Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 18 August 2019

(p. 817) Index

(p. 817) Index

Abbeville v. State of Carolina, 654
Abbott, Robert S., 303, 306–7
Abelson, W. D., 792
Aberbach, Joel D., 214, 229
Abyssinian Baptist Church, 333, 483
accommodationist racists, 740n9
achievement gap, 645
activated public, in civil rights era racial attitudes, 208–11
Ades, Bernard, 548n21
Adorno,Theodor, 28, 30
Advanced Placement courses, 651
advertisements, Great Migration, 89–90
AFDC, 357–59
affirmative action, 8, 168, 235, 258–59, 638
from below, 332–35
antecedents, 330–32
crisis management, 246–47
protecting opportunities, 644
whites and, 248f
affluence
amidst poverty, 281–83
blacks, 280
AFL-CIO, 355
African Americans. See also blacks; Negroes; specific topics
arts, 96
Black Power era racial attitudes, 221–28
changing psychologies, 13–16
civil rights era racial attitudes, 202–6
contemporary era racial attitudes, 251–61
Democratic Party serving, 480
duality, 5
economic experience, 7–8
education and, 12–13
law and, 12
in mainstream, 53
as nation within a nation, 10
paradox, 57–58
party politics and, 479–82
political representation, 482–89
progress, 56–57
racial equality and, 4
salience categories, 14
SAT scores, 641
social experience, 5–7
unemployment, 45
violence against, 559
White attitudes toward “push” of civil rights people and blacks in general, 1966–1975, 220f
World War II racial attitudes, 190–91
youth, 348, 620, 645, 739
African American dream, 286
African American economic rights
black white-collar professionals, 340–41
blue collar employment, 343–51
business and, 336–40
Civil Rights Movement and economic meaning of citizenship, 328–35
contours of discrimination, 326–28
1948–2000, 324–26, 326f
overview, 323–24
African American economic status, 282f
African American middle class, 305–19
black agency and, 281–82
blue collar blacks, 299–301
equal opportunity and, 282–83
during Great Depression, 314–19
Great Migration and, 301–5
overview, 279–81
robust national economy and, 281
self-help and, 281–82
violence and, 283–85
African American identity. See also black identity
as amorphous, 125
boundaries, 138–39
conceptualizing, 173
movements, 152
shared experience, 139–40
threats to, 159, 161
African American middle class, 8, 45f, 49f, 314f
black professionals, 312–13
in black-white divide, 42–43
caste frustrations, 737
discrimination and segregated markets, 308–9
double-duty dollar, 309–11
Frazier on, 755
(p. 818) outlooks, 37
racialized earnings opportunities, 313
urban growth and business leadership, 305–8
white-collar, 311–12
African American politics, 9–12
black ideologies, 378–83
black public sphere, 374–78
overview, 369–72
Reconstruction and, 386–95
slavery and, 384–86
African American population change, 1880–1900, 75f
African American population change, 1900–1920, 87f
African American population change, 1920–1940, 113f
African American population change, 1940–1950, 113f
African American poverty and the national economy, 1965–2000, 282f
African American psyche, 751
cultural and scientific bias, 669–74
as testament to human capacity, 674
African American women. See also black feminism
campaign activity, 507–9, 508t
conclusion, 510–12
intersectionality and, 493–94
National Association of Colored Women, 11
NCNW, 413–14
office holding, 11, 504–7
overview, 492
political attitudes, 509–10
politics, 494–500
poor, 561–62
suffrage, 85
voting, 501–4
VRA and, 500–510
African Diaspora, 414, 418, 421, 473
African Free School, 586–88, 619
African Liberation Support Committee (ALSC), 421
African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), 389, 589, 708
Sabbath Schools, 594
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 607
Afro-American Realty Company, 83
Afrocentrism, 633–36, 696, 698, 701
Age of Empire, Gilded Age and, 72–81
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), 110, 315–16, 406–7
Aid-to-Dependent Children (ADC), 349, 405
Akoto, A., 634
alcohol psychosis, 724
Alcorn College, 301, 606, 623
Aldridge, Ira, 586
Alex-Assenoh, Yvette, 509
Algebra Project, 634
alienation, 8, 345–46, 726
Alioto, Joseph, 474
Allport, Gordon, 28–30
Alston, William, 687
Alton, Illinois, 600–601
Alvord, John W., 592
amalgamation interruptus, 136
Amar, Akhil Reed, 131, 141
ambition, 186
An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and American Democracy (Myrdal), 28–30, 118, 184
American Apartheid, 37, 152, 370
American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Massey, Denton), 37, 152
American Association for the Study of Feeble-Minded, 773
American Community Survey (ACS), 163–64
American Council on Education, 678
American Creed, 29, 184, 202, 379
American dilemma, 28–30, 118, 184, 210
study, 736–38
American Dream, 474
deferred, 5
share of, 53
American Educational Research Association, 661
American ethnic pattern, 20
American experience, 22
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 111, 301, 328, 412
Americanism, 21–22
American Liberal Tradition, 20, 21–22
American Missionary Association, 595
American Negro Labor Congress, 91
American Psychological Association (APA), 661, 775, 793
Americans for the Preservation of the White Race, 631
American Tragic Flaw, 21–22, 24
American Youth Commission (AYC), 678, 679, 738, 748
Anderson, J. D., 592
Anglo-Saxonism, 79
Anheuser-Busch Breweries, 328
anthropology, 136–41
anti-amalgamation doctrine, 55, 185
antiblack bias, 53
antiblack stereotypes, 38, 64n11, 95
anticolonialism, 418
anti-imperalism, 80
anti-miscegenation law, 157
anti-race psychology, 779–84
Anti-Riot Act, 555
antisegregation campaign, 619–21
apartheid schools, 647
Appeal (Walker, D.), 385–86, 585
Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 697
aptitude, 802, 804
aristocracy, 26, 802
Arlitt, Ada, 779
armed self-reliance, 471
Armstrong, Clairette, 789
Armstrong, Lance, 694
Armstrong, Louis, 96
Armstrong, Samuel, 596, 607
Army Alpha test, 775–76, 780–81
Army Beta test, 775–76
Aronowitiz, Stanley, 687
Aronson, J., 797, 799–800
Articles of Association, 130
Asians, 41
assimilation theory, 730, 732, 734
Associated Press, 687
Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 739
Association of Black Psychologists, 794
Association of MultiEthnic Americans (AMEA), 159–60
associations, 291
Atlanta Compromise, 73, 138, 523, 528, 602
Atlantic Monthly, 781
atomic bomb, 313
The Authoritarian Personality (Adorno), 28
automation, 344
automobile plants, 344–45
autonomy, 346
“The Awakening of the Negro,” 139
Ayers, Leonard P., 780
bad science, 171
Bagley, William, 779
Baker, Ella, 468, 499, 629
Baker, Lee D., 136
Baker, Ray Stannard, 727
Baker, Vernon, 445
Bakke v. University of California Regents, 644
balanced view, 671
Baldwin, James, 661, 751
racism and, 745
Balfour, Lawrie, 422
ballot as collectively owned, 495
Bandung Conference of Non-Aligned Nations, 419
banks, 309
Baraka, Amiri, 381, 678
barber shops, 309, 336
Barnett, Claude A., 307
basic skills programs, 650
Baton Rouge bus boycott, 470–71
Battalini, Anthony, 687
Bean, Frank, 41, 371
Beliefs about when racial equality will be achieved, 60f
Bell, Daniel, 755
Bell, Derrick, 21
The Bell Curve (Hernstein, Murray, C.), 169, 672, 685–86, 689, 797
Belton v. Gebhart, 626
Bensel, Richard, 401–2
Berinsky, Adam, 246
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 418–19, 498, 499, 599
black intellectual, 633
Bevis, W. M., 725
Beyond the Melting Pot (Glazer, Moynihan), 755
Bibb, Scott, 600
bicultural black identity, 696
Biko, Steve, 698
Billings, John, 143
Binet, Alfred, 772–73, 804
Binet-Simon test, 774
Binga Bank, 309
biracial unionism, 32
Birth of a Nation, The, 86, 402–3, 415–16
Bisseret, N., 802, 804
blacks. See also specific topics
affluence, 280
agricultural workers, 109–10
blue collar, 299–301, 325
businesses, 83, 85
capitalism, 309–11
children, 85
chip on shoulder, 239, 243
as damaged, 753
Deep South, 311, 393, 530
disappearance hypothesis, 142
Distribution of household wealth, white and black, 2000, 362f
economic prospects, 364–66
education insistence and persistence, 592–94
elite, 442, 443, 733
empowerment, 23
exclusion from industrializing economy, 92–98
fathers, 751
females, 47f, 49f
inferior industrial training, 300–301
investors, 363
males, 43, 43f
migration, 32
normal black males, 688
oppression, 179
political identity, 375–78
poverty, 280
professionals, 312–13
psyche, 13
(p. 820) psychology, 14
smaller brains myth, 796
stereotypes, 243
suffrage, 44, 85
sun people, 727
unity, 214
urban culture, 346–49
white-collar professionals, 340–41
work ethic, 241, 256
black agency
African American economic status and, 281–82
during Great Depression, 317
during Reconstruction, 290–91
Black agreement with four explanations for racial inequality, 1985–2002, 252f
Black Arts movement, 698
Black attitudes toward government help and preferences in hiring and promotion, 1986–2002, 258f
Black attitudes toward “push” of civil rights people, 1966–1975, 227f
Black Bourgeoisie (Frazier), 755
black capitalism, 339–40
Black Codes, 7, 129, 292, 433
purpose, 287
Reconstruction amendments, 287–88
threats to, 135
black conservatism, 10, 379–80
black criminality, 682–83
black cultural centers, 638
black culture, 699
black economic citizenship, 291–93
Black Elected Officials, by Year and Gender, 1970–2001, 505t
Black Enterprise magazine, 338, 364
black exceptionalism, 752
black families, 343f, 363, 754. See also Negro family
in black metropolis, 105–6
Frazier on, 684, 729
income, 326f
pioneers, 318–19
race psychology, 729
structure, 118n1
black faults, 690
black feminism, 10, 378, 380, 500
Black gains on white income by decade, 1950s–1990s, 283f
black identity, 6, 14, 58. See also African American psyche
bicultural, 696
bonding and attachment, 707–9
bridging, 707
buffering, 705–6, 710
code-switching, 706–7, 714
conclusion, 718–19
enactments, 710
Hip-Hop culture, 711–18
ideological splits, 698–700
illusive unity, 719
individualism, 709–10
intersectionality, 711
legacy of slavery, 681–92
as lived experience, 704
low salience, 695–96
mainstream, 704
moderate to high salience, 696
multicultural, 696–97
negative salience and internalized oppression, 702–4
overview, 676–81
personality and, 700–701
reactive stance, 713–15
self-esteem and, 701–2
socialization and resocialization experiences, 697–98
transacting, 709–10
underclass, 711–12
black ideologies, 378–83
black image in white mind, 80
Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH), 794
Black is Beautiful, 144
Black Issues Convention, 487
Black Liberation Army, 557
Black Lives, White Lives (Blauner), 220–21
black metropolis, 103–8
black families in, 105–6
entertainment and amusements, 107
Negro church, 106
Negro market, 104
Negro press, 106–7
political machine, 104–5
Black Metropolis (Drake, Cayton), 117, 144, 152
black military service
approaches to war and citizenship, 427–28
armed forces desegregation, 447, 465
citizenship as political institution, 428–31
Civil Rights Act of 1964 and, 454
conclusion, 454–55
Cuban campaign, 435–36
diminishing returns, 434–42
Douglass, F., and, 432
Du Bois on, 97, 464
honors bestowed, 439, 445, 449
indignities suffered, 437–38
Jim Crow imposed, 444–45
Korean War, 447–54
lynching after service, 440
Men of Bronze, 439
overview, 425–27
post World War I, 442–44
Randolph and, 437
segregation, 444
state-based change after Civil War, 431–34
VRA and, 454
World War I, 97–98, 415–17, 436–42
World War II, 443–47
(p. 821) black nation, 382
black nationalism, 10, 14, 101–2, 416, 635
Malcolm X, 158, 382–83, 419
blackness, 223, 783. See also whiteness
broadening, 139
Dred Scott v. Sandford and, 519
Du Bois and, 147
King, M. L., and, 154
Malcolm X and, 154
pride in, 632
slavery and, 127
black-nonblack divide, 41
Black Panther Party for Self Defense, 382–83, 500
founding, 475
OCS, 635
Ten Point Program, 558–59, 634–35
Black perceptions of discrimination against blacks in jobs, education, and schools, 1989–2004, 253f
black personality, 746
Black Power, 382, 419, 702
on campus, 636–38
Civil Rights Movement and, 474–77
Dawson, M., on, 475
defined, 213, 632
development of, 30
education, 630–31
15-cities study, 212–13
King, M. L., on, 476
movement, 6, 13, 15, 55
slogans, 37
transition from civil rights era, 211–13
violence, 236
Black Power era racial attitudes
Blauner on, 228
Northerners, 228–30
overview, 213–15
portrait of African American, 221–28
portrait of white, 215–21
racial beliefs, 215–16, 221–22
racial conflict, 218–21, 224–28
racial policies, 216–18, 224
racial principles, 216, 222–24
regional differences, 228–31, 233n25
social distance, 218–19, 224
Southerners, 228–30
summary, 230–31
black press, 419, 438
black public sphere, 374–78
black rural communities, 108–11
black agricultural workers, 109–10
Negro churches, 110
Blacks’ Beliefs about How Whites Treat Blacks, 1964, 203t
Blacks’ belief that what happens to other blacks affects one's own life, 58f
black self-determination, 382–83
Black Shirts, 314
black socialism, 10, 381–82
Blacks’ perception of blacks economic position relative to whites, 59f
Blacks’ scores on Perceived Racialization Index across respondent characteristics, 62f
Blacks’ scores on the Perceived Racialization Index, 61f
Black Studies programs, 636–37
black unity, 699
black violence, 473
Black Wall Street, 98–99
black welfare queen, 241
black-white divide, 20–25
African American middle class in, 42–43
current, 38–52
education in, 48–49
imprisonment in, 51–52
income in, 46–47
intelligence testing and, 797
life-expectancy, 52
occupations in, 42–44
poverty in, 47–48
wealth in, 49, 51
Black Women's Baptist Convention (BWBC), 599
black worldliness, 422
Blalock, Hubert, 31
Blauner, Robert, 31, 214–15, 256–57, 261
interviews, 220–21, 223–24, 226, 230
on racial attitudes, 228
Block Design subtest, 799
Bloody Sunday, Selma, Alabama, 468
blue collar blacks, 299–301, 325
blue collar employment, 343–45
discrimination and black urban culture, 346–49
unemployment and alienation, 345–46
Blumer, Herbert, 201
Boas, Franz, 137–38, 168, 728
Bobo, Lawrence D., 5–6, 19, 244, 251, 488
boll weevil, 109, 303
Bolling v. Sharpe, 626
Bonacich, Edna, 31
bona fide residency, 520–21, 552, 555
Bond, Horace Mann, 779, 780–81
bonding and attachment, 707–9
Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, 181, 241–44, 259–61
boogie-woogie, 107
Booker, W. A., 612
Boston Educational Commission, 594
The Boston Post, 80
Bourdieu, Pierre, 804
bourgeoisie, 755, 802–3
boycotts, 451, 556
Baton Rouge bus boycott, 470–71
consumer, 8
Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work, 333
Montgomery bus boycott, 36, 195–96, 468, 470–71
Boyd-Franklin, Nancy, 692
(p. 822) Bradley, Tom, 213, 484
Braly, Kenneth W., 270
Bricklayers, Masons and Marble Masons Protective Association, 328
bridging, 707
Briggs v. Elliott, 626, 654
Brigham, C., 784
Brink, William, 197, 206–7, 215–16, 229
Brinton, Daniel G., 136
Bronzeville, 104
Brooke, Edward, 484
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 328
Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks, 327
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 111–12, 437
Brown, Claude, 348, 351
Brown, Edmund, 761
Brown, Elaine, 697
Brown, Elsa Barkley, 495
Brown, H. Rap, 555–56
Brown, Oliver, 467
Brown, Robert J., 339
Brown America, 144, 735
Brown America (Embree), 735
brown ideal, 735–36
Brown II, 467, 564–65, 627–28
Brown v. Board of Education, 6, 11, 15, 32, 135, 420
color blindness and, 124, 566
decision, 627, 672, 788–89
de jure segregation and, 630
deliberations, 678
education revisiting, 654–55
elite politics, 467–68
favorable decision, 466
five cases, 626–27
interpretation, 565
lack of support for, 450–51
mandates, 631
plaintiffs in, 465
promises, 567
public reaction, 200
school desegregation and, 152, 172, 623
separate but equal and, 147, 198, 467, 563–64
Social Science Statement, 787
as success, 36
therapeutic and, 751
twisting, 645
underpinning, 757
Broyard, Anatole, 147, 154, 699
Bruce, Roscoe Conkling, 300
Bruner, Jerome, 787
brush arbors, 385
Bryan, William Jennings, 311
Bryant, Dale, 363
The Bryant Group, 363
Bryce, Herrington J., 506
Buchanan v. Warley, 537n55
buffering, 705–6, 710
Bulah v. Gebhart, 626
Bullard, Robert Lee, 440
Bunche, Ralph, 346, 751
Burger, Warren, 329
burr heads, 301
Burt, Cyril, 774
Burton, Harold, 749
Bush, George H. W., 358
Bush, George W., 236, 364, 370, 455
business
African American economic rights and, 336–40
black capitalism, 339–40
blacks, 83, 85
leadership, 305–8
Negro Business League, 311
in transition, 337–39
busing, 172, 213, 217, 232n14, 233n22
Bussey, Charles, 449
Button, James, 473
buy black, 310
C. H. Smiley, 305
Cabral, Amilcar, 698
Cajuns, 163
Caliver, Ambrose, 616
campaign activity, 507–9, 508t
Campbell, Angus, 215–18, 222, 224
Campbell, Tunis, 290
Canady, Herman C., 780
Carmichael, Stokely, 213, 500, 632
carpetbaggers, 290
Carter, Jimmy, 481
Cary, Mary Ann Shadd, 497
Caste and Class in a Southern Town (Dollard), 733
caste-and-class theory, 733
Castells, Manuel, 472–73
caste system, 55, 56, 184, 189, 219
Cattell, Raymond, 772
Catterall, Helen, 127
Cayton, Horace R., 104–7, 117, 144, 152
Census, 39f, 40f, 141–43, 147
long term effects of changes, 162–68
race, 154–55
voting data, 502t, 503f, 504t
Center for American Women in Politics (CAWP), 506–7
Chain of Beings, 10
Chaney, James, 469, 481
Change In the U.S. Racial Composition, 2000–2006, 164t
(p. 823) Changes in middle-class distribution of black females, 1960–2007, 49f
Changes in middle-class distribution of black males, 1960–2007, 45f
Changes in middle-class distribution of white females, 1960–2007, 48f
Changes in middle-class distribution of white males, 1960–2007, 44f
Changes in occupational distribution for black females, 1960–2007, 47f
Changes in occupational distribution for black males, 1960–2007, 43f
Changes in occupational distribution for white females, 1960–2007, 46f
Changes in occupational distribution for white males, 1960–2007, 42f
changing psychologies, 13–16
Charlton Cornelius H., 449
Chavis, John, 587
Chein, Isidor, 748, 786–87
Social Science Statement, 787
cherished American values, 208
Chicago, 89
1919 riots, 101
public housing, 411–12
South Side of Chicago, 104
Chicago Defender, 89, 303, 306
Chicago School Board, 684
Chicago School of Sociology, 729–33, 747
intelligence testing and, 784–86
Children of Bondage (Davis, Allison, Dollard), 679
Chisholm, Shirley, 486, 506
Christianity, 751
church bombings, 469
Cinco de Mayo, 635
Cirelli, Michael, 717
citizenship, 499
approaches to war and, 427–28
arriving at, 63
black economic, 291–93
Douglass, F., on, 79
economic meaning, 328–35
equal, 10
first-class economic and social, 355, 618
full, 22
journey to, 24
Klinker and, 426–28, 442
meaning of, 288
obstacles, 118
particularism and, 404
as political institution, 428–31
privileges and immunities, 522–24, 539–41, 550–51
push for, 86
quest for full, 412–14
responsible, 356–60
SCLC schools, 629
second-class, 146, 529, 582, 610, 612, 618
Smith, R. and, 426–28, 442
U.S. Constitution and, 519–21, 567–69
Citizenship School programs, 499
City of New Orleans v. Miller, 537n55
civil disobedience, 465, 468, 556
civil rights, 196, 227f, 551
activists, 469
Black attitudes toward “push” of civil rights people, 1966–1975, 227f
Black Power movement transition, 211–13
Civil Rights Cases, 525
Committee on Civil Rights, 196
Eisenhower and, 450
intelligence testing and, 792–93
Johnson, L., appeal, 469
marchers, 469
overview, 464–77
race and, 158
Reagan and, 479
support for, 152
Supreme Court agenda, 195
Truman and, 446–47, 464–65
when marching stopped, 477–79
White attitudes toward “push” of civil rights people and blacks in general, 1966–1975, 220f
Civil Rights Act of 1866, 134, 288, 329, 433
Civil Rights Act of 1870, 529
Civil Rights Act of 1875, 74, 134, 434
Civil Rights Act of 1963, 11, 469
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 36, 153, 155, 196, 551
black military service and, 454
Congress enacting, 329–30
mandates, 630
passage, 71, 477, 479
Title VII, 562–63
weakness of, 478
Civil Rights Act of 1968, 153, 155, 213
Civil Rights Cases, 525
Civil Rights Congress, 551
civil rights era racial attitudes
activated public, 208–11
Blacks’ Beliefs about How Whites Treat Blacks, 1964, 203t
education, 623
overview, 195–97
portrait of African American, 202–6
portrait of white, 197–202
racial beliefs, 197–98, 202–3
racial conflict, 201–2, 204–5
Racial differences in attitudes toward civil rights movement, 1965, 205f
racial policies, 200, 204
racial principles, 198–200, 203–4
regional differences, 206–8
social distance, 200–201, 204
(p. 824) Civil Rights Movement, 55, 60, 118, 129, 251, 702
affirmative action antecedants, 330–32
affirmative action from below, 332–35
Black Power movement and, 474–77
economic meaning of citizenship, 328–35
interpretation of law, 329–30
King, M. L., groundwork, 471
Racial differences in attitudes toward civil rights movement, 1965, 205f
civil society, 375–78
Civil War
black servicemen, 79
racial categorization and, 134–47
state-based change after, 431–34
The Clansman (Dixon), 86
Clark, Joseph C., 356
Clark, Kenneth, 14, 672, 677–78, 700, 736
black personality and, 746
on damaged blacks, 753
leading voice on integration, 751
racial identity and, 747
self-hatred and, 748
Social Science Statement, 787
Clark, Mamie, 677, 736, 746
Clark, Mark, 448
Clark, Septima P., 499, 629
class. See also African American middle class
caste-and-class theory, 733
dependent, 723
domination, 804
race and, 265–66
underclass, 35–37, 152, 357, 509, 686, 711–12
clear and present danger test, 543, 556
Cleveland Plan, 334
Clinton, William, 358–59, 370
student aid increases, 644
“Close Ranks,” 416–17, 437
Cloward, Richard, 752
clubs, 291
code-switching, 706–7, 714
Cohen, Cathy, 11, 383, 492
Cohen, G. L., 799
Cohen, Jean, 376
Cohen, Jerome, 753
Cold War, 11, 418
intensification, 483
politics, 551
pressures, 446–47, 451
racial injustice and, 427
Coleman, James S., 792–93
Coleman Report, 792
College Board, 799
College enrollment rates, 642f
Collins, Patricia Hill, 493
colonization, 803
color blindness, 12, 179, 267
Brown v. Board of Education and, 124, 566
Fourteenth Amendment, 554
ideology, 237, 240
language, 173
popularity, 172
race conscious, 6–7, 153–54
race denial, 124–25, 159–60
social order, 55
state, 763
in U.S. Constitution, 124
World War II, 6
Colored Farmers Alliance, 402
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, 607
Colored National Farmers’ Alliance and Cooperative Union, 72–73
colorism, 703
color line, 165, 167, 568
Combahee River Collective, 500
Combs, Doyle, 453
Combs Sean (“P. Diddy”), 363
Commerce Clause, 540, 551
Committee for Participation of Negros in the National Defense Program, 444
Committee of 400, 332–33
Committee on Civil Rights, 196
common-culture approach, 785
common fate identity, 58
Commonweal, 762
Communist Party, U.S., 91, 110, 317, 418, 499
anxieties about, 465
Community Action Program (CAP), 474
community control, 632–33
compensatory programs, 756
Conant, James Bryant, 754, 770, 784, 806
Confederacy, 288
antiblack hostility, 77
centralization, 401
Conference on Vocational Guidance and Education for Negroes, 620
Congressional Black Caucus, 484
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 111, 328, 345, 412, 499
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 8, 11, 333, 469
Conner, Bull, 333, 469
Connerly, Ward, 168
conspicuous consumption, 7
Constitution, U.S., 54, 63. See also specific amendments
citizenship and, 519–21, 567–69
color blindness, 124
race and, 129–30, 132, 172
rights, 129
slavery and, 130–31
consumer boycotts, 8
consumerism, 295–96
contemporary era racial attitudes
conclusions, 264–65
future of, 265–71
(p. 825) intersection of race and class, 265–66
methodological challenges, 268–71
Northerners, 262–64
overview, 235–37
portrait of African American, 251–61
portrait of white, 237–50
race and immigration, 267–68
racial beliefs, 237–45, 251–56
racial conflict, 249–50, 260–61, 261–62
racial policies, 245–48, 256–59
racial principles, 245, 256
regional differences, 262
social distance, 249, 259–60
Southerners, 262–64
conversions, 697–98
Cook, S. W., 787
Cooley, Charles, 731
Coontz, Stephanie, 683–84
Cooper, Anna Julia, 380, 496, 536n45
Genetleman's Course, 605
Tragic Era, 604
Cooper, E. E., 435
Corbett, Ted, 695
Cosby, Bill, 689
Cose, Ellis, 37
cotton, 109, 289
boll weevil destroying, 109, 303
cotton gin, 3
mills, 3
slavery and, 3–4
Cotton, Dorothy, 629
Cotton Club, 96
Council of African Affairs (CAA), 418–19
Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), 469
Council of Independent Black Institutions, 634
Counter Intelligence Program (COINTELPRO), 473, 475, 556
crack-cocaine epidemic, 8
Crandall, C. S., 800
Crenshaw, Kim, 493
criminal syndicalism, 548n19
criminal system, 73–74
Crisis, 780
crisis experience, 730
crisis management, 246–47
The Crisis, 316
Croizet, Jean-Claude, 15, 673, 769
Crooms-Robinson, Lisa, 12, 519, 522, 539, 550
crop lien system, 531
Croppers’ and Farm Workers’ Union, 110
Cross, T. B., 703
Cross, William E., Jr., 13, 154, 672, 680, 694, 703
self-hatred and, 736, 746–47
Crummel, Alexander, 54, 726–27
Cuban campaign, 435–36
cultural advancement, 781
The Culturally Deprived Child (Reissman), 753
culture of poverty, 752–53, 760–61
Cumming v. School Board of Richmond County, 603
curriculum reform, 660–61
curriculum wars, 601
in action, 603–4
D. H. Weir, 305
DaCosta, Kimberly, 167
Daley, Richard, 410, 412, 474, 483
damaged psyche, 677
damage imagery, 703, 753, 762–63
Danaher, K., 800
Darcy, R., 507
Darity, William A., Jr., 283–84
Dark Ghetto (Clark, K.), 753
Darling-Hammond, Linda, 12, 581, 591, 610, 623, 641
Davenport, Charles, 726
Davis, Allison, 678, 679, 734, 738, 739, 747
school segregation and, 749
Davis, Angela, 380, 381, 573n69
Davis, Cornelius, 586
Davis-Eels Test of General Intelligence or Problem Solving Ability, 785–86
Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward Island, 627
Dawson, Charles, 410
Dawson, Michael, 9–11, 369, 374, 386, 464
on Black Power, 475
Dawson, William, 393, 441
machine, 482–83
Deacons for Defense, 559–60
The Declining Significance of Race (Wilson), 5, 31–32, 34, 152
Decroly, O., 773–74
Deep South, 209, 530
blacks, 311, 393, 530
outside, 89
segregation, 499
slaves, 3
socialization, 700
states, 292, 533n5
de facto resegregation, 565
defining population
institutionalization of race, 129–34
overview, 125–27
refining concept of race, 128–29
Degand, J., 773–74
deindustrialization, 686
de jure racial segregation, 550, 564–66, 567
Brown v. Board of Education and, 630
Delaney, Martin, 383, 386, 415, 487, 586
democracy, 21, 28–30, 118, 184, 770
claims for, 53
principles, 130
Democracy in America (de Tocqueville), 21
(p. 826) Democratic Party, 11, 293
affiliation with, 393
black community leaders in, 112
Dixiecrats, 465, 486
internal split, 480
Jaybird, 541
MFDP, 499, 560
service African Americans, 480
Denton, Nancy, 37, 152
Department of Labor, 334
dependent class, 723
De Priest, Oscar, 483
desegregation. See also school desegregation; segregation
armed forces, 447, 465
intelligence testing and, 780–88
military, 8
Deutscher, Max, 748, 786–87
developmental intelligence, 785
Dickerson, Earl B., 685
Differences in white attitude toward the principle versus implementation of equality in employment, 1963–1974, 217f
Diggs, Charles, 483
Dilts, Andrew, 11, 492
Dinkins, David, 235
Dirks, J., 799
discrimination, 253f, 551
blue collar employment, 346–49
contours of, 326–28
Du Bois on, 77–78
endogenous, 284
everyday, 243, 244f, 253
gender, 341
in government programs, 315–17
housing, 318–19
inequality and, 252
institutionalized, 800–801
Jim Crow, 185
rank order of, 55, 184–85, 187–88, 190, 196–97, 216–18, 249, 427
reverse, 272n11
SCAD, 331–32
segregated markets and, 308–9
disillusioned liberalism, 10, 380–81
Distribution of household wealth, white and black, 2000, 362f
Dixiecrats, 465, 486
Dixon, Thomas, 86, 402–3
Dollard, John, 678, 679, 733, 738, 748
Domestic Marshall Plan, 356
dominated groups, 801
Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work boycotts, 333
double consciousness, 727–28, 731
double-duty dollar, 309–11
Double V Campaign, 11, 413, 457n17, 464, 541
Douglass, Frederick, 54, 293, 371, 386
agenda, 699
black military service and, 432
on citizenship, 79
education and, 601
escaping slavery, 585
overseas addresses, 415
Sabbath School, 584
Douglass, Paul, 409
Dowd, Jerome, 724–25
Drake, St. Clair, 104–7, 117, 144, 152
Draper, Wickliffe, 807
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 12, 132, 431–32
blackness and, 519
Fourteenth Amendment and, 521
property rights and, 519–20
Dreeben, Robert, 651–52
drug laws, 689–90
D’Souza, Dinesh, 169, 689
duality, 5
Du Bois, W. E. B., 2, 10–11, 14, 17, 54, 351
on alienation, 726
black intellectual, 633
on black leadership, 27
on black military service, 97, 464
blackness and, 147
black socialism, 381
CAA and, 419
“Close Ranks,” 416–17, 437
color line, 568
on criminal system, 73–74
on discrimination, 77–78
double consciousness, 727–28
economy and, 26
on education, 581, 618–19, 631
as educator, 293–94
Fisk University and, 611
humanistic social psychology, 729
on living conditions, 170
on organized life, 78
Pan-African Congress organization, 102
on prejudice, 27–28
problem inquiry, 56, 63
race and, 160, 168
race relations and, 745
racial liberalism, 727
radical liberalism, 378–80
research model, 152
“Returning Soldiers,” 524
right to learn, 661
social forces emphasis, 137–38
sociological lens, 25–26
status of, 383
Talented Tenth, 64n3, 562, 604–5
themes, 697
theoretical insight, 730
twoness, 5–6, 20
Types of American Negroes, Georgia, 139–42
(p. 827) Washington, B. T., and, 139, 582, 601–3
on white hostility, 739
dysfunctional racial coping, 691
Eagleson, Oran W., 733
Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), 9, 359–60, 364–65
East St. Louis riots, 93–94
Ebony, 336–37, 347
Ebony Hillbillies, 694
economic disadvantage, 59
economic experience, 7–8
economic racism, 394
economy, 282f
Du Bois and, 26
exclusion from industrializing, 92–98
plantation, 31
robust national, 281
Edmondson, Munro S., 679–780
educable mentally retarded (EMR), 790
education, 253f, 616, 642f, 754, 783t, 804. See also Brown v. Board of Education; school desegregation; school integration; school resegregation; schools; school segregation; teachers
access in North, 599–601
access in South, 598–99
adjudicating achievement gap, 645
advancement, 780
African Americans and, 12–13
Afrocentric schools, 633–36
assessment reform, 660–61
basic skills programs, 650
black insistence and persistence, 592–94
Black Power era, 630–31
Black Power on campus, 636–38
Black Studies programs, 636–37
in black-white divide, 48–49
Brown v. Board of Education revisited, 654–55
civil rights era, 623
community control, 632–33
constructing, 585
curriculum reform, 660–61
curriculum wars, 601, 603–4
Douglass, F. and, 601
Du Bois on, 581, 618–19, 631
Emancipation and, 591–92
for empowerment, 585–87
equal educational opportunity, 655
Fourteenth Amendment and, 546
fruits of black labor, 629–30
during Great Depression, 614–15
higher education, 589, 604–7
high-school dropouts, 351, 682
investments in quality teaching, 658–60
Jim Crow, 547, 597–98
judicial breakthroughs, 625–27
multicultural education movement, 65n13
National Assessment of Educational Progress, 641
in nation of morons, 777–78
negotiating terms for, 595–97
during New Deal, 615–16
New Negro, 610–14
new standards and old inequalities, 652–54
No Child Left Behind, 12, 653, 655–56, 660
ongoing fight for equity, 616–18
opportunity to learn standards, 657
overview, 581–82
private schooling and public segregation, 588–89
pull-out programs, 656
punishing literacy, 583–85
Reconstruction, 293–96
resegregation, 647–48
resource equalization, 655–57
retrenchment and renewal, 641–45
Roosevelt, F., and, 615
school desegregation, 23
school resegregation, 36
separate but equal, 546, 626
during slavery, 582–83
structuring inequality, 645–47
teacher quality, 649–50
Tenth Amendment and, 546
unequal curriculum, 650–52
white resistance, 627–28
white support, 594–95
during World War II, 614–15
Educational Equality League, 616
Educational Policies Commission, 754
Educational Testing Service, 770, 784, 799–800
Education and the Disadvantaged American, 754
Eels, K., 785
egalitarianism, 805
The Eighth Generation Grows Up (Rohrer, Edmondson), 679–780
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 196, 329, 331, 334, 468
civil rights and, 450
Elementary and Secondary Education Acts of 1965, 623, 630, 656
elites
black, 442, 443, 733
politics in Brown v. Board of Education, 467–68
white political, 776
Elkins, Stanley, 759
Ellington, Duke, 96
Ellis, Joseph, 132–33
Ellison, Ralph, 345, 669–71
Emancipation, 13, 280, 526, 531
education and, 591–92
emasculation, 751
Embree, Edwin R., 735
employment, 52f, 217f, 258f, 643. See also blue collar employment; unemployment
mobility, 292
NAACP and, 317
Negro jobs, 314–17
NUL and, 414
racial policies, 246–47
resistance to, 78
Roosevelt, F., and, 392
during World War II, 112, 116
Employment-population ratio for 16 and over population, 1972–2009, 52f
empowerment
black, 23
education for, 585–87
enactments
black identity, 710
Civil Rights Act of 1964, 329–30
VRA, 623
end of whiteness, 39
endogenous discrimination, 284
The End of Racism (D’Souza), 169
enforced segregation, 748
Enlightenment, 21
dichotomization, 128–29
entertainment industry, 95–96, 107
epiphanies, 697–98
Epstein, Richard, 479
equal citizenship, 10
equal educational opportunity, 655
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 29, 331
reductions, 478
equality, 125, 173, 199t. See also race inequality hypothesis; racial equality; racial inequality; social equality
in education, 616–18
Jefferson on, 133–34
King, M. L., on, 371
equal opportunity, African American economic status and, 282–83
Equal Protection Clause, 174
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 510
Espionage Act of 1917, 530, 542–43
Essai sur l’inégalité des races humaines, 804
Esso Standard Oil, 331
ethnicity, 38–39, 40f, 41f, 152
AMEA, 159–60
American ethnic pattern, 20
race and, 22
Ethnic Patterns in American Cities (Lieberson), 152
ethno-racial landscape, 38–39
eugenics movement, 94, 168–69
Eurocentrism, 634
Evans, Rowland, 759
Evening Telegraph, 600
Even the Rat Was White (Guthrie), 722
Evers, Medgar, 451, 623
everyday discrimination, 243, 244f, 253
Exploding the Gene Myth (Hubbard, Wald), 171–72
Fabus, Orville, 468
Facing Up to the American Dream (Hochschild), 254, 266
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), 116, 330–31, 413, 447, 450
Fair Housing Act of 1968, 330
Fannie Mae, 3
Fanon, Frantz, 698
Farmers Alliance, 402
Farnsworth, John F., 433–34
Farrakhan, Louis, 382, 482
Farewell to the Party of Lincoln (Weiss), 406–7
fascism, 11, 117
fatalism, 7, 295–96
Feagin, Joe R., 21, 37–38, 179, 243
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 419, 473, 475, 556
federal citizenship, 524–30, 541–44, 551–60
Federal Emergency Relief Program (FERP), 615
Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 101, 116, 317, 618
radicalized state and, 408–10
Federal Housing Authority, 10
federalism, 565
Federal Works Agency, 626
Fehrenbacher, Don, 130–32
Ferguson, Ronald, 649
Fields, Barbara, 24, 129
15-cities study, 212–13, 221
Fifteenth Amendment, 292, 387, 433, 438
enforcement, 529
meaning, 542
operation of, 530
rights, 524, 527
Fifth Amendment, 523, 530
Fine, M., 682
First Amendment, 530
protections, 557
rights, 542–43, 555, 558
unreliability, 556
first-class economic and social citizenship, 355, 618
First Continental Congress, 130
Fisk College, 295
Fisk University, 611
Five Civilized Nations, 4
(p. 829) Foner, Eric, 390–91
Ford, Gerald, 481
Ford, Harold, Jr., 484
Forest, Bedford, 391
Forman, James, 452
Forman, Tyrone, 181, 246, 250, 253
Fortune magazine, 184, 185–86
forty acres and a mule, 7, 288–90, 520
Foster, A. L., 685
Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (Ellis), 132
Fourteenth Amendment, 288, 292–93, 387, 433
color blindness, 554
for disfranchisement, 530
Dred Scott v. Sandford and, 521
education and, 546
enforcement, 529
equal protection, 626
implementing, 525
limits, 526, 556
marriage and, 544
meaning, 552
new view of, 750
protections, 557–58
race and, 532
ratification, 524
spirit of, 522
state action requirement, 540, 545, 551, 561, 563
VRA and, 554–55
Frankfurter, Felix, 749, 764n18
Frankfurt School, 728
Franklin, Anderson J., 692
Franklin, John Hope, 19, 57, 63, 300
Franks, Gary, 484
Frazier, E. Franklin, 419, 678, 738
on African American middle class, 755
on black families, 684, 729
brown ideal, 735–36
race relations and, 745
self-hatred and, 749
testing, 779
Fredrickson, George, 22
on Philippines, 80
on white supremacy, 77
freedmen, 74, 75, 288, 290
Freedmen's Bureau, 7, 141, 290, 388–89
establishment and dissolution, 456n7, 592
forty acres and a mule and, 520
schools, 593
Freedmen's Relief Association, 595
Freedmen's Savings Bank and Trust Company, 308
Freedom Budget, 756
freedom budget, 356
Freedom Democratic Party (FDP), 480
Freedom Rides, 196, 556
Freedom Schools, 629–30
Freedom's Journal, 586
Freedom Summer, 572n51
Freeman, Frank N., 778
Free Speech, 496
French Revolution, 803
fronting, 707
Fugitive Slave Law, 431
Fuller, S. B., 307–08, 337
Fuller Products Company, 307
fundamental attributional error, 771
Gaines, Lloyd, 617–18
Gaines v. Canada, 617–18, 625
Gallup Social Audit, 253
Galton, Francis, 137, 772, 804
Gans, Herbert, 36
on honorary white status, 41
Garrett, Henry, 787–89, 793
funding, 807
Garth, T. R., 778, 783
Garvey, Marcus, 101–2, 105, 144, 378, 382. See also Universal Negro Improvement Association
black nationalism, 383, 416
movement, 392, 417, 418, 442, 473, 475, 696, 698, 702
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., 147
Gay, Claudine, 509–10
gender discrimination, 341
gender gap, 503, 508–9
“Gender Participation and the Black Urban Underclass,” 509
General Social Survey, 237–38, 240, 250, 262, 264
genetic research, 170
Genetleman’s Course, 605
ghettoized assignments, 254
ghettos, 254, 691, 753
communities, 35
in Great Migration, 98–103
poverty, 36
G.I. Bill, 408, 615, 623–25, 683
Gibbs, Miflin, 290
GI Bill of 1944, 13
Gilbert, G. M., 197
Gilded Age, 5
Age of Empire and, 72–81
shifts of, 72
social turmoil, 79
Gilens, Martin, 262, 267
Gillem board, 457n21
Gingrich, Newt, 162, 359, 482
Glaton, Francis, 137
Glazer, Nathan, 20, 33, 65n13, 753, 754–55, 758
Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, 22
globalization, 686
Gobineau, J. A., 804
Goddard, Henry, 612, 773, 775
Going to the Territory (Ellison), 669
(p. 830) Gompers, Samuel, 562
Gong Lum v. Rice, 627
Goodenough, F. L., 778–79
Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test, 778–79
Goodman, Alan, 171
Goodman, Andrew, 469, 481
Gordon, Devin, 678
Gordy, Berry, 337
Gosset, 126
Gottfredson, L. S., 796
funding, 807
government policy
economic prospects for blacks, 364–66
no Marshall Plan for urban poor, 355–56
overview, 355
recession of 2008 and, 360–61
wealth accumulation and, 361–64
welfare reform and responsible citizenship, 356–60
government surveillance, 572n58
Grade Point Average (GPA), 796
Graduate Record Examination (GRE), 797–98
Graham, Susan, 162
grandfather clauses, 530
Grange, 402
Grant, Margaret, 332
Grasso, Ella, 506
Gratz v. Bolllinger, 805
Great Depression, 8, 360
African American economic status during, 314–19
black agency during, 317
discrimination in government programs, 315–17
education during, 614–15
Great Migration and, 103
housing discrimination during, 318–19
legislation, 540
onset, 102
Great Migration, 5, 8, 392, 395
advertisements, 89–90
African American economic status and, 301–5
black exclusion from industrializing economy, 92–98
black metropolis and, 103–8
black rural communities, 108–11
causes of, 303
drive for, 86
economic benefits, 303–5
ghettos in, 98–103
Great Depression and, 103
labor strife, 91–92
Negro family in, 96–97
overview, 86–92
population growth, 87–89
service-to-industry transitions, 91
travel itinerary, 90–91
Great Society, 63, 391, 641–42, 645
Greenwood neighborhood, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 98–99
group damage, 703
groupness, 393
Group Poverty and Income, 2010, 365t
Gueron, Judith, 358
Guglielmo, Thomas, 165, 167
Guinn v. United States, 530
Gulf War II, 370
Guthrie, Robert V., 722
Habermas, Jurgen, 375–76, 386
Habermasian public sphere theory, 375–76
Hacker, Andrew, 21
Hadley, Charles D., 507
Hahn, Steven, 385, 388
hair-care industry, 338
Hall, G. Stanley, 725
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 499, 629
Hamilton, Charles V., 406, 632
Hamilton, Dona Cooper, 406
Hammonds, Evelynn, 171
Hampton, Fred, 475
Hampton Institute, 596, 607, 611
handicrafts, 804
Handlin, Oscar, 755, 761
Hansberry, Lorraine, 685
Harlan, John, 123–24, 528, 566, 603
Harlem, 345, 348, 381
labor coalition, 392
vocational schools, 620
Harlem Renaissance, 12, 144, 539, 610, 697, 698
Harrington, Michael, 753
Harris, Louis, 197, 206–7, 215–16, 229
Harris, William Hamilton, 413
Harrsion, Hubert, 102, 416
Harvard Educational Review, 793
Harvard Law Review, 617
Hastie, William, 457n18, 541
Hatchett, Shirley, 225, 260
Havighurst, Robert J., 785
Hawkins, Augustus, 484
Hayes, Rutherford B., 292, 596
Hayes-Tilden compromise, 434
Haywood, Harry, 381
Head Start Program, 791
Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), 478
Health Professions Education Assistance Act of 1963, 659
Hedgeman, Anna Arnold, 330
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 375
Hentoff, Nat, 758
hereditarian camp, 793
Hereditary Genus (Galton), 137, 804
heredity, 216
(p. 831) Herndon, Alonzo, 305
Herndon, Antonio, 543
Herrnstein, Richard, 168–70, 672–73, 685, 689
funding, 807
no-race stance, 797
Herrick, V. E., 785
Herzog, Elizabeth, 753, 762
Hezlett, S. A., 796
Higginbotham, A. Leon, Jr., 127
Higham, J., 427
higher education, 589, 604–7
Higher Education Act of 1965, 630
Highlander Folk School, 629
high-school dropouts, 351, 643, 653f, 682
high-status groups, 806
Hill, Anita, 383, 481
Hill-Collins, Patricia, 380
Hilliard, Asa, III, 634
Himes, Chester, 751
Hip-Hop culture, 698
black identity, 711–18
communications, 716
everyday experiences, 706
human scrap heap and, 712–13
as intervention, 715–18
reflections, 703
Hip-Hop Poetry and the Classics for the Classroom (Sitomer, Cirelli), 717
Hispanic population, 40, 158, 778
historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), 566, 624–25
HIV/AIDS, 480, 688, 719
Hobson v. Hansen, 790
Hochschild, Jennifer, 37, 254, 266
Hoffer, Eric, 754–55
Hoffman, Frederick, 170
Hollinger, David, 136
Hollins, Tim, 687
Holmes, Maggie, 351
Holt, Thomas, 24
Homel, Michael W., 684–85
home loans, 101
Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC), 10, 101, 407–8
honorary white status, 41
hooks, bell, 380
Hopkins, Harry, 443
Horne, Lena, 96
Horney, Karen, 728
Horton, Willie, 261
Houston, Charles Hamilton, 441, 617
Howard University, 346
“How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?”, 793
Hubbard, Ruth, 171–72
Hughes, Charles Evans, 617
Hughes, Langston, 96, 302, 678
humanistic social psychology, 729
human scrap heap, 712–13
Hunt, Marsha, 705–6
Hunter, J., 796
Huntington, Samuel, 476
Hunton, Alphaeus, 418
Hurricane Katrina, 9, 369, 487, 685, 700, 705
victims, 719
Hurston, Zora Neale, 677, 678, 699
Hyde Park Improvement Protective Club, 99–100
Hyler, Maria E., 12, 581, 591, 610, 623, 641
hypodescent rule, 5–6, 135
ice people, 727
Ickes, Harold, 443
ideology, 378–79
black, 378–83
color blindness, 237, 240
control, 803
Jim Crow, 214, 215
race as, 127–28
racism, 31
racist, 802
splits, 698–700
If We Must Die, 539
“I Have a Dream” speech, 196
illiteracy, 7, 295–96, 365
immigrant analogy hypothesis, 32–34
immigration, 32–34, 128, 776, 777
race and, 267–68
Immigration Act of 1790, 128
Immigration Restriction Act, 776
Immigration Restriction League (IRL), 777
imprisonment
in black-white divide, 51–52
incarceration rates, 643
income, 283f, 326f, 343f, 365t
barrier, 9
black families, 326f
in black-white divide, 46–47
SAT score as function of parental yearly income, 771f
individualism, 709–10, 805
Industrial Revolution, 3
industrial training, 300–301
industry, 803
inequality, 5–6, 242f
causes, 242
discrimination and, 252
education, 645–47, 652–54
explanations, 252f
signs of increasing, 341–43
infant mortality, 171
infra politics, 392
inner cities, 35
(p. 832) inner-city post-traumatic stress disorder, 14
institutionalized discrimination, 800–801
insurance companies, 308–9, 312
integration, 745
Clark, K., as leading voice, 751
intelligence, 785, 802–4. See also Counter Intelligence Program
developmental, 785
racism of, 801–2, 804
Intelligence Quotient (IQ), 777, 792
early assessment, 796
intelligence testing
anti-race psychology, 779–84
backlash in civil rights era, 792–93
black-white divide and, 797
Chicago School of Sociology and, 784–86
common-culture approach, 785
conclusion, 806–7
in court, 788–90
desegregation and, 780–88
education in nation of morons, 777–78
fairness, 794
high stakes as institutionalized discrimination, 800–801
individual retardation and social groups, 773–75
innovative tool, 772–73
intensification of, 784
meritocracy problem, 770–72, 804–6
old ghosts, 796–97
overview, 769
pseudo neutrality of, 790–92
psychological institutional structures and, 793–96
psychology at war, 775–77
race psychology and, 778–79
reliance on, 806
stereotype threat hypothesis, 797–800
toward racism of intelligence, 801–6
unexpected intruder, 797–800
women, 800
Intermarriage rates, 1970–2000, 156f
International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics (IAAEE), 789
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, 328
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 551
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 551
internationalism, 414–22
interpersonal racism, 255
interracial marriage, 249, 263
intersectionality, 493–94, 711
Interstate Commerce Commission, 525
IQ movement, 618
Irish immigrants, 95
Itard, J., 803
Jackman, Mary, 801–2
Jackson, George D., 794
Jackson, James S., 253
Jackson, Jesse, 235
radical liberalism, 379
Jackson, Jimmie Lee, 469
Jackson, Kenneth T., 409
Jackson, Mahalia, 708
Jackson, Maynard, 485
Jacobs, Jane, 409
James, Daniel (“Chappie”), 449
James I, 126
Jaybird Democratic Party, 541
Jaynes, Gerald, 7–9, 279, 323, 355, 393
Jefferson, Thomas, 21, 128, 770
on equality, 133–34
slavery and, 147n2
“Jefferson's Pillow,” 674
Jemison, T. J., 470–71
Jencks, Christopher, 360
Jensen, Arthur, 168, 774, 793
funding, 807
Jet magazine, 337
Jewish people, 732
Jim Crow, 24, 28, 37, 53–55, 110
abuses, 80
as American Apartheid, 370
in black military service, 444–45
breakdown, 197
caste order, 56, 219
defining race, 153
discrimination, 185
education, 547, 597–98
enforcing, 11, 526
establishment, 394
etiquette, 81–82
freedom from, 86, 560
hypocrisy, 427
ideology, 214, 215
legislation, 146
lynchings, 691
negative self-image, 751
norms, 377
oppression, 202
policies, 183
prevalence, 198
racial structure, 236
segregation and, 79
slavery, 129, 362
social aspects, 402
structure, 210
unilateralism, 566
violence, 72
jobs, 26, 253f, 311–12, 344f, 485. See also employment
manufacturing, 485
Negro mobility and, 83
job discrimination, 311–12
jobless recovery, 485
(p. 833) John Jones Clothes Cleaning and Repairing Establishment, 305
Johns, Barbara Rose, 627
Johnson, Andrew, 287
Johnson, Charles S., 108, 301, 619, 678, 734, 738
brown ideal, 735–36
self-hatred and, 749
Johnson, Eunice, 337
Johnson, George E., 337
Johnson, Jack, 96
Johnson, James Weldon, 284, 311, 417
Johnson, John H., 347
Johnson, Lyndon B., 8, 15, 201, 246, 327, 751
civil rights appeal, 469
Howard University address, 752, 756–57
War on Poverty, 474, 479
Johnson, S. E., 671–72
Johnson Products, 337, 340
Johnson Publishing, 336
Johnston, David Cay, 686
Joint Center for Politics and Economic Studies, 484, 505
joint stock companies, 387
Jones, Claudia, 499
Jones, Edward A., 586, 605
Journal of Applied Psychology, 780
Journal of Educational Psychology, 780
Journal of Negro Education, 783
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 796
judicial breakthroughs, 625–27
Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro (Catterall), 127
Just Around the Corner (Aronowitz), 687
Kaiser shipyards, 112
Kardiner, A., 680, 756, 760
Karenga, Maluna Ron, 382
Karsten, P., 430
Katz, Daniel, 270
Katz, Irwin, 790–92, 797–98
Kelley, Robin D. G., 392, 418, 689, 700, 711–12
Kennedy, John F., 8, 201, 218, 307, 334, 355
religious preference, 441
Kennedy, Robert, 209
Kerner Commission, 213, 215, 472–73
Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 50t
King, Corretta Scott, 380
King, Desmond S., 23
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 54, 370, 420
admonition, 488–89
assassination, 37, 213, 473, 555
Birmingham jail letter, 751
birthday, 481, 635
blackness and, 154
on Black Power, 476
Civil Rights Movement groundwork, 471
compensatory programs supported by, 756
on equality, 371
“I Have a Dream” speech, 36, 196
integrationist approach, 158
Malcolm X and, 380–81
nonviolence, 559
radical liberalism, 379
King, Rodney, 36, 236, 250, 481
kinship, 384–86, 393
Kirkland, Henry, 295
Kitwana, Bakari, 717
Klineberg, Otto, 613, 728, 779, 780, 787
race psychology and, 781
selective migration hypothesis, 781–83
Klinker, Philip A., 151–52, 173, 392
citizenship and, 426–28, 442
Kluegel, James R., 244
Knights of Labor, 78
Knights of the White Camellia, 526
Kohn, Richard, 430
Korean War, 11
black military service, 447–54
Kozol, Jonathan, 646, 651
Krech, David, 787
Kristol, Irving, 32–33
KRS-One, 717
Krysan, Maria, 6–7, 55, 178, 235, 246
Ku Klux Klan, 86, 303, 375, 556
church bombings, 469
lynchings, 403
recruitment, 467
terrorism, 334, 391, 631
violence, 74, 291, 526
Kull, Andrew, 135
Kuncel, N. R., 796
labor, 51f
exploitation, 73
during Great Migration, 91–92
market threats, 34
solidarity, 95
Labor force participation rates for the 16 and over population, 1972–2009, 51f
laissez-faire racism, 7, 55–56, 237, 238, 251
attitudes, 488
Lamont, Michèle, 240–43, 255–56, 266–68
Land Grant Act of 1890, 596–97
land ownership, 72
Langston University, 625–26
Lansing, Marjorie, 501–2
Larry P. v. Riles, 790
Latinos, 41, 357, 646
students, 648, 654, 672
laws, 496, 784
African Americans and, 12
anti-miscegenation, 157
drug, 689–90
Fugitive Slave Law, 431
interpretation of, 329–30
Naturalization Law of 1790, 63n1
(p. 834) one-drop rule, 143
open housing, 37
vagrancy, 292
Laws, Anna, 319
Laws, Henry, 319
Law School Admission Test, 784
League of Nations, 102, 537n49
Lee, C. D., 633–34
Lee, Jennifer, 371
Lee, Robert E., 141
Lee, Taeku, 201, 208–9, 211
Legal Defense Fund (LDF), 466, 563
legal realism, 565
legislation. See also laws; specific legislation
Great Depression, 540
Jim Crow, 146
multiraciality, 161
Lemann, Nicholas, 760, 784, 792–93
Leroi, Armand Marie, 171
Lewin, Kurt, 731–32
Lewis, David Levering, 708
Lewis, Hylan, 762
Lewis, John, 452
Lewis, Oscar, 752
culture of poverty, 760–61
liberal equalitarianism, 214
Liberia, 74
emigration, 102
Liberty League, 416
Lieberman, Robert, 404, 406
Lieberson, Stanley, 33–34, 152
life-expectancy, in black-white divide, 52
Lil’ Kim, 708
lily white, 327
Lincoln, Abraham, 77, 280, 432, 591
Lincoln, C. Eric, 762
linked fate, 378
Lippman, Walter, 779
Lipschitz, D. S., 688
Lipsitz, George, 448–49
literacy, 643. See also illiteracy
antiliteracy laws, 583–84
punishing, 583–85
tests, 530
Little Rock school integration, 196, 468, 628
Liuzzo, Viola, 469
Lochner v. New York, 545
Locke, Alain, 96, 303
themes, 697
Logan, Adella Hunt, 497
Long, Howard H., 738–39, 779
Lorde, Audre, 380
Los Angeles City School District, 648
Louis, Joe, 96
Loving v. Virginia, 157–58
low-status groups, 801, 806
lunch-counter sit-ins, 196
Luther Burbank school, 646–47
Lynch, John, 290
lynchings, 11, 53, 98, 391
after military service, 440
federal inaction, 527
Jim Crow, 691
Ku Klux Klan, 403
Roosevelt, F., condemning, 443
M1, 708, 717
MacLear, Martha, 780
mainstream black identity, 704
Malcolm X, 11, 54, 380
African Diaspora and, 421
assassination, 420, 469
birthday, 635
black nationalism, 158, 382–83, 419
blackness and, 154
emergence, 474
King, M. L., and, 380–81
SNCC and, 420
themes, 697
United Nations and, 102
on violence, 471
Mangum, Willie, 587
Manly, Charles, 587
Mann Act, 540
manufacturing jobs, 485
Marable, Manning, 382
March on Washington Movement (MOWM), 413, 469
marginal persons, 732
Mark of Oppression (Kardiner, Ovesey), 756
Mark One or More (Williams), 161
Marks, Eli, 736
marriage, 156f, 157f, 346
Fourteenth Amendment and, 544
interracial, 249, 263
regulation of, 527–28
Marshall, Thurgood, 173, 213, 449, 617
cases sought, 466–67
on school desegregation, 677
Marshall Plan
Domestic, 356
Internal, 718
not for urban poor, 355–56
Marwick, A., 428
Marx, Gary, 196, 202, 207, 223
Marxism, 381
Mason-Dixon Line, 312
Massey, Douglas, 37, 152
Mather, Cotton, 126–27
Matthews, Rick, 687
Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding (Moynihan), 760
Mays, Benjamin, 295
Mays, Joseph, 327
McCall, Nathan, 702–3
(p. 835) McCarthy era, 419, 483
McClusky, Asbury, 296
McConahay, John B., 212, 223, 227
McDowell Times, 89–90
McGovern, George, 486
McKay, Claude, 96, 539
McKinley, William, 436
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, 626, 746
McWhorter, John, 380, 696, 700
Mead, Lawrence, 64n10
Meany, George, 327, 355
“The Measurement of Mental Systems (Can Intelligence Be Measured?)”, 785
Medicaid, 405
Medical College Admission Test, 784
Mendelberg, Tali, 261–62
Men of Bronze, 439
mental illness, 737
Meredith, James, 469
merit, 801, 805
meritocracy, 770–72, 804–6
Messenger, 780
Mettler, S., 625
Meyers v. Anderson, 530
Meyer v. Nebraska, 545, 546
Michener, Jamila Celestine, 11, 492
microaggressions, 704
migration, 75, 77, 343–51
militant collective action, 470
Military Acts of 1868, 594
military desegregation, 8
Military Reconstruction Acts of 1867, 387
Militia Act of 1792, 430, 431–32
Miller, Lawrence, 304
Million Man March, 36, 383, 482, 698
Mills, Charles W., 21, 128–29, 133, 167
miners, 78
minority-majority relations, 56
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), 499, 560
Mitchell, Arthur, 483
Mitchell, Clarence, 330
mixed blacks, 144
mixed race, 160–62
mixed-race population, 124, 142
Mobilizing Public Opinion (Lee, T.), 208
Mohawk Airline, 332
mom and pop stores, 9
Montagu, M. F. A., 787
Montgomery bus boycott, 36, 195–96, 468, 470–71
Moore, Amzie, 452
Moore, Audley (“Queen Mother”), 499
moral dilemmas, 28–30
More Than Just Race (Wilson), 64n5
Morley, Stan, 240
Morning, Ann, 171
Morrison, Toni, 371
Moseley Braun, Carol, 235, 484, 506
Moses, Robert, 411, 452, 634
Motown, 337–39
movements. See also Civil Rights Movement
African American identity, 152
Black Arts movement, 698
eugenics movement, 94, 168–69
Garvey, 392, 417, 418, 442, 473, 475, 696, 698, 702
IQ, 618
MOWM, 413, 469
multicultural education, 65n13
Negritude Social Movement, 698
Negro Convention Movement, 389, 395
Niagara Movement, 416
social, 466
Moyers, Bill, 762
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 15, 350, 755, 757–63, 766n54. See also The Negro Family: The Case for National Action
Moynihan Report, 350
M Street Colored High School, 603–5
Muhammad Speaks, 419
mulatto hypothesis, 783, 789
mulattos, 73, 142, 145t, 783, 789
families, 105–6
mulatto factor, 726
tragic, 725, 727, 730
multicultural black identity, 696–97
multicultural education movement, 65n13
multiple traditions, 21
multiraciality, 159–60
activists, 161
changing norms, 167
identities, 164
legislation, 161
Murray, Albert, 669, 677, 678, 682, 700, 709
Murray, Charles, 64n10, 169, 672, 685–86, 689
no-race stance, 797
Murray, Donald, 617
Murray v. Maryland, 617
Myers, Kristen A., 181
Myers, Samuel L., Jr., 283–84
Myrdal, Gunnar, 6, 28–30, 109, 118, 198
American Dilemma study, 736–38
anti-amalgamation doctrine, 185
caste system, 184, 189
Negro Problem, 202
observations, 191
race relations and, 745
racial doctrine, 238
rank order of discrimination, 55, 184–85, 187–88, 190, 196–97, 216–18, 249, 427
social practice and, 443
on stereotypes, 271
underclass, 752
National Assessment of Educational Progress, 641
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 8, 10, 84, 105
antisegregation campaign, 619–21
black elite and, 442
campaigns, 333
employment and, 317
establishment, 86
formation, 138, 466
growth of, 610
lawyers, 746
lobbying, 330
membership, 332
during New Deal, 112
objectives, 555
school segregation and, 340, 617
separate but equal and, 625
sight of, 162
Truman addressing, 465
urban centers, 473
white supremacy and, 617
work protests, 413–14
National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 11, 495–97
National Association of Real Estate Brokers, 319
National Black Election Study (NBES), 501, 508
National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO), 500
National Black Political Convention, 421, 486–87. See also Negro Convention Movement
National Cash Register, 328
National Center for Education Statistics, 643
National Commission on Civil Disorders, 472
National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), 413–14, 599
National Council on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST), 675
National Council on Measurement in Education, 661
National Election Studies, 250, 257
National Federation of Afro-American Women, 495
National Intelligence Test, 782
National Labor Relations Act, 111
National League of Colored Women, 495
National League of Republican Colored Women (NLRCW), 498
National Negro Bankers Association, 308
National Negro Baseball League, 83
National Negro Congress, 112, 499
National Notes, 496
National Opinion Research Center (NORC), 38, 184
National Organization for Women (NOW), 500
National Origins Act of 1924, 94
National Press Club, 363
National Recovery Act (NRA), 315–16
National Urban League (NUL), 105, 112
employment and, 414
establishment, 86, 466
leadership, 755
report card, 356
sight of, 162
National Youth Administration (NYA), 498, 615–16
Nation of Islam, 382–83, 419. See also Farrakhan, Louis; Malcolm X
emergence, 474
leadership, 482
Native Americans, 778
as slave owners, 4
Naturalization Act of 1790, 95
Naturalization Law of 1790, 63n1
The Nature of Prejudice (Allport), 28
Nazism, 151–52, 183, 557, 784
negative legacy of slavery model, 682
negative racial stereotypes, 244
Negritude Social Movement, 698
Negros, 170, 794. See also New Negro; specific topics
ambition, 186
blood, 182, 185
Committee for Participation of Negros in the National Defense Program, 444
Conference on Vocational Guidance and Education for Negroes, 620
criminality, 93
defining, 143
new, 226
one-drop rule defining, 153
opportunities, 186
press, 106–7
stereotype, 197, 238
Negro Baseball League, 323, 337–39
Negro Business League, 311
Negro churches, 78
in black metropolis, 106
in black rural communities, 110
Negro Convention Movement, 389, 395
Negro Digest, 336
Negroes in Cities (Taeuber, K., Taeuber, A.), 152
Negro family, 96–97, 229, 757–63
Negro genius, 313
Negro History week, 739
Negro jobs, 314–17
Negro market, 104
Negro mobility
(p. 837) black-owned businesses, 83
in cities, 82–84
containing, 81–86
jobs and, 83
Negrophobe, 77
Negro Problem, 117, 184, 202, 568–69
The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, 757–59
neighborhood improvement associations, 99–100
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1880–1900, 76t–77t
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1880–19020, t–88t
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1920–1940, 1940–1950, 114t–115t
New Concept Development Center, Chicago, Illinois, 634
New Deal, 10, 63, 391
contradictions, 404
education during, 615–16
housing policy, 407–8
liberalism, 214
NAACP during, 112
policies, 111, 116
racism and, 405–7
reform, 53
welfare and, 404–5
World War II and, 111–17
New Negro, 13, 226, 303, 702
education, 610–14
sentiment, 611
spirit of, 612
New South, 300
Newsweek, 164, 196, 678
The New White Nationalism in America (Swain), 248
The New York Times Magazine, 32
New York Age, 89
New York City Board of Education, 632–33
New York Free School, 587
New York State Temporary Commission on the Condition of the Colored Population, 312
New York Times, 171, 686, 761
New York Times Magazine, 762
Niagara Movement, 416
Nigrescence Theory, 698
Night Riders, 209
1950 UNESCO Statement on Race, 678
Nineteenth Amendment, 493, 494, 498
Nix, Robert, 483
Nixon, Richard M., 8, 331, 339, 477
election, 480
No Child Left Behind, 12, 653, 655–56, 660
nondiscrimination, 259
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 687
nonviolence, 559, 571n42
no-race stance, 797
normal black males, 688
Norris-LaGuardia Act, 545–46
North Carolina Teaching Fellows Program, 658
Northerners
Black Power era racial attitudes, 228–30
contemporary era racial attitudes, 262–64
education and, 599–601
World War II racial attitudes, 191–92
North Star, 386, 586
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 21, 128
Novak, Robert, 759
Oakes, J., 652
Oakland Community School (OCS), 635
Obama, Barack, 38, 167, 484
election of, 56–57, 712
Oberlin College, 589, 605
occupations
in black-white divide, 42–44
employment-population ratio for 16 and over population, 1972–2009, 52f
labor force participation rates for 16 and over population, 1972–209, 51f
O’Connor, Sandra Day, 644
octoroons, 142–43, 146, 163
office holding, 11, 504–7
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 155, 479
Ogbu, John, 707
Omi, Michael, 23
The Omni Americans (Murray, A.), 669, 677
one-dimensionality, 13
one-drop rule, 6, 135
defining Negro, 153
law of land, 143
legacy of, 145–47
persistence of, 153
Ones, D. S., 796
open housing laws, 37
Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 313
opportunities. See also Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
affirmative action protecting, 644
equal, 282–83
equal educational, 655
to learn standards, 657
Negro, 186
PRWORA, 359
racialized earnings, 313
(p. 838) Opportunity, 780
opportunity to learn standards, 657
ordinary Americans, 180–81, 184
organized life, 78
outlier black intellects, 613
Overton, Anthony, 307
Ovesey, L., 680, 756
Owens, Chandler, 416
Owens, Jesse, 151
Pacific Telephone and Telegraphic Company, 327
Pan-African Congress, 102
paradox, 57–58
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No.1, 173–74
paresis, 724
Park, Robert, 613, 728
assimilation theory, 730, 734
at Chicago School of Sociology, 730
racial liberal, 727
on segregation, 731
students, 734
Parker, Christopher, 10, 425
Parks, Rosa, 11, 471, 499, 629. See also Montgomery bus boycott
party politics, 479–82
Pass the Freedom, Please, 635
Patillo, Melba, 628
Patrick, James, 733
Patterson, Frederick D., 624
Patterson, Orlando, 56–57
Patton, George S., 445, 448
Payne, Charles, 469, 471
Payne, Yasser, 688, 717
Pearl, Arthur, 753
peasant perspective, 125
Per Capita Expenditure on Education According to Race and Percentage of Black Population in Each County, 783t
Perceived Racialization Index, 60–61, 61f, 62f
Percentage black men and women workers by job category, 1890, 302f
Percentage college grads with middle-class earnings, 1939, 314f
Percentage Distribution of Black Household Composition, U.S., 1880–1940, 97t
Percentage of 9th grade students lost between 9 and 10th grades in Massachusetts, 653f
Percentage of black households with income greater than white median income, 343f
Percentage of Negro and Mulatto Distribution, 1870–1920, 145t
Percentage of people opposed to legalizing intermarriage, 157f
Percentage of U.S. population on welfare, 349f
Percent of population two or more races in U.S. and Puerto Rico, 2000, 166f
Percent of two or more race population choosing black in combination with one or more other races U.S. Census 2000, 40f
Percent of U.S. jobs by occupations, 1960–2000, 344f
Pershing, John J. (“Black Jack”), 438
personal choice, 685
personality, 28, 796. See also African American identity; African American psyche; black identity
black, 746
prejudice, moral dilemmas and, 28–30
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 1996 (PRWORA), 359
personhood, 558–59
Petry, Ann, 751
Pew Research Center, 361
Philadelphia Education League, 632
Philadelphia Plan, 335, 339
Philadelphia Seventh Ward, 25
The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (Du Bois), 25–28, 77–78, 117, 152
sociological work, 727–28
Philippines, 80–81
Phillips, U. B., 725, 740n9
Phillips, Wendell, 134
Phipps, Susie, 146
Piche, D. M., 647
A Piece of the Pie (Lieberman), 34
Pierce, John C., 508
Pierce, Samuel, Jr., 449
Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 546
Pioneer Fund, 169, 807
pioneers, 318–19
Pittsburgh Courier, 336
plantation economy, 31
plantation owners, 294
planters, 291
Plato, 126
Plessy, Homer, 525
Plessy v. Ferguson, 78, 81, 85, 136, 435
compliance with, 617
decision, 600, 603, 605
dissent, 566
enforcing, 626
footsteps of, 143
logic, 553
losses from, 441–42
majority, 528
overruling, 563, 749–50
rail car seating, 400, 525
separate but equal and, 123–24, 135, 146, 188, 467, 526, 597
Plomin, R., 796
Pocahontas, 126
Polikoff, Alexander, 400, 412
political attitudes, 509–10
political identity
black, 375–78
slavery and, 10
(p. 839) political machine, 104–5
Political Participation Measures by Sex for African Americans, 508t
political prisoners, 558
political representation, 482–89
politics. See also African American politics
African American women, 494–500
Brown v. Board of Education, 467–68
Cold War, 551
infra politics, 392
Joint Center for Politics and Economic Studies, 484
party, 479–82
radicalized state, 414–22
poll taxes, 530
polygenist thought, 142, 163
poor, 27. See also poverty
African American women, 561–62
urban, 355–56
population growth. See also defining population
African American population change, 1880–1900, 75f
African American population change, 1900–1920, 87f
African American population change, 1920–1940, 113f
African American population change, 1940–1950, 113f
Employment-population ratio for 16 and over population, 1972–2009, 52f
Great Migration, 87–89
Hispanic, 40, 158, 778
Labor force participation rates for 16 and over population, 1972–2009, 51f
mixed-race population, 124, 142
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1880–1900, 76t–77t
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1880–19020, 87t–88t
Net and Percentage Change in Black Population in United States by State and Major Cities 1920–1940, 1940–1950, 114t–115t
New York State Temporary Commission on the Condition of the Colored Population, 312
Per Capita Expenditure on Education According to Race and Percentage of Black Population in Each County, 783t
Percent of two or more race population choosing black in combination with one or more other races U.S. Census 2000, 40f
Population projections by race and ethnicity, 2000–2050, 41f
Single race and two or more race population, U.S. Census 2000, 39f
Population projections by race and ethnicity, 2000–2050, 41f
Populist Party, 402
Porter, Jennie, 739
Portland Baseline Essay Project, 634
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 688, 692, 705
poverty, 7, 282f, 561–62. See also income; urban poverty; War on Poverty; wealth
amidst affluence, 281–83
black, 280
in black-white divide, 47–48
culture of, 752–53, 760–61
drive against, 355
Group Poverty and Income, 2010, 365t
roots of urban, 293–96
urban poor, 355–56
welfare and, 64n5
Powdermaker, Hortense, 347, 729
Powell, Adam Clayton, 331, 333, 393, 419
political career, 482–83
Powell, Colin, 236, 482
Powell, John Wesley, 136
Powell, Kevin, 697, 703, 717
praise houses, 385
preferred property, 131
prejudice
Du Bois on, 27–28
moral dilemmas, personality and, 28–30
Presbyterian General Assembly, 595
President's Committee on Government Contracts, 327
Prestage, Jewel L., 501
prima facie case, 529–30
Primary School Committee, 589
privacy-based rights, 561
private schooling, 588–89
progressive age, 306
Progressive Era, 14, 724
norms during, 728
tragic mulatto motif, 730
Project RACE, 160, 162
proletarianization, 91
PRWORA (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), 359
psychogenic hazards, 738
Psychological Bulletin, 787
psychological institutional structures, 793–96
psychometric analysis, 168
psychopathology, 689
public education, racism in, 7
public housing, 410–12
Puerto Rico, 102
Pullman Company, 111
pull-out programs, 656
(p. 840) pure blacks, 144
pure states, 781
quadroons, 142–43, 146, 163
Quakers, 585–86
race, 783t
Census, 154–55
Civil Rights Movement and, 158
class and, 265–66
concept of, 54
conceptualizing, 173
defining, 154–58
dropping claims, 807
Du Bois and, 160, 168
dynamics, 31
end of, 159–60
ethnicity and, 22
Fourteenth Amendment and, 532
history of, 126–27
as ideology, 127–28
immigration and, 267–68
institutionalization of, 129–34
Jim Crow defining, 153
nature of science, 671
painting by numbers, 141–45
refining concept, 128–29
religion and, 126–27
social construction of, 160–62
statistics and, 154–58
Supreme Court and, 173–74
U.S. Constitution and, 129–30, 132, 172
Race, Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro (Hoffman), 170
race-centered analysis, 36–38
race conscious policies, 218, 232n15
race denial, 159–60
color blindness, 124–25
race gap, 774
race inequality hypothesis, 783
race psychology, 14
black families, 729
history of, 723–28
intellectual inferiority and, 728
intelligence testing and, 778–79
Klineberg and, 781
overview, 722
studies, 738–39
theories, 729–38
race relations, 745
race riots, 469
Anti-Riot Act, 555
Chicago 1919 riots, 101
communal, 99
East St. Louis, 93–94
Red Summer, 98, 284, 391–92, 524
theory, 761
Watts, 6, 15, 211–12, 357, 472, 752
race thesis, sociology and, 30–32
Racial and ethnic composition of the U.S. 2000, 40f
racial anxiety, 691
racial background, 38
racial beliefs
Black Power era racial attitudes, 215–16, 221–22
Blacks’ Beliefs about How Whites Treat Blacks, 1964, 203t
civil rights era racial attitudes, 197–98, 202–3
contemporary era racial attitudes, 237–45, 251–56
World War II racial attitudes, 182, 185–87
racial bias, 24
racial categories, 5–6
changes in, 165
Civil War and, 134–47
defining population, 125–34
official, 153
overview, 123–25
Racial Comparisons of Median Net Worth 1984–2000, 361t
racial conflict
Black Power era racial attitudes, 218–21, 224–28
civil rights era racial attitudes, 201–2, 204–5
contemporary era racial attitudes, 260–61, 261–62
World War II racial attitudes, 183, 189
racial conservatism, 481
white supremacy as, 723
racial contract, 133, 167
racial demonization, 403–4
Racial differences in attitudes toward the civil rights movement, 1965, 205f
racial equality, 59–60, 60f
racial hierarchies, 133, 156, 377
racial inequality, 179, 252f, 670
racialized earnings opportunities, 313
racialized social order, 54
racialized thinking, 65n15
racial liberalism, 10, 723, 727, 752, 761
racial neoconservatism, 754, 755, 763
racial neutrality policy, 172
racial order, 10
racial policies
Black Power era racial attitudes, 216–18, 224
civil rights era racial attitudes, 200, 204
contemporary era racial attitudes, 245–48, 256–59
World War II racial attitudes, 182, 188
racial principles
Black Power era racial attitudes, 216, 222–24
civil rights era racial attitudes, 198–200, 203–4
contemporary era racial attitudes, 245, 256
World War II racial attitudes, 182, 187–88
racial projects, 23
(p. 841) racial quotas, 250, 269
racial rage, 702–3
racial science, 136–41, 153
in sheep's clothing, 168–72
racial separatism, 442
racial stereotypes, 270
racial supremacy, 784
The Racial Contract (Mills), 133, 167
racial uplift, 300
racism, 21. See also laissez-faire racism
Baldwin and, 745
distinctive, 33
economic, 394
ideologies, 31
of intelligence, 801–2, 804
interpersonal, 255
New Deal and, 405–7
in public education, 7
scientific, 807
Social Security and, 404
systemic, 179
World War II, 116–17
Wright, R., and, 745
racist ideology, 802
radicalized state
black resistance, 412–14
FHA and, 408–10
history, 401–7
internationalism and black politics, 414–22
New Deal housing policy, 407–8
overview, 400–401
public housing, 410–12
radical liberalism, 378–80
Railway Labor Act (RLA), 546
Raines, Franklin, 3–4, 15
Randolph, A. Philip, 9, 97, 102, 111, 184, 355
black military service and, 437
black socialism, 381
damage imagery, 762
Freedom Budget, 756
leadership of, 413, 416
race relations and, 745
radical thought, 696
Roosevelt, F., and, 465
Truman and, 465
Rapier, John, 290
Raspberry, William, 689
Ratio of African American to white family income, 1947–200, 326f
Ratios of Status Indicators (Nonwhite to Total), Selected Occupations, Men 1959, 342t
Ratios of Status Indicators (Nonwhite to Total), Selected Occupations, Women 1959, 342t
Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test, 798
Reagan, Ronald, 478, 642
civil rights and, 479
political career, 480
student aid cuts, 644
Reagan Revolution, 642
recessions, 345
of 2008, 360–61
Reconstruction, 5, 13, 23
African American politics and, 386–95
black agency during, 290–91
Black Code amendments, 287–88
collapse, 53
decades, 10
education, 293–96
government building, 401
overview, 286–87
policy, 287–90
raced history, 12
Radical, 72, 75, 118
reclaiming white supremacy, 291–93
Reconstruction Amendments, 7, 527, 530, 541, 544, 547
racial specificity, 567
Red Summer riots, 98, 284, 391–92, 524
Regional Council of Christian Leadership (RCNL), 452
Reid, Ira De A., 779
religion, 126–27. See also Christianity; Jewish people
Rencher, Abraham, 587
Reported Vote in Presidential Election by Race and Sex, 1964–2004, 502t
Reported vote in presidential election by race and sex, 1964–2004, 503f
Reported Vote in Presidential Election by Race Sex, and Age Cohort, 504t
The Report on Vital and Social Statistics in the United States at the Eleventh Census, 143
Republican Party, 293, 307, 388–89
conservative foundation, 481
disaffection with, 390
domination, 402
Republic of New Africa, 383
resegregation
de facto, 565
education, 647–48
school, 36
resource equalization, 655–57
res publica, 101
restrictive covenants, 319
“Returning Soldiers,” 524
Revels, Hiram R., 390
reverse discrimination, 272n11
Revolutionary War, 63, 429
Rice, Condoleezza, 482, 511, 700
Richards, G., 793
Richeson, Jennifer, 669, 671–73
Ridgeway, Matthew, 448
Riessman, Frank, 752, 753, 754
(p. 842) rights, 323, 446. See also African American economic rights; civil rights; Civil Rights Act of 1866; Civil Rights Act of 1870; Civil Rights Act of 1875; Civil Rights Act of 1963; Civil Rights Act of 1964; Civil Rights Act of 1968; civil rights era racial attitudes; Civil Rights Movement; Voting Rights Act of 1965
ERA, 510
Fifteenth Amendment, 524, 527
First Amendment, 542–43, 555, 558
Fourteenth Amendment, 524–25, 527–28
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 551
privacy-based, 561
property, 519–20
Reconstruction Amendments, 7, 527, 530, 541, 544, 547, 567
right to learn, 661
social, 456n4
Thirteenth Amendment, 525, 545
universal, 210
U.S. Constitution, 129
Roberts, Benjamin, 588
Roberts v. City of Boston, 576n126
Robeson, Paul, 96, 419, 571n48
Robinson, Jackie, 8, 323, 338
robust national economy, 281
Rodriguez et al. v. Los Angeles Unified School District, 648
Rogin, Michael Paul, 402
Rohrer, 13
Rohrer, John H., 679–780
Rolfe, John, 126
Ronald Reagan the Movie and Other Episodes in Political Demonology (Rogin), 402–3
Roosevelt, Franklin, 111, 116, 184, 186, 329–30
education and, 615
employment and, 392
FEPC and, 413
lynching condemned by, 443
presidency, 441
public housing, 410
Randolph and, 465
Selective Service Act of 1940, 444
Roosevelt, Theodore, 390, 400–401, 436
Roper Poll, 184
Rosenwald Fund, 599
Ross, Nellie, 506
Rough Riders, 436
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 802–3
Ruffin, Josephine, 496
Run-DMC, 708, 717
Rushton, J. Phillipe, 169
funding, 807
Russwurm, John B., 586, 605
Rustin, Bayard, 487, 758
compensatory programs supported by, 756
Ryan, William, 761, 762
Sabbath Schools, 584, 594
St. Claire Price, Joseph, 779–80
St. Louis Plan, 334
Saks, Eva, 143–44
Sambo image, 737
sameness, 13
Sams, Charlie, 687
Samson, Frank, 5–6, 53, 71
San Francisco Plan, 334
Satel, Sally, 171
SAT score as function of parental yearly income, 771f
Saunders, Redding, 751
Savage Inequalities (Kozol), 646
saw mills, 347
Sawyer, Thomas, 159
Schmeling, Max, 151
Schmidt, F. L., 796
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 641, 770–71, 771f, 799
Schomburg, Arturo, 102
schools, 173–74, 253f, 648. See also high-school dropouts; Little Rock school integration
African Free School, 586–88, 619
apartheid, 647
Citizenship School programs, 499
Freedmen's Bureau, 593
Freedom Schools, 629–30
funding reform, 648, 656
Highlander Folk School, 629
Los Angeles City School District, 648
Luther Burbank school, 646–47
M Street Colored High School, 603–5
New York Free School, 587
OCS, 635
Primary School Committee, 589
private, 588–89
resegregation, 36
Sabbath Schools, 584, 594
Tuskegee School, 306
vocational, 620
school desegregation, 23, 702
Brown v. Board of Education and, 152, 172, 623
Marshall on, 677
questioning, 618–21
school integration, 229, 245
Little Rock, 196, 468, 628
Supreme Court on, 231n7
school resegregation, 36
school segregation, 588–89
Davis, Allison, and, 749
NAACP and, 340, 617
Schorr, Alvin, 753
Schuman, Howard, 215–18, 222, 224–25, 260
Schuyler, George, 696
(p. 843) Schwerner, Michael, 469, 481
Science Magazine, 673
Scientific Monthly, 784
scientific racism, 807
Scott, Daryl Michael, 14, 669, 678, 679, 722, 745
Scott, James C., 392
Sears, David O., 212, 223, 227
Seattle post-Intelligencer, 292–93
second-class citizenship, 529, 582, 610, 612, 618
Second Continental Congress, 130
Second Reconstruction, 285, 426, 455, 477
Secret, Philip, 503, 508
“Secret Information Concerning Black American Troops,” 438
segregation, 11, 37, 152, 199t. See also school segregation
black institutions and, 393
black military service, 444
Deep South, 499
de jure racial, 550, 564–66, 567
enforced, 748
Jim Crow and, 79
markets, 308–9
Park on, 731
Supreme Court recognizing, 81
workforce, 304
Seitz, V., 792
selective migration hypothesis, 781–83
Selective Service Act of 1940, 11, 444
self-abasement, 725
self-determination, 417
self-esteem, 13–14
black identity and, 701–2
self-hatred, 678–80, 718, 731–32
advancing theory, 736
Clark, K., and, 748
Cross, W. E., and, 736, 746–47
Frazier and, 749
group consciousness, 734–35
Johnson, C. S., and, 749
self-help, 9
African American economic status and, 281–82
solidarity, 84–85
self-investigation, 802
self-reliance, 592
self-worth, 739
separate but equal, 6, 188t, 749
Brown v. Board of Education and, 147, 198, 467, 563–64
education, 546, 626
NAACP and, 625
Plessy v. Ferguson and, 123–24, 135, 146, 188, 467, 526, 597
support for, 199
Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, 624. See also G.I. Bill
service-to-industry transitions, 91
Shades of Black (Cross, W. E.), 680–81
Shadow and the Act (Ellison), 669
Shakur, Tupac, 703, 708, 717
sharecroppers, 82, 97, 315
defined, 532
Share Croppers’ Union, 110
Shaw, Hayes, 296
Shaw, Lemuel, 589
Shaw, Nate, 295, 296
Shelley v. Kraemer, 447, 552
Sherman, William, 288–89
Shklar, Judith, 371
Shuey, Audrey M., 789
funding, 807
Silberman, Charles, 758
Simon, Théodore, 772, 804
Simpson, O. J., 36, 236
Sims, Verne M., 733
Sing, Nikhil, 422
Single race and two or more race population, U.S. Census 2000, 39f
singularity, 13
Sipuel, Lois, 625–26
Sipuel v. Board of Regents, 546, 625–26
sit-ins, 451, 468, 469, 556
Sitomer, Alan, 717
Skladman, Jeannette, 782
Skocpol, Theda, 404–6, 466
Skrentny, John David, 246
slave owners, 291
Native Americans as, 4
slavery, 13, 31
African American politics and, 384–86
black identity legacy, 681–92
blackness and, 127
cotton and, 3–4
Douglass, F., escaping, 585
education during, 582–83
Jefferson and, 147n2
Jim Crow, 129, 362
political identity and, 10
preferred property, 131
reparations, 7
as sin, 132–33
U.S. Constitution and, 130–31
Slavery (Elkins), 759
slaves, 291
codes, 583
Deep South, 3
slums, 411, 754, 761
Slums & Suburbs (Conant), 754
smaller brains myth, 796
Smith, Brewster, 787
Smith, James McCune, 586
Smith, Jean Wheeler, 469
Smith, Rogers, 21–23, 151–52, 173, 392
citizenship and, 426–28, 442
(p. 844) Smith, Ryan A., 244
Smith, Shawn Michelle, 139
Smuck v. Hobson, 790
social alienation, 8
social anxiety, 791
social contract, 21, 130
Social Darwinism, 136–38, 142, 163, 806
social desirability, 280
social distance
Black Power era racial attitudes, 218–19, 224
civil rights era racial attitudes, 200–201, 204
contemporary era racial attitudes, 249, 259–60
World War II racial attitudes, 182–83, 188–89
social equality, 55
Washington, B. T., on, 605
social experience
African Americans, 5–7
conclusion, 56–63
social forces, 137–38
social groups, 773–75
socialization
Deep South, 700
resocialization experiences and, 697–98
social movements, 466
social policy bifurcations, 405
social rights, 456n4
Social Science Research Council (SSRC), 170–71
social sciences, 136–41
Social Science Statement, 787
Social Security, 111
racism and, 404
Society for Black Engineers, 706
Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 790
Society of Friends, 585. See also Quakers
socioeconomic status (SES), 650, 791, 798
sociology
race thesis and, 30–32
research, 25–28, 55
solidarity, self-help, 84–85
Somers, M. R., 428
The Souls of Black Folk (Du Bois), 20, 56, 568, 726–27
Southern Aid Life Insurance Company, 308
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 11, 210, 420, 499–500
citizenship schools, 629
founding, 466, 468
leadership, 452
Southerners, 110
Black Power era racial attitudes, 228–30
contemporary era racial attitudes, 262–64
education and, 598–99
separatism, 404
World War II racial attitudes, 191–92
Southern Horrors: Lynch Laws in All It Phases (Wells), 496
Southern Tenant Farmers Union, 110
South Side of Chicago, 104
Sowell, Thomas, 380
Spanish-American War, 53
Spellman College, 295
Spencer, Herbert, 804, 806–7
Spinath, F. M., 796
split classrooms, 651
sports, 96
squads, 291
stag-flation, 485
standardized test scores, 15
Stanford, Karin, 509
Stanford-Binet test, 775, 778, 782
Stanley, John, 687
state citizenship, 531–32, 544–47, 560–67
State Commission Against Discrimination (SCAD), 331–32
Steele, Claude, 13, 673, 700, 797, 799–800
Steele, Shelby, 380, 696, 700