- List of Contributors
- African American Citizenship
- An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship
- Race and the Limits of American Democracy: African Americans from the Fall of Reconstruction to the Rise of the Ghetto
- The Strange Career Of Racial Science, Racial Categories, And African American Identity
- Race-Conscious Color Blindness: World War II, <i>Brown v. Board of Education</i>, and the Strange Persistence of the One-Drop Rule
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part I: Racial Attitudes in the United States during World War II, 1939–1945
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part II: Racial Attitudes during the Civil Rights and Black Power Eras, 1946–1975
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part III: Contemporary Era Racial Attitudes, 1976–2004
- From Slave to Citizen: Overview of the Evolution of African American Economic Status
- Reconstruction: The Foundations of Economic Citizenship
- The Economy and the Black Citizen, 1900 to World War II
- The Expansion of Economic Rights since World War II
- Government Policy and the Poor
- African American Politics and Citizenship, 1865–Present: An Overview
- The Black Public Sphere and Black Civil Society
- Blacks and the Racialized State
- War and African American Citizenship, 1865–1965: The Role of Military Service
- From the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- African American Women: Intersectionality in Politics
- The United States Constitution and the Struggle for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- African American Legal Status from Reconstruction Law to the Nadir of Jim Crow: 1865–1919
- African American Legal Status from the Harlem Renaissance through World War II
- Law from the Rise of the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- Education and the Quest for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- Emancipation and Reconstruction: African American Education, 1865–1919
- From the “New Negro” to Civil Rights: African American Education, 1919–1945
- Education from Civil Rights through Black Power: 1945–1975
- From Retrenchment to Renewal: African American Education, 1975–Present
- The African American Psyche, 1865–Present: An Overview
- Predicaments, Coping, and Resistance: Social and Personal Identities among African Americans
- Contemporary Black Identities and Personalities
- The Rise and Fall of Race Psychology in the Study of African Americans
- Black Personality in the Integrationist Era
- The Racism of Intelligence: How Mental Testing Practices Have Constituted an Institutionalized Form of Group Domination
Abstract and Keywords
In the 1920s, African Americans returned from World War I with a renewed fervor for egalitarian education. The New Negro of the 1920s more aggressively agitated for equal rights, exalted African American culture, and demanded self-determination. Such sentiment evidenced itself in both attitude and organization through Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association, the Harlem Renaissance, the growth of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Carter G. Woodson's Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. As a result of this new attitude, the issue of how and to what end African Americans should be educated came to a head in the 1920s. Black college student enrollment increased six-fold from 2,132 in 1917 to 13,580 in 1927. This influx of students demanded an education that would allow them to make the democracy for which many had fought abroad a domestic reality. Their actions posed a vigorous new challenge to industrial education and second-class citizenship for African Americans.
Joy Ann Williamson-Lott is Associate Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the University of Washington.
Linda Darling-Hammond is Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University and Founding Director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.
Maria E. Hyler is Assistant Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Maryland, College Park.
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