battle of, 365, 366
Hintze, Otto, 36
Hippocrates (Gela), 285
Hippodamos of Miletos, 264, 265
Hisham (caliph), 519
Histories (Herodotus), 62, 63, 65
Hittites, 161–77
acquisition of empire, 167–69
administration of the kingdom, 171–75
collapse of, 176
diplomacy and treaties, 170–71
economy, 175
elite, 172, 175, 176
historical background, 161–64
laws and legal institutions, 173–74
maintenance of empire, 169–71
map of empire, 162m
military and warfare, 167–70
neo-Hittite successors, 176–77
role of the gods, 166–67
royal dynasty and kingship, 164–66, 167
scribes and writing, 172–73
slavery, 174
trade, 175
Homer, 177, 236, 252, 253, 254
Hormezd IV (Sasanian king), 207
Horus of Edfu (Egypt), 84
Howe, Stephen, 27
Hui, Victoria, 38
Hume, 176
Huns, 207, 458
Huntington, S. P., 414
Hyakinthos, 324–26
Hyksos kings, 76
Hyparchoi (Carthage), 368, 371
I
Iconoclasm, 489–90
Iliad (Homer), 177, 253
Imperialism, 28–29, 77. See also Empires
Indus Valley, 10
Information networks (IN), 34, 35
Infrastructure
Achaemenid empire, 211
communication and transport 19, 22, 25, 129, 141, 143, 148, 171, 211, 222, 375, 405, 407, 426, 479, 527, 535
power and organization, 18, 22, 24, 37, 126, 138, 140, 149–50, 290, 414, 426
Roman, 405, 426
Sasanian empire, 222
Les Institutions des Séleucides (Bikerman), 336
Integrative theories of state development, 11–12
Interior states, 33
Interstate conflict, 37
Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis (Copenhagen Polis Centre), 305
Ionians, 79, 201, 295, 307, 318
Iranian empires, 199–231
Achaemenid empire, 199–202, 208–15. See also Achaemenid empire
Arsacid-Parthian empire, 215–18
comparative perspective, 226–28
cultural and ethnic diversity in, 227 (p. 547)
Hellenistic times, 203
Parthian empire, 203–5. See also Parthian empire
Sasanian empire, 205–8, 218–26. See also Sasanian empire
wars with Rome, 519
Iron Age, 176
Irrigation
Achaemenid empire, 211
Byzantine empire, 483
Egypt, 63, 64, 68–70, 72
state development and, 10, 11
Urartu, empire of, 126
Isaiah, book of, 296
Ishtar (Hittites), 166
Isidore (historian), 503
Isis (Egypt), 81
Islamic empire, 518–37
bureaucracy, 528, 533
civil wars, 529, 533
coinage, 519, 531, 533, 534
early caliphate, 528–32
elites, 526–33
merchants, 527
military, 532
religion, 521, 525–26, 534
size of, 519, 520m
slavery, 527
systematization of rules, 532–35
taxes, 531–32
trade, 527
tribal conquests and Muslim belief, 523–28
Israel, kingdom of, 181
Italian merchants and commerce, 492–94
Izates (king of Adiabene), 217
J
Jacobsen, Thorkild, 110
Jason (high priest of Jerusalem), 184
Jericho, 97, 195
Jerusalem, 180, 185, 188, 490
Jerusalem temple, 184, 185, 186, 187, 433
destruction of, 187, 188, 426
rebuilding of, 297
Jewish Antiquities (Josephus), 185
Jewish states, 180–98
Achaemenid empire and, 190
diaspora, 189, 194
ethnos and state, 189
geography, 180–81, 182m
Hasmonean state and Herod, 194–95
Hellinistic empire and, 351
history, 181–87
military, 191–92
origins and phenomenology, 188–89
political ideology and praxis, 189–91
resistance and repression, 193–94, 426
Jewish War/Rebellion (Josephus), 185, 421, 424, 426
Jews in Egypt, 81
John Hyrcanus I, 192
Johnson, Allen, 9
Jones, A. H. M., 454
Jordanes (historian), 503
Josephus (Jewish historian), 184, 185, 188, 193–94
Judaea. See Jewish states
Judah, kingdom of, 181, 183
Julian the Apostate (Roman emperor), 205
Julius Caesar, 204, 413, 428, 430, 502
Junius Brutus, 384
Justinian (Roman emperor), 207, 417, 480, 505, 519
Justinian Code, 507
Justinianic Code, 417, 457, 460, 506
K
Kassander (Greek), 311
Kassite kings, 125, 135, 136, 152
Kaufman, Herbert, 35
Kautsky, John, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24
Kawad (Sasanian king), 207
Kayanids (Iranian), 224
Keegan, John, 329
Kemp, B. J., 78
Khusistan, 31
Khusro I (Sasanian king), 207, 221, 222, 225–26
Khusro II (Sasanian king), 207, 208, 223, 226
Kings (biblical books), 181
Kingship
Achaemenid empire, 208–9, 212–13
Arsacid-Parthian empire, 216
Carthage, 364
Egypt, 62, 64–65, 84–86
Hellenistic empires, 335–42
Hittites, 164–66
Jewish states, 190
Near Eastern city-states, 107–10
Persian, 208–9, 212–13
Roman monarchy, 431–35
Sasanian empire, 218, 220–22, 226
“The king’s Peace” (Artaxerxes II), 202
Kinship ties, 14, 530
Kleomenes (supergovernor), 325, 326
Koinon. See Greek koinon
Komnenos dynasty, 493
Kyrene (Greece), 261
Kyrene Constitution (Greece), 269
L
Labarna (Hittite), 163, 165
Lactantius, 453
Lane, Frederic C., 20, 21, 419, 444
Languages
Achaemenid empire, 211, 212, 213
Aramaic, 211, 212, 330, 534
Greek, 243, 330, 439, 478, 519, 534
Hittites, 172, 177
Latin, 439, 519, 534
Mycenaean period, 251
Pahlavi, 519
Persian, 211, 212, 213, 534
Phrygians, 178
Punic, 380
“Rosetta Stone,” 334
Larsen, Jakob, 306
Late Bronze Age, 153, 161, 163–64, 171, 172, 177, 236, 250
Late Paleolithic period, 71
Later Roman empire (Jones), 454
Latin city-states, 31, 406
Latin language, 439, 519, 534
Latin League, 405
Laws and legal institutions
Achaemenid empire, 213
Byzantine empire, 484
Carthage, 380
Egypt, 88
Germanic states, 506–7
Greek city-states, 268
Greek koinon, 314–15
Hellenistic empires, 345
Hittites, 173–74
Jewish states, 189
Near Eastern city-states, 114–16
Roman monarchy, 432, 452
Roman republic, 391–92, 398, 400
Laws of Hammurabi, 114
Lenski, Gerhard, 23
Leo III, 490
Leontini, 285
Leovigild (Visigoth king), 502
Lex Claudia, 407
Lex curiata, 387
Lex de imperio Vespasiani, 431–32
Lex Gundobada, 507
Lex Poetilia, 402
Lex Ribvaria, 506
Lex Romana Burgundionum, 506
Lex Villia annalis, 397
Li, Rebecca, 40
Liber Iudiciorum, 506
Libyans, 77, 79, 372
Lieberman, Victor, 27
Lipsius, J., 414
Livy, 332
Lokrians, 274, 308
Lombards, 480, 498, 502–4, 510, 511, 513
Lower Paleolithic period, 70
Luxury laws (Roman), 400
Lydian empire, 126, 199, 274, 299
Lykians, 311
Lysander, 290, 299
M
Machiavelli, 415
MacMullen, R., 454
Macrinus, 425
Magistrates (Roman), 386–87
Magnesia, battle of (Seleucids vs. Romans), 338
Maisels, Charles, 31
Managerial theories of state development, 11, 12–13
Manetho (Egypt), 62, 75
Manicheans, 225
Mann, Michael, 6, 18, 22, 24–25, 29, 63, 71, 72, 85, 438
Marathon (defeat of Persians), 201
Marcher states, 33, 40, 458
March Field (Franks), 509
Marcus, Joyce, 31
Mari (Mesopotamia), 103, 104
Marwanids, 528, 530, 532
Marxist theory, 11
Masada, 426
Maurice (Roman emperor), 480
Maximinus Thrax, 447, 448
Mazdakites, 207, 225
Mehmet II (Ottoman sultan), 475
Melkites of Palestine, 534
Melos, Athenian destruction of, 274
Menexenus (Plato), 296
Merchants
Assyrian empire, 144
Byzantine empire, 492–93
Islamic empire, 527
Italian commerce, 492–94
Mesopotamian empires, 128
Merovingians, 502–3, 505, 508
Merv (Iranian town), 518, 524, 530
Mesopotamian city-states. See Near Eastern city-states
Mesopotamian empires, 120–60
Assyrian empire, 137–50. See also Assyrian empire
benefits of, 151
bureaucracy, 127, 151
core provinces, 132–33
early empires, 129–33
imperialism, 122–29
“magnates,” 140
map of, 132m, 136m, 139m
merchants, 128
military, 127, 130
networks, tribes, and regional states, 133–37
oscillation from political fragmentation and central rule, 123–26, 123f
royal court, 131 (p. 549)
taxes, 127
trade, 127–29, 131
writing, 121
Messenia (Spartan), 283, 284
Metaethnic frontiers, 33
Metrocentric theories, 29
Micro-state, 30. See also City-states
Midas/Mita (Mushki king), 178
Middle Assyrian Laws, 144
Middle Bronze Age, 162, 168
Middle Paleolithic period, 71
Miletus, 284
Military. See also Naval power
Achaemenid empire, 191, 209–10
Byzantine empire, 484, 486–87
Carthage, 373–75, 376, 379
Egypt, 77, 79, 84
Greek city-states, 271
Greek koinon, 311, 314
Hittites, 167–70
Mesopotamian empires, 127, 130
Near Eastern city-states, 115
Parthians, 216
Persians, 209–10
Roman monarchy, 413, 414, 415, 417–27, 419t, 428, 445t, 454–55, 455t
Roman republic, 391–93, 400–401, 402, 404, 409
Sasanian empire, 223
state militarism, 29
Millar, Fergus, 434
Minoan states on Crete (ca. 2000–1700 BCE). See Crete
Mishnah, 225
Mitanni empire, 125, 137, 152, 164, 168, 169
Mithridates I (Parthian king), 204
Mithridates II (Parthian king), 204, 216
Mithridates VI (Pontus king), 418
Monasteries, 511
Money. See Coinage
Mongols, 29, 523, 526
Monophysitism, 478, 489
Monotheism, 188, 453, 523
Monson, Andrew, 33
Montesquieu, 430
Montuemhat (Egypt), 80
Morgan, Catherine, 306
Morris, Ian, 6, 32
Motya, 292
Motyl, Alexander, 27, 28, 30, 39–40
Mu`awiya, 528–29, 532
Mughal armies, 426
Muhammad, 525, 528
Mursili I (Hittite), 163, 164, 168, 169
Mursili II (Hittite), 174
Mushki (Phrygian), 177
Muwattalli II (Hittite), 168, 173
Mycenaean period states (ca. 1400–1200 BCE), 243–52
art and culture, 252
collapse of, 252–53, 281
economy and bureaucracy, 248–49
kingship and aristocrats, 246–47, 252
military, 247, 250
religion, 251
size and shape of, 244–45
state representation and communication, 250–51
N
Nabataeans, 185
Narseh (Sasanian king), 219, 220
National states, 15
Nation-state vs. state, 8
Natural History (Pliny the Elder), 433
Naupaktos, 316
Naval power
Athens, 284
Carthage, 374, 376
Hellenistic empires, 338
Roman empire, 422
Sparta, 290
Syracuse, 284, 291
Naxos, 289
Near Eastern city-states, 94–119
administration of integrated economy, 111–14
collapse of, 116–17
definition of city-state, 95–96
development of, 97–105
Early Dynastic Period, 103, 104, 108
economy, 113, 113f
elites, 100, 102, 107–9, 111, 112, 114–16
household as essential socioeconomic unit, 111
ideology of urban life, 105–7
kingship and other governmental institutions, 107–10
Lagash-Umma border conflict, 104, 114
Late Bronze Age (1600–1200 BCE), 105
legal system, 114–16
map of city-states, 98m
military, 115
organization of, 124
professions, 102
size of, 102–3
slavery, 112–13
sources for study of, 96–97
standard periods, 99t
trade, 98
Ubaid period, 98, 99t, 100
Uruk period, 99t, 100, 101, 112
Necho II (Egypt), 80
Nedao, Battle of (Attila’s defeat), 504
Nefedov, Sergey, 38, 39, 61
Nehemiah (biblical), 183
Neo-Hittite kingdoms, 176–77
Neo-Malthusian model, 39 (p. 550)
Nero, 204, 414, 424, 443
Nesa (Hittite), 162
Nesite language, 172
“Nestorian” creed, 225
Nicaean council, 453
Nippur, 99, 101, 135
Nitocris (Egypt), 80
Nobilitas (Roman), 395–98, 400
Nomadic states, 45n132
Nomarchs (Egypt), 75–76, 86, 87
Nomes (Egypt), 85, 86–87
North, Douglass, 17, 21
Nubia, 73–77, 79, 82
Numidia, 448
O
Oath-taking, 507
Obsidian, 98
O’Connor, D., 75
Oea (city in Roman world), 427
Oiniades of Sciathos, 296
Oligarchy, 270, 398
Olynthos, 310, 311
Oriental despotism: A comparative study of total power (Wittfogel), 63
Orientalism, 62
Ormrod, Mark, 36
Osroes (Armenian king), 204
Ostrogoths, 459, 480, 498–504
Ottoman empire, 457, 491
Ottoman janissaries, 426
Oxyrhynchus Historian, 313
P
Pabag (Sasanian king), 205, 220, 224
Pahlavi language, 519
Palermo Stone, 73
Palestine. See Jewish states
Palmyra, 427, 447
Pamboiotia (Greek festival featuring equestrian competitions), 318
Panionion (Greek), 307
Pantauchos (Greek), 325
Parkinson, W. A., 239
Parthian empire, 184, 203–5, 206m, 216, 326, 418, 446
“Parthian shot,” 216
Pater familias, authority of, 391
Paulinus of Pella, 501
Pax Romana, 273, 417, 419, 422–23, 444
Peace of Antalkidas (Plataians), 310
“The Peace of Disgrace” at Nisibis (Sasanian-Roman), 205
Peer-polity interaction, 236
Peloponnesian War, 273, 274
People’s assembly (Carthage), 371
Pepi II (Egypt), 74–75
Peregrine, Peter, 11
Pericentric theories, 29
Pericles, 296
Peroz (Sasanian king), 207
Persepolis, 201, 212
Perseus (Antigonid), 332, 350
Persia. See Iranian empires
Pertinax, 446
Petrie, Flinders, 62
Phaistos. See Crete
Pharaohs (Egypt), 64–65
Philip II of Macedon, 299, 316, 328, 337
Philip III (Hellenistic), 328
Philip V (Antigonid), 332
Philistines, 180
Philology, 62
Phocas (Roman emperor), 480
Phoenicians, 81, 95, 105, 128, 144, 361
Phokian federation (Greek), 274, 309, 316, 318
Phraates IV (Armenia), 204
Phrygia, 126, 176, 177–78
Piracy, 366
Piraeus (port of Athens), 265
Pithana (Hittite), 162
Piye (Nubian king), 79, 80
Plagues, 444, 513–14
Plataia, 310, 315
Plato, 260, 296
Plebiscita (Roman empire), 393
Pliny the Elder, 215, 433
Pliny the Younger, 428
Plutarch, 287, 291
“Poem of the Righteous Sufferer,” 146
Poggi, Gianfranco, 7, 24
Polis (Hansen), 286
Politeia (as citizenship and constitution), 190, 263, 269, 363
Political/military networks (PMN), 34
Political structure. See Government and political structure
Politics (Aristotle), 62, 63
Polybios of Megalopolis, 304, 320, 325, 332, 364, 367, 398
Polykrates of Samos, 81
Pompey’s conquest of Palestine, 184
Pontius Pilate, 431
Population growth
in Egypt, 83, 84
in Roman empire, 444, 445t, 455
Populus, role of (Roman empire), 386, 387, 388, 399
Porter, Bruce, 22, 37
Poseidon at Helike, 307, 318
Poseidon at Onchestos, 319
Poseidon Helikonios at Mykale, 307, 318
Praetorian guard, 424–25
Prestige goods networks (PGN), 34, 35
Priesthood. See Religion
The Proclamation of Telipinu, 165
Procuratorships, 431, 446
Production role of state, 21 (p. 551)
Property rights
Church and monasticism, 511–12
Egypt, 88
Germanic successor states, 513
German states, 501
Greek koinon, 315
Hellenistic empires, 340
Roman land confiscations from defeated opponents, 405
Protection as state role, 22
city-state role, 31, 37
Near Eastern city-states, 106, 122, 144
Roman military serving as. See Military
Protection rent, 20
Psammetichus (Egypt), 79, 80, 81, 201
Pseudo-Skylax (Greek geographer), 260
Ptolemaios, 345, 350
Ptolemy II, 343
Ptolemy V, 334
Ptolemy VI, 327
Ptolemy VIII, 327
Public goods, 25–26
Puduhepa (Hittite), 166–67, 173
Pylos, 244, 247, 250, 252, 253. See also Mycenaean period states
Pyramids, 74
Pyrrhus of Epirus, 285, 292
Q
Qadesh, battle of (Hittites vs. Egyptians), 168, 171
R
Ramesses II (Egypt), 168, 171
Rasler, Karen, 37
Ray, J., 82
Reccared (Visigoth king), 502
Recruits’ gold, 457
Religion, 19. See also Christianity
Achaemenid empire, 212
Arsacid-Parthian empire, 217
Byzantine empire, 476, 488–91
Carthage, 375
Egypt, 80, 84, 85
Germanic states, 510–12
Greek city-states, 268, 271–72
Greek koinon, 317–19
Hellenistic empires, 342
Hittites, 166–67
Islamic empire, 521, 525–26, 534
Judaism, 183, 188, 190–91
Roman monarchy, 434, 452–53
Roman republic, 389–90
Sasanian empire, 205, 207, 224, 225
Renfrew, C., 236
Res publica (Roman republic), 390, 400
Reynolds, Susan, 27
Rhandeia, treaty of (Armenian conflict), 204
Rhaphia, battle of (Fourth Syrian War), 337, 338
Rollig, W., 364
Roman-Carthaginian treaty (500), 365, 372
Roman empire
monarchy. See Roman monarchy
republic. See Roman republic
size of, 29, 385m, 416m, 451m
Roman monarchy, 412–72
assassinations, 435, 446, 447
“bread and circuses,” 429
censuses, 442
citizenship, 421, 439
civil wars, 415, 418, 424
coinage, 446, 450
collapse of, 458–59, 475–76
consulship, 431
cosmopolitan elite, 440, 447
dioceses, 450
dominate, 415
ecumene, 440, 453
emperor and his court, 427–38, 456
equestrian branch of imperial service, 425, 430–31, 437, 446
eunuchs, 429
Germano-Roman kingdoms, 458–59
government without bureaucracy, 438
governors of provinces, 436–37
late antiquity, 450–60, 451m
Latin language, 439
laws and legal institutions, 432, 452
local elites, 439, 440, 445, 456
localization of power, 438–49
military organization, 413, 414, 415, 417–27, 419t, 428, 445t, 454–55, 455t
population growth in empire, 444, 445t, 455
praetorian guard, 424–25
principate, 415, 420, 421, 422, 442
procuratorships, 431, 446
provincials becoming emperors, 415
recruits’ gold, 457
religion and emperor as form of god, 434, 452–53
Romanization of provinces, 438–40
senate, 430, 431–32, 436
slavery, 429
statues of reigning emperors, 440
third-century crisis, 448–49
tribute, 441, 443, 452, 457
universal empire, 427–28, 453
Roman republic, 383–411
aedileship, 393, 394
assemblies, 387–88
citizenship, 403, 404
civil authority, 392–93
civil service, 387
clientela relations, 398
collapse of, 408–10
colonization, 405
comitia curiata, 387–88
conflict between patricians and plebeians, 393–94
“constitution,” 384–86, 397, 408
consulship, 386, 388, 392, 394, 395, 397
curiae, 387
cursus honorum, 397
diplomacy, 404
early Roman state, 390
elite and masses, 395–401, 406–10
expansion in Italy, 383, 385m, 402–6
expansion outside of Italy, 383, 385m, 406–8
formation of, 384–94
formula togatorum, 404
general elections, 397
land confiscations from defeated opponents, 405
laws and legal institutions, 391–92, 398, 400
luxury laws, 400
magistrates, 386–87
military, 391–93, 400–401, 402, 404, 409
nobilitas, 395–98, 400
pater familias, authority of, 391
plebiscita, 393
political structure, 386, 398–99
populus, role of, 386, 387, 388, 399
provinces, 407
public service and quest for military distinction, 400
religion, 389–90
res publica, 390, 400
senate, 388–89
slavery, 402
social and political stability in middle republic, 394–401
“struggle of the orders,” 393–94, 395
taxes, 390, 407
trade, 407
tribute, 390, 404, 407
warfare, 389, 402
wealth, 407
Romulus Augustulus (last Roman emperor), 499
“Rosetta Stone,” 334
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 13
Runciman, W. G., 32, 279, 286, 287, 288, 289
Ruralization (Byzantine), 484
S
Sack of Rome, 513
Saites (Egypt), 61, 68, 79–82, 183
Samaria, 181, 184, 185
Samians, 297
Samos, 284, 291
Šamši-Adad, state of, 125, 127, 133, 152
Saracens. See Islamic empire
Sargon of Akkade, 115, 129–30, 140, 148
Sasanian empire, 205–8, 206m, 218–26
collapse of, 226, 227, 460
deportations, 222, 225
economy, 222
elites, 221
infrastructure, 222
Jews in, 225
kingship and nobility, 218, 220–22, 226
military and warfare, 223
religion, 224, 225
Roman warfare against, 448, 480
trade, 222
tribute, 207
Saul (biblical), 181
Scheidel, Walter, 33
Schliemann, Heinrich, 235
Second Punic War, 373, 380, 418
Sectarianism, 186
Sejanus (Roman praetorian prefect), 424
Seleucids, 203, 325, 326, 329, 332–34, 341
Seleucus I, 203, 324
Seleucus II, 203
Seleucus IV, 334
Seljuks, 491
Semiperipherality, 33
Senate, Roman, 388–89, 430, 431–32, 436
Sennacherib, 140, 148
Septimius Severus, 205, 423, 424, 446–47
Sertorius (Spain), 418
Service, Elman, 9, 12
Sesostris III (Egypt), 76
Severus Alexander, 447
Shabako (Egypt), 81
Shabuhr I (Sasanian), 205, 219–20, 223, 224
Shabuhr II (Sasanian), 205
Shaft Grave period (Greece), 242
Shamhat (Epic of Gilgamesh), 105
Shubat-Enlil (Mesopotamia), 103
Sibylline Books or Oracles, 389, 434
Sicily, 282m, 283–85, 293, 365, 372, 407
Simon ben Kosiba, 191
Simon the Hasmonean, 195
Skalník, Peter, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14, 19
Skocpol, Theda, 38, 39
Slavery
Assyrian empire, 143, 152
Byzantine empire, 479
Hittites, 174
Islamic empire, 527
Near Eastern city-states, 109, 112–13
Roman empire, 402, 429
Slavs, 481
Smith, Michael, 15 (p. 553)
Smith, S. T., 77
Smyrna, 263
Social contract, 11
Social War (Rome), 406, 410, 418
Solomon (biblical), 181
The Sources of social power (Mann), 63
Spain
Arab and Berber invasion of, 524
Carthaginian presence in, 373
peasants, 514
Visigoths in, 506, 510, 511
warfare in fifth century, 513
Sparta
Athens vs., 290
attack on Naupaktos, 308
coercion-intensive, 283, 292
economic services, 293
as head of alliance, 279
military, 283
naval warfare, 290
as polis, 260, 264, 271, 273, 274
politically caught between Athens and Persia, 283–84
religion and belief systems, 294
social customs, 288
subject cities, 289
Spartacus, 418
Spruyt, Hendrik, 37
State
categories of, 14–15
city-states, 30–32
collapse of, 38–41
defined, 5–9
dynamics of, 33–41
empires, 27–30
origins of, 9–14
properties of, 16–26
quality of historical record as factor, 4
scope of issues, 4
size of, 3, 29–30
time demarcations, 3
Statemaking, 20, 37
Steinmetz, George, 280
Stone, Elizabeth, 99
Stress theory, 12
Sufyanids, 528, 530
Sulla (Roman), 418
Sumerian city-states. See Near Eastern city-states
Sumerian King List, 104, 116
Superordination, 10
Suppiluliuma I (Hittite), 164, 167, 168, 169, 176
Surnames, Greek, 264
Surplus appropriation, 24, 478–80, 482, 492. See also Taxation and tribute extraction; Tribute
Susa (Achaemenid), 201
Sympoliteia (Greek), 304, 309
Syracuse
coercion- and capital-intensive, 283, 292
cultural achievements, 296
deportations, 285
as expansionist state, 279
military and naval power, 284, 291
monarchs and power, 288
as multicity state, 285
religion and belief systems, 294
resident aliens, 288
size of, 261
slavery, 288, 292
subject cities, 289
taxes, 291
wealth, 285
Systemic theory, 29
T
Taagepera, Rein, 29
Tabal/Tubal, 126, 176
Tacitus, 194, 413, 421, 424, 427, 502
Taghlib of Mesopotamia, 521
Tainter, Joseph, 39
Tambiah, Stanley, 27
Tanukh of Syria, 521
Taras (Greece), 261
Tarhuntassa (Hittite), 167
Taxation and tribute extraction, 19, 23–25. See also Protection as state role; Surplus appropriation; Tribute
Byzantine empire, 482, 484
Carthage, 376
Egypt, 85
Greek koinon, 316–17
Hellenistic empires, 339, 343, 345, 349
Islamic empire, 531–32
Mesopotamian empires, 127
Roman monarchy, 441–42, 444–46, 445t, 449, 452, 457
Roman republic, 390, 407
Telipinu (Hittite), 165
Temenid dynasty, 328, 329, 332
Temples. See also Religion
Egypt, 87–88
Hittites, 173–74
Territorial states. See also Roman monarchy
Carthage, 371–73
origin of, 15
Textile industry, 248
Thebes, 75, 77–79, 85, 244, 253, 270, 274, 279, 308, 310, 311, 313, 315
Themes (Byzantine), 484
Theodoric (Ostrogoth), 499, 502–4, 505
Theodosian Code, 452, 506, 507
Theodosius the Great, 453, 456
Theokritos (Greek poet), 344
Theophilos (Byzantine emperor), 490
Theron (Akragas ruler), 285
Thespians, 311
Thessalians, 264, 307–9, 316, 318
Thomas, Carol, 286
Thomas, Robert, 21 (p. 554)
Thompson, William, 37
Thracians, 316, 327, 328, 337
Thucydides, 280, 287, 294, 296, 308
Thutmose III (Egypt), 78
Tiberius, 414, 421, 424
Tiberius Julius Alexander, 442
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, 408
Tiglath-Pileser III, 140, 148, 149
Tilly, Charles, 5, 6, 20, 21, 22, 36, 37, 38, 281, 282
Timaeus, 384
Tiryns (Mycenaean), 235, 243, 245, 250, 252–53
Torah, 188, 189–91, 193
Trade, 11, 20, 34
Byzantine empire, 492–93
Egypt, 72, 73, 80, 81, 82
Germanic states, 513
Hittites, 168, 175
Islamic empire, 527
Mesopotamian empires, 127–29, 131
Near Eastern city-states, 98
Roman republic, 407
Sasanian empire, 222
Trajan, 204, 428
Treaties. See Diplomacy; specific treaty by name
Trial by battle, 507
Tribes and tribal states. See also Barbarians
defined, 9
Greek, 306
Islamic conquests, 523–28
Mesopotamia, 122, 123, 133–37, 143, 149
Roman, 458
Tribute, 20, 23
Achaemenid empire, 210
Roman monarchy, 441, 443, 452, 457
Roman republic, 390, 404, 407
Sasanian empire, 207
Trigger, Bruce, 13, 15, 18, 31, 63, 85
Tudhaliya I (Hittite), 169
Tudhaliya IV (Hittite), 166, 168
Tukulti-Ninurta I (Assyria), 146
Turchin, Peter, 33, 38, 39, 61
Tusculum, incorporation into Rome, 403
Tyre, 361
U
Udjahorresne (Egyptian naval officer), 296
Ulpian, 441
`Umar (second caliph), 529
Umayyad empire, 29, 520m. See also Islamic empire
Umma (Mesopotamia), 103, 115, 133
Understanding early civilizations: A comparative study (Trigger), 63
Universal empire, 24, 30, 38, 41, 138, 139, 146, 153, 214, 427–28, 453, 519–23
Upper Paleolithic period, 71
Ur III, 125, 131, 133, 135, 151
Urartu, empire of, 126
Urbanization
Byzantine empire, 485–86
Carthage, 375–76
Egypt, 86–87
Greek city-states, 264–68
ideology of urban life, 105–7
Uru’inimgina (ruler of Lagash), 109, 116
Uruk, city of, 102, 103, 116
Uruk period, 99t, 100, 101, 112
Uruk vase, 102, 108
`Uthman (caliph), 528, 529
Utica, 368
V
Valerian (Roman emperor), 205
Van Creveld, Martin, 8
Vandals, 459, 480, 498–502, 510
Van De Mieroop, Marc, 110
Venetian doges, 397
Venetian power, 492, 494
Ventris, Michael, 236
Vespasian, 421, 424, 427, 431–32, 443, 446
Viceroy’s role (Egypt), 77
Violence, 17, 20
Visigoths, 459, 480, 498–503, 506, 513
Vizier’s role (Egypt), 74, 88
Vologeses I (Arsacid), 215
Vologeses VI (Arsacid), 205
W
Wace, A. J. B., 236
Wahram Chobin (Sasanian), 207
Wallerstein, Immanuel, 34–35
Wallis, John, 17
Warfare, 20, 25, 35, 37. See also Civil war; Military
Egypt, 73, 78, 84
Germanic successor states, 513
Greek city-states, 273–74
Hellenistic empires, 338, 343
Hittites, 167–70
Near Eastern city-states, 115
Roman monarchy, 417–27, 446–48, 453–55
Roman republic, 389, 402
Sasanian empire, 223
Wastage, 441
Wealth
Carthage, 379
Church accumulating, 512
Greek multicity states, 293, 298
Hellenistic empires, 340, 344
Roman monarchy, 439, 457
Roman republic, 407
Syracuse, 285
Weber, Max, 5, 8, 14, 24, 32, 63, 456
Weingast, Barry, 17
Wilkinson, David, 34
Wittfogel, Karl, 11, 63–64, 65
Wright, Henry, 7 (p. 555)
Writing. See also Clay tablets
Arabic papyri in Egypt, 533–34
Crete, 236, 237
Egyptian hieroglyphics, 81
Hittites, 172–73
Mesopotamian empires, 121
Near Eastern city-states, 96–97, 101, 102
Phrygians, 178
Roman monarchy, 440
X
Xenias (Spartan), 296
Xenophon, 287, 296
Xerxes (Persia), 82, 201–2
Y
Yahweh (Jewish God), 183, 189–90
Yazdgerd III (Sasanian king), 208
Yehud (Jewish states), 183–84
Yoffee, N., 236–37
Z
Zechariah (biblical), 183
Zenobia, Queen, 447
Zeus at Olympia, 307
Zeus Homa(gy)rios, 319
Zimrilim state (eastern Syria), 125, 133, 152
Zoroastrians, 207, 212, 214, 217, 221, 223–25, 519, 535