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date: 20 February 2020

(p. 621) Index

(p. 621) Index

abortion, controversy, 563, 564
Abrahamic faiths
image of fall, 548
question of extraterrestrial life, 564–565
Abrahamic traditions
biology and religion, 558–564
challenges to physicalism, 562–564
Christianity, 558, 560–561
Islam, 558, 562
Judaism, 558, 559
acquired characteristics, inheritance, 36
actualism, 17, 274–276
adaptation
comparative method, 48
optimality models, 50–51
population regularities, 71–72
reverse engineering, 48–50
adaptationism
debate over, 104
ensemble test of, 106–108
local optimality, 106
as possible conclusion, 105–106
Adaptationism Project, challenges for philosophy of biology, 108–109
adaptationists, defining and discrediting, 607–608
adaptive evolution, quasi‐independence, 143
adaptive hypotheses
correcting for phylogeny, 98–99
debate over testing, with comparative data, 99–101
messy state of art of testing, 103
testing, with comparative data, 97
adaptive landscape, change and fitness to organisms, 43–44
adaptiveness, 128, 401
adaptive organisms, mutation, 139–140
adaptive tension, natural and sexual selection, 56
adaptive thinking, steps, 420
adaptive values, models optimizing, 4
adaptivity at lineage level, heat‐shock protein Hsp 90, 151
aesthetics, neuroscience, 369–370
affective neuroscience, animal behavior, 341–342
agamospecies concept, 177
agricultural biotechnology
agriculture and, 529–531
controversy, 534
ethical issues, 537–540
policy issues, 540–541
risk assessment, 538–539
agriculture
and agricultural biotechnology, 529–531
animals and plants, 527–529
artificial and natural selection, 529
breeders, 527–528
definition, 526
ecology, and environment, 535–537
ethical issues, 537–540
genetically modified organisms, 536
human‐nature interaction, 526
land use, 535
outside philosophy of biology, 526
policy implications, 526–527
variation and domestication, 527–529
allopatric model, speciation, 108
altruism, 436, 551
altruistic punishment, cooperation, 443–444
Alzheimer's disease, genetic disorders within race, 495
American beaver, pioneering study of behavior of, 329–330
analogies, rhetorical tool, 612
ancestral influence, phylogenetic inertia, 98–99
ancestry, classification by similarities, 164–166
androcentrism, 574, 578, 579
animal behavior
affective neuroscience, 341–342
American beaver, 329–330
ancient beginnings, 328–329
anthropomorphic reasoning, 341–342
antimentalist behaviorism, 336
Aristotle, 328
attempts for integrative approach, 342
automata–reflex‐driven machines, 331
causation, survival value, evolution, and ontogeny, 338–339
(p. 622)
classical ethology, 337–339
cognitive ethology, 339–341
comparative psychology, 334–336
controversies and debates, 343–344
Darwin's observations, 330–331
debating reasoning and self‐knowledge in, 328
discovery vs. justification, 338
emotion, 340–341
frogs, 331
Greek approach, 329
instincts and reasoning, 333
instinct vs. learning, 338
learning, 332–333, 335–336
memory, 332, 333–334
philosophical and empirical, 7
physiological experimentation on reflexes, 331–332
questions, 328
scientific investigation areas, 327
study of birdsong, 342–343
animal consciousness, interest in, 7
animal psychology, instinct vs. reason, 330
antelopes
Belgian Congo, 198f
variety of horns, 198–199
Antennapedia, mutation, 294
anthologies, philosophy of biology, 24–25
anthropoid apes, animal behavior, 328–329
anthropology, evolutionary and religious, 547–548
anthropomorphic reasoning, animal behavior, 341–342
anthropomorphism, animals, 7, 332
anti‐catastrophism, Lyell, 17
antimentalist behaviorism, animals, 336
antinaturalism, teleological, 116–117
antireductionism. See also layer‐cake antireductionism
features of theoretical reductionism and, 240
picture of genetics, 240
reductionists and antireductionists, 563
apes, early thinking of behavior, 328–329
Aristotle
animal behavior, 328, 331
causes of nature, 13
conception of teleology, 118–121
evolution of species, 14
influence through ages, 11–12
logic of division, 163
metaphors, 613
philosophy of science, 13–14
rhetoric, 596–597
theory of heredity, 66
artificial selection
breeders, 176
corn (maize), 46–47
Darwinian evolutionary theory, 34–35
asexual organisms, evolvability, 144
association, brain damage deficit, 373
“average man”
group differences, 75–76
population thinking, 67–68, 75
Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin, corn expressing, 530–531
background extinction, 225
Bacon, Francis, philosophy of science, 15
balance of nature
background assumption, 507
community ecology (1859–1950), 508–511
ecology, 505
history of, (1950–2000), 511–513
history of idea, 506–513
“stability” and “equilibrium,” 508
barometer, genomics research, 322–323
beak size, finches, 151–152, 293–294
beaver, pioneering study of behavior of, 329–330
Beckner, Morton, formalist research program, 23
behavior. See also animal behavior
difficulty to study, 51
behavior system, animal behavior using modular notion of, 343
behavioral flexibility, animals, 339
behavioral genetics, intelligence, 462–464
behavioral sex differences, case study, 586–588
behavioral traits, genetic adaptations, 415
beliefs
desire and, in mental content, 398–399
neuroscience, 364, 365
bell‐shaped distribution, population thinking, 67–68
benevolent God, Darwin, 78
biased survey, genomics, 318–321
bias paradox, feminist epistemologists, 579–580
BiDil, ethnic drug, 465–466, 468–469, 478
big science, collaboration, 6–7
biodiversity, mass extinction, 225–226
bioethics. See also ethics
distinction between “upstream” and “downstream,” 453
ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics, 471
(p. 623) biogeography
evolutionary study, 57
macroevolution, 217, 218–219
biological determinism, feminists, 581–582
biological disciplines, natural selection across, 37–38
biological diversity, convention, 536–537
biological evolution, phenotypic and genetic traits, 425
biological explanation, antireductionist genetics, 246
biological hierarchy, conceptions, 226
Biological Principles, Woodger, 21
biological reality of race
argument against, 498
eliminativism, 484–486
biological refractoriness, genetic adaptations, 416
biological species concept, 177
biological unreality of race, eliminativism and strictly social conservationism, 499–500
biologists
coauthoring with philosophers of biology, 27
helping philosophers of biology, 26–28
interdisciplinary society with philosophers of biology, 27
playing God, 4
population thinking, 4
biology
basic theory of molecular, 243–244
ethical implications, 532
future as research science, 532
genomics as explanatory methodology, 318
key terms in literature, 303
microevolution and macroevolution, 214–215
natural world, 525
nature of theory construction, 25–26
normality and abnormality, 457
origins of life studies, 266–267
philosophers of, taking, seriously, 26
questions of, and religion, 9
rapid growth, 531–532
role and status or teleology, 113–114
tension between mechanistic and teleological thinking, 115
Watson and Crick's and DNA structure, 238–239
Biology and Philosophy, journal, 27, 28–29
biology and religion
Abrahamic traditions, 558–564
anthropology, 547–548
arguments from design, 554–556
behavior and moral principles, 551–552
Buddhism, 557–558
challenges to physicalism, 562–564
Christianity, 558, 560–561
creation and divine purpose, 552–554
ethics, 549–552
extraterrestrial life, 564–565
“grace fulfilling nature,” 551
Hinduism, 557
intelligent design movement, 554–556
Islam, 558, 562
Judaism, 558, 559
life's history, 546–547
neuroscience and the soul, 556–564
normative ethics, 550
problem of evil, 553
theodicies, 553
biomedical genetics, race, 493, 497
biometrical arithmetic, Darwin's study of plant variation, 68
biosocial conservationism. See also conservationism
eliminativism, and metaphysics of race, 498–500
genetic disorders within race, 494–496
race in medicine, 479–480, 489
strictly social vs., 489–498
biotechnology
agricultural, revolution, 531–534
definition, 529–530
ethical implications, 533
ethical issues of agricultural, 537–540
human food chain, 9
influencing everyday life, 532
policy issues, 540–541
birds
ethology, 337
melanic moths, 47–48
birdsong, study of, 342–343
black‐box methods, science practice, 102
Blue Revolution, agricultural biotechnology, 530
boundary problems, origins of life studies, 267
brain. See also philosophy of neuroscience
cognitive deficits with, damage, 373–374
science of, 352–353, 374–375
brain scans, neuroethics, 561
branching, natural selection, 37
breeders
artificial selection, 34–35, 176
effective selection of domestic, 138–139
methodical selection, 527–528
shifting from theory to investigation, 252
(p. 624) Brentano's problem, intentionality, 382
broad‐sense evolutionary psychology, term, 411–412
Brownian‐motion process, assumptions, 101–102
β‐spectrin
cytoskeletal structure, 256
gene for, called unc‐70, 256–258
investigating role since DNA discovery, 258
neuronal defects in animals lacking, 257–258
possible functions in neurons, 257
role, 256
Buddhism, biology and religion, 557–558
butterflies, mimicry problem, 45
butterfly wings, eyespot patterns, 293
Capgras delusion, neuroscience, 365
catastrophes, evolvability, 157–158
Cathedral of Milan, metaphor, 608–609, 616–617
cats, comparative psychology, 335
causal theories, genomics, 319
causation, upward and downward, in hierarchical approach, 226–227, 230
chance
Darwin leaving natural selection to, 190–195
evolutionary definition, 229
Markov processes, 231–232
natural selection, 68
origin vs. perpetuation of variation, 203
relation of, and statistical laws, 19
variation in orchids, 191–193
cheat detection mechanism, signaling community, 445–446
Chomsky, N., language acquisition, 413–415
Christianity
biology‐religion, 558, 560–561
evolutionary theory, 9
“grace fulfilling nature,” 551
question of extraterrestrial life, 564–565
theodicy, 553
chromosomal level, transmission phenomena, 245–246
chronology, evolutionary development events and publications, 298 t, 299 t
chronospecies concept, 179
circularity, natural selection, 89
cladism, relationship between, and Darwinian evolution, 57
cladist approach, classification of organisms, 102
cladistic approach
justifying parsimony principle, 170
“pattern” or “transformed” cladistics, 170–171
taxonomy, 167–172
cladistics, theory, 57
cladistic species concept, 179
cloning, controversy, 563
coenzyme handle hypothesis, origins of life, 275–276
coevolution, gene‐culture, models, 426–427
cognition, animals, 340
cognitive ethology, animal behavior, 339–341
cognitive neuroscience, motivation for teleosemantics, 390–392
cognitive niche, human activity, 417
collaboration, big science projects, 6–7
common sense, perception and, 362–363
community ecology, balance of nature, 508–511
comparative analyses, evolutionary process assumptions in, 101–103
comparative data, testing adaptive hypotheses, 97
comparative method, detecting adaptation, 48
comparative psychology, animal behavior, 334–336
comparative test, testing adaptive hypotheses, 103
composite species concept, 179
computer science, genomics, 321, 324–325
conceptual role semantics, mental content, 389–390
conditioning, Pavlov's dogs, 394
consciousness, animal behavior, 339
conservationism
biomedical relevance of DNA polymorphisms, 493–494
biosocial, 479–480, 489
genetic disorders within race, 494–496
hypothesis claiming racial bias in medicine, 491–492
inter‐ and intra‐racial genetic variation, 496–497
Mendelian disorders, 494, 496
race, genetics, health, and disease, 492–498
race as variable in research, 479–480
race in biomedical genetics, 493
role of racism, 490–492
strictly social, 479–480, 489
strictly social, requiring biological unreality of race, 499
strictly social vs. biosocial, 489–498
(p. 625) consilience, Darwinian evolutionary theory, 57–59
constraints
Darwinian evolutionary theory, 59–60
trait transmission, 93
consumers, genetically modified foods, 539
contemplative knowledge, term, 458–459
content
intensional, 400
normativity of, 387–390
contingency
evolutionary outcomes, 207
macroevolution, 231
continuity principle, origins of life, 274–276
controversies
animals behavior, 343–344
continuing, in philosophy of biology, 28–29
“Two Evolutionary Theories,” 22
Convention on Biological Diversity, 536–537
convergence, evidence against contingency, 207
convergent evolution, suction feeding in Hymenochirus, 295–296
cooperation, role of learning in stabilizing, 440–441
core principles. See also philosophy of neuroscience
functional imaging, 355–356
functional localization, 354–355
neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), 356–357
receptive fields, 357–361
corn
artificial selection, 46–47
expressing Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin, 530–531
correspondence rules, species problem, 162, 184–185
Cosmides, L., evolutionary psychology, 418–422
creationism
biology‐religion, 546
and divine purpose, 552–554
essentialism, 174, 175
criminal incidents, statistics, 74
criminality, social problem, 76
crude causal theory, mental content, 390
cultural transmission, memetics, 424
culture
and evolution, 422–427
human behavior, 410–411
language acquisition, 413–415
notion of evoked, 423
psychological development, 412–413
reductionism and mechanism concerns, 583–584
transmission, 424–425
Cummins, Robert, approach to function, 24, 127
cystic fibrosis, genetic disorders and race, 494–496
cytology, transmission phenomena, 245
Darwin, Charles
animal behavior observations, 330–331, 333
believing God's perfection, 78
biometric arithmetic in study of plant variation, 68
bottom‐up approaches to grouping, 164
commitment to gradualism, 140
finches and beak size, 151–152, 293–294
God and creation, 194–195
leaving details to chance, 190–195
On the Origin of Species, 12, 34
orchid example, 191–193
philosophers assimilating, theory, 18–21
population ideas, 5
population thinking, 77–82
rejections of theory, 17–18
relationship between animals and plants, 527
sexual selection, 572
worries about reality of species, 176–177
Darwinian evolutionary theory
applying selection, 37–39
artificial selection, 34–35
biological teleology, 115
completing consilience, 57–59
constraints, 59–60
defense against critics, 3–4
detecting adaptation, 48–51
essentialist tradition and, 174–179
evidence, 45–48
extinction, 223–224
group selection, 51–54
natural selection, 35–37, 44–45
philosophical influences, 39–41
population genetics, 41–44
punctuated equilibrium, 54–56
Darwinism
macroevolution and, 232–234
relationship between cladism and, 57
triumph of variational thinking, 107
data
biology, 18, 30
philosophy of biology, 30–31
(p. 626) Dawkins, R.
evolution as lineage improving, 154
progress definition, 154–155
requiring overall upward trend, 156–157
death rates, internal causes, 79
debates, animals behavior, 343–344
decision making
environmental, 517–520
precautionary principle, 519–520
delusions, neuroscience, 364–366
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
basic theory of molecular biology, 243–244
β‐spectrin investigation since DNA discovery, 256–258
existence of gene, 315–317
polymorphisms, 493–494
powerful finding, 5–6
structure discovery transforming biological sciences, 238–239
“descent with modification,” Darwin terminology, 39
desires
beliefs secondary to, 397–399
teleosemantics, 397–398
determinism, 227–228
developmental evolution. See evolutionary development (evo‐devo)
developmental recombination, adaptive evolution, 130
developmental robustness
fitness, 421–422
innate/non‐innate distinction, 429
term, 303
development theory, biology, 30
“devgen‐popgen”. See evolutionary development (evo‐devo)
Dewey, John
Darwinian philosopher of science, 18, 20–21
pragmatism, 470–471, 472–473
difference principle, genetics, 242, 247
digestive system, frogs, 395–396
dinosaur, reverse engineering, 49
directed evolution, predetermined outcomes, 196
directionality of evolution, 196, 199–200
directionality rule, taxonomy, 166
direct selection, evolvability, 144
discipline, philosophy of biology as separate, 23–26
disease, race, 8–9, 492–498
disposition, evolvability, 141–142
dissociation, brain damage deficit, 373
disteleology, creation and divine purpose, 552–554
distributive justice, principles, 437–438
divergent change, taxonomy, 165–166
diversity, 162, 194
divine‐intervention explanation, rejection, 82
divine purpose, creation and, 552–554
division of labor, species problem, 162, 183–184
dogs, comparative psychology, 335
domestic breeders. See breeders
double dissociation, brain damage deficit, 373–374
downstream developmental niche construction, 427
Drosophila melanogaster
antireductionism, 246–247
classical genetics, 241–242
first crossover modifier CIIIA, 254
homeobox genes, 294
modifier CIIIB, 254
drug treatment, race response, 8–9
Earth, presuming life on, began on, 271
earth as steady‐state system, 17
ecofeminists, genetically modified foods, 9
ecological species concept, 178
ecology
agriculture, and environment, 535–537
background assumption, 507
balance of nature (1950–2000), 511–513
balance of nature in community (1859–1950), 508–511
debate about empiricism, role of theory, and model building, 516
debate about ontology of communities, 510–511
debates, 507–508
“dynamic ecology,” 509–510
“economy” and “balance” of nature, 509
ecosystem, 511–513
environmental decision making, 517–520
environmental ethicists, 513
idea of balance of nature, 506–513
individual‐ vs. population‐level models, 515
interactions of organisms and environments, 504–506
measures of stability, 513
mechanistic vs. experimental approach, 517
method categories, 505
methodological challenges for, 514–517
notion of “balance of nature,” 507
notion of stability, 512
philosophy of life, 9
(p. 627)
regulation of population sizes, 511
social and political significance, 505
strategies of model building in population, 515–516
superorganismic view, 510
term, 504
theory‐as‐tools, 517
theory of plant community, 509–510
ecosystem, ecology, 511–513
efficient cause, Aristotle, 13
eliminativism
biosocial conservationism, and metaphysics of race, 498–500
biological reality/lack of race, 484–486
downplaying differences among races, 488
ecological race concept, 485
genetic and anthropometric data, 484–485
objections, 480
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) statistical policy directive, 482
OMB guidelines, 482–483
opposing race as variable in research, 479
race as social construct, 499
race as surrogate variable, 486–488
races as broad categories, 487–488
reliability of race data statistics, 481–484
reliability problems, 483
requiring biological unreality of race, 499–500
uncertainty over extension of “race,” 481
validity of biological race concept, 485–486
ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications) program, Human Genome Project, 8
embryology
artificial selection, 35
evolutionary development, 58
mallard ducks, 294–295
natural selection across, 38
semantic view of theories, 39
emergence, macroevolution, 221–223
emotion, animal behavior, 340–341
empirical evidence, rhetorical device, 611–612
enforcement
moral norms, 441–444
signals to community, 445–446
ensemble test, adaptationism, 106–108
environment
agriculture, ecology, and, 535–537
ecology and, decision making, 517–520
ethicists, 513
evolvability as disposition relative to, 141–142
environmental changes
accident or chance, 190
variation in orchids, 191–193
environmental dilemmas, problems, 518
environmental risks, transgene organism lineages, 536
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), evolutionary psychology, 419, 421
epistemic analysis, feminists, 579–580
epistemology
evolutionary biology, 8
evolvability, 142
neuroscience, 364–366
equilibrium, theory‐neutral, 9
essentialism
contrasting population thinking with, 72–73
principle, 18
property interpretation, 174–175
species as homeostatic property clusters, 181
view, 12
“essentialism story,” evolutionary development, 300
essentialists, explaining variation in nature, 66
essentialist tradition, and Darwinian challenge, 174–179
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI)
biotechnology, 533
Human Genome Project, 451–454
rescuing, 471–473
ethical implications, 532, 533
ethical inquiry, “upstream” and “downstream,” 453–454
ethical issues, agriculture and agricultural biotechnology, 537–540
ethical questions, origins of life studies, 267
ethical realism, cognition and morality, 550
ethics
biology and religion, 549–552
evolutionary biology, 8
neuroscience, 367–369
ethnic drugs
BiDil, 466, 468–469
development, 465–466
ethology
classical, of animal behavior, 337–339
cognitive, of animal behavior, 339–341
description, 337
eugenics
defining, 455–456
human genetics vs., 457
and Human Genome Project, 454–458
scientific explanation, 464
(p. 628) European peppered moths, dynamics of evolvability, 148–149
evidence, Darwin theory lacking, 45–48
evil, creation and divine purpose, 553
evoked culture, notion, 423
evolution. See also macroevolution
culture and, 422–427
Darwin never using term, 39
directed, 196
impact on religious commitment, 549–550
irrelevant, 412–415
language acquisition, 413–415
macroevolution central to, theory, 212
sociobiology, 7–8
evolutionary biologists
debate over adaptationism, 104
history and development of organisms, 5
making ensemble claims, 107–108
evolutionary biology
approaches to classification of organisms, 102–103
correcting for phylogeny, 98–99
ensemble test of adaptationism, 107
function ascription, 125–128
language or rhetoric of science, 10
optimality models, 95
process and outcome, 87–88
evolutionary contingency, actual vs. theoretical, 207
evolutionary development (evo‐devo)
alternative approach to prehistory and history, 300–301, 302 f
beak size variation in Darwin's finches, 293–294
biology in evolutionary context, 292
bordering old and new, 6
contemporary biological inquiry, 291
convergent evolution in suction feeding in Hymenochirus, 295–296
“devgen‐popgen” name, 292
embryology, 58
embryonic experience in mallard ducks, 294–295
eyespot patterns on butterfly wings, 293
future of, 304–305
history and historiography, 297–301
homeobox genes and body plan evolution, 294
key terms in biological literature, 303
philosophy of, 302–304
same as “devo‐evo,” 291–292
selective chronology of key events and publications, 298 t, 299 t
sociological issues, 296–297
standard view of ontogeny of, 300, 301 f
synthesis historiography, 300
evolutionary evidence, nature of, 97–98
evolutionary fatalism, danger, 201
evolutionary forces, flower morphology, 88–89
evolutionary game theory, moral norms, 435–436
evolutionary jumps, macroevolution, 216
evolutionary opportunism, 196–201
evolutionary outcomes, unpredictability of, 189, 204–206
evolutionary processes
assumptions in comparative analyses, 101–103
cultural change and genetic change, 426
evolutionary progress, evolvability and, 153–158
evolutionary psychology
developmental robustness, 421–422
environment of evolutionary adaptedness, 419, 421
focusing on psychological mechanisms, 418–419
genetic adaptations during Pleistocene, 419–420, 422
human sociobiology, 52
innateness, 427–429
label, 411–412
sociobiology, 8
evolutionary species concept, 179, 185
evolutionary stochasticity, random drift, 205
evolutionary theory, human behavior, 410–411
evolutionists, work in 1930s and decades after, 46
evolution of evolvability, future success, 4–5
evolution of species, Aristotle, 14
evolvability
catastrophes, 157–158
Darwin on, 138–140
disposition, 141–142
dynamics, 148–149
effective selection in asexual populations, 144f
effective selection in sexually producing organisms, 145
European peppered moths, 148–149
evolutionary progress, 153–158
finch species and trait values, 151–152
heat‐shock protein Hsp 90, 149–150, 152
Hoyle challenge, 154
(p. 629)
long‐term progress in evolution, 153–158
metaphysics of, 141–142
modularity and selection, 143–148
molecular information building blocks, 146–147
natural selection, 145–146
new selective explanation, 150–153
organisms, 129
outcome of raffles, 151–152
term, 303
visual perception system, 139, 147–148
exaptations, lacking adaptive value, 55, 231
existence of God, Darwin, 78
explanation
and mechanism, 371–372
reduction and levels of, 370–371
teleology, 113, 114
explanatory autonomy, goal‐directedness, 123
explanatory force, concept, 303
explanatory reductionism, 584–585
explanatory relevance, concept, 303
extinction
background, 225
current macroevolutionary interest, 224–226
Darwin and, 223–224
Darwin and population thinking, 77–80
fossil records, 227
hierarchical analysis recasting, 212–213
mass, 225–226
population regularities, 71–72
extrapolationist approach, microevolution to macroevolution, 214–215
extraterrestrial life, question of, 564–565
extreme biology, origins of life studies, 266
extrinsic teleology, Plato, 118
eye, evolvability, 139, 147–148
eye color
antireductionism, 246–247
Drosophila melanogaster, 241–242
genomics research, 321, 323
eyespot patterns, butterfly wings, 293
facultative adaptations, genetic, 415–415
falsity, truth and, of evolutionary assumptions, 101
“feebleminded,” eugenics, 456–457
feminist movement
biological determinism, 581–582
philosophy of science and biology, 9–10
feminist philosophy of biology
arguments supporting oppression of women, 571–572
benefits of nonreductive mechanism, 588–590
bias paradox, 579
biological determinism, 581–582
case study of behavioral sex differences, 586–588
categories, 570
causal mechanical explanation, 585
controlling for gender bias, 575, 578
cultural and historical concerns, 583–584
damaging gender stereotypes, 573–574
Darwin and sexual selection, 572
eager males and choosy females, 573
epistemic analysis, 579–580
evolutionary benefit of sex for females in fertilization, 578
explanatory reductionism, 584–585
good and bad bias, 579–580
higher education and women, 573
history of biological claims, 572–574
interactionist model, 587–588
linear hormonal model, 586–587
mechanistic explanation from biological perspective, 585–586
methodological and epistemological concerns, 582–583
methodological reductionism, 585
motivation of feminists in field, 571
nonreductive causal mechanical explanation, 585
ontological reductionism, 584
reductionism and mechanism, 581–590
sexism and androcentrism, 574–575
sexual selection and parental investment, 575–577
stereotypical gender norms, 571–572
variance in male and female reproductive success, 577
field biologists, natural selection affecting traits, 90–91
fig wasps, optimality models, 50–51
final cause, 4, 13, 15, 49
finches
trait values of, in Galapagos, 151–152
variation in beak size in Darwin's, 293–294
fish, ethology, 337
Fisher, R. A.
natural selection, 82–83
population genetics, 41, 43
fitness
developmental robustness, 421–422
environment, 418
flower size, natural selection influencing, 88
(p. 630) food safety, agricultural biotechnology, 537–538
formal cause, 13
fossil records
calls for analysis of macroevolution patterns, 215
extinction, 227
large‐scale changes, 81
macroevolution, 217–219
randomly generated phylogenetic lineages, 228
titanothere, 196
founder effect, macroevolution, 218–219
frogs
automata–reflex‐driven machines, 331
convergent evolution of suction feeding, 295–296
digestive system, 395–396
fruit flies, 47, 241–242
function, notions of, 24
functional analysis, taxonomy, 166
functional imaging, neuroscience, 355–356, 368
functional indeterminacy, mental content, 399–402
functionalism, and functional roles, 384–385
functional localization, neuroscience, 354–355
functional magnetic resonance imaging, neuroscience, 355, 368
functional roles, functionalism and, 384–385
function ascription, evolutionary biology, 125–128
Galton, Francis, statistical thinker, 66, 67–68, 70
game theory, 435–436, 438
gaps, origins of life, 278–279
Gaussian distribution, population thinking, 67–68
gender bias. See also feminist philosophy of biology
epistemic analysis, 579–580
feminist work, 574–575, 578
genealogical concordance concept, 178
gene‐culture coevolution, models, 426–427
generative entrenchment, concept, 304
genes
existence of, 315–317
future of evolutionary development, 304–305
genomics research of, for blue eye color, 323
Genesis, concept of race, 8
genetic accommodation, adaptive evolution, 130
genetic adaptations
ascertaining, 416–417
“biological refractoriness,” 416
facultative, 415–416
innate/non‐innate distinction, 429
Pleistocene, 419–420, 422
trait, 415
genetically modified foods, 9, 539–540
genetically modified organisms, 536
genetic approach, investigating biological processes, 255–256
genetic constraints, trait transmission, 93
genetic drift, 5, 44–45, 90
“genetic error,” concept, 453
“geneticization,” 460–461, 464
“genetic lesion,” concept, 453
genetics
antireductionism, 244
basic theory of classical, 241–242
before Watson and Crick, 239
β‐spectrin investigation, 256–258
difference principle, 242
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), 241–242, 254
integration of explanatory and investigative reasoning, 253–255
investigating biological processes, 255–256
layer‐cake antireductionism, 240
macroevolution, 217–219
meiosis, 254–255
philosophical accounts of classical, 253
problem with theoretical reductionism, 248–249
race, health, and disease, 492–498
retooling, 256–258
shifting to investigation, 252
theoretical reductionism, 239–240
genetic transmission, biological evolution, 425
genome annotation, 312
genome size, evolutionary development, 58–59
genomics
accentuating the positive, 314
barometer example, 322–323
biased survey, 318–321
“bridge law,” 315
causal explanation and, 318–323
computer science, 321, 324–325
current approach to, 311–313
existence of gene, 315–317
genes for blue eye color, 323
“genome annotation,” 312
heredity example, 323
Human Genome Project, 310, 311–312
identification of causes, 319
information and explanation, 321–323
major research projects within, 310–311
(p. 631)
“Mendelian gene,” 315
molecular structure of DNA, 315
subsumption under laws, 318–319
subsystems approach, 312–313
tree of life hypothesis, 313
unification theory of explanation, 319–321
“wet lab” techniques, 312
genotype‐phenotype map, molecular information building blocks, 147
genotypic cluster concept, 178
global frameworks, neuroscience, 351
goal‐directedness
adaptive evolution, 132
intrinsic property of system, 119–121
organism, 131–132
teleology, 122–125
God, Darwin, 78, 194–195
God's design, 190, 208
Gould, S. J. See also rhetoric
replaying life's tape, 202–208
gradualism, Darwin's commitment, 140
Greek approach, animal behavior, 329
Green Revolution, 530, 538
Grene, Marjorie
controversial publication, 22–23
Library of Living Philosophers, 28
Gricean analysis, intentional mental states, 383
grim trigger
punishing strategy, 443
strategy, 439
group selection
ant species in direction of sociality, 53
benefits of individual over, 51–54
evolution of altruism, 439
female hymenoptera producing offspring, 52
kin selection, 53
selfish gene theory, 53
sexuality and shuffling of genes, 53–54
Haldane, J. B. S., Woodger controversy with, 22
Hardy‐Weinberg law, key law of stability, 42–43
health
race, genetics, and disease, 492–498
race response, 8–9
health and disease, racism, 490–492
heat‐shock protein Hsp 90
adaptivity at lineage level, 151
dynamic evolvability, 149–150
selection, 152
heredity, example of genomics study, 323
heredity theory, Aristotle, 66
Herschel, John, philosophy of science, 15–16
heuristic principles
actualism, 274–276
continuity, 274–276
current utility, 277–278
definitions and criteria, 273
microreversibility, 274–276
multiplicity of approaches, 276–277
origins of life studies, 273–278
hierarchical analysis
causal interactions between levels, 228, 229–230
life and causal implications, 226–232
macroevolution, 228f
recasting extinction, 212–213
Hinduism, biology and religion, 557
historiography
history and, of evolutionary development, 297–301
origins of life hypothesis, 268
science‐religion interactions, 546–547
history, reductionism and mechanism concerns, 583–584
history of philosophy of biology
Aristotle, 11–12, 13–14, 30
biologists and philosophy of biology, 26–28
continuing controversies, 28–29
development systems theory, 30
early nineteenth century, 15–18
Hull as father of modern, 3
late nineteenth century, 18–21
need to simplify, 12–13
rise as separate discipline, 23–26
rise of, 21–23
species as individuals vs. classes, 29–30
terminology problems, 12
understanding selection, 30
history of science, problems in, 12–13
homeobox genes, and body plan evolution, 294
homology, term, 303
homology rule, taxonomy, 166
horns, antelopes, 198–199
hoverfly, mate detection system of male, 396
Hoyle challenge, misunderstanding natural selection, 154
Hull, David, father of modern philosophy of biology, 3
human behavior
evolutionary theory, 410–411
innateness, 427–429
language acquisition, 413–415
learning and reasoning, 412
nature vs. nurture, 457–458
(p. 632) human behavioral ecology, birth, 416
human empowerment, science and technology, 462
human food chain, biotechnology, 9
human genetics
“solid” science, 454–455
vs. eugenics, 457
Human Genome Project
big science, 6, 108
cost, 451
Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI), 451–454
ethical and social questions, 8
eugenics and, 454–458
genomics field, 310, 311–312
human nature
Christianity, 560
Judaism, 559
population phenomenon, 74–75
“psychic unity of humankind,” 428
human sociobiology, 8, 52
human stem cells, controversy, 563
Hymenochirus
convergent evolution of suction feeding, 295–296
model organism, 304
hymenoptera producing offspring, 52
hypothetical necessity, Aristotle, 121, 124
hypothetico‐deductive picture, theoretical ideal, 40
illusion, Muller–Lyer, 387–388
immanent teleology
Aristotle, 118–121
naturalized, 122
indeterminacy, problem of content, 399–400
indicator teleosemantics
neural signals vs. natural signals, 392–393
notion of indication, 393–394
individual
benefit of, vs. group, 51–54
species as lineages and, 180, 186
uniqueness of each, 65
induction, characterizing science, 15
inference, neuroscience, 372–374
information processing, normativity, 392
inheritance
acquired characteristics, 36
biological evolution of channels, 425
cultural, 425–426
term, 303
innateness
“homeostatic property cluster,” 428
innate/non‐innate distinction, 429
“i‐properties,” 428–429
innovation, term, 303
insects, 47, 337
instinct
animal behavior, 332, 333
animal learning vs., 338
intelligence, behavioral genetics, 462–464
intelligent design
arguments from design, 554–556
biology‐religion, 546
evolutionary theory criticism, 140
intelligent direction, 16
intentionality
Aristotle's concept of teleology, 119–120
biological perspective, 7
“Brentano's problem,” 382
problem of, 382–384
Swampman, 403, 405–406
teleological antinaturalism, 116–117
interactionist model, behavioral sex differences, 587–588
interbreeding, biological species concept, 177
interdisciplinary society, biologists and philosophers of biology, 27
interfield theories, nature of construction, 25–26
internodal species concept, 179
invisible hand, analogy between natural selection and, 83–84
Islam, 553, 558, 562
island biogeography, macroevolution, 218, 219
isolating mechanisms, biological species concept, 177
James, William, Darwinian philosopher of science, 18, 20–21
Jevons, William Stanley, 18, 19–20
jobs, motivations for philosophy of science, 350
journalism, Biology and Philosophy, 27, 28–29
Judaism, 553, 558, 559
kin selection, prisoner's dilemma, 438–440
Kitcher, Philip, theory construction, 25, 26
knowledge
“geneticization,” 460–461
importance of, 459
theoretical, preceding action, 459–460
theoretical to practical, 461
types, 458–459
(p. 633) labeling
agricultural biotechnology, 537
genetically modified food, 539–540
policy issue, 540
Lamarckism, paleontology endorsing, 54–55
language, evolution, 414–415
language acquisition
theory, 413–415
universal grammar, 413–414
language of science, metaphors, 10
layer‐cake antireductionism. See also antireductionism; genetics
arguments against, 246–248
biological explanation, 246
central theory of classical genetics, 244
DNA‐based theory at bottom of cake, 251
explaining transmission phenomena, 245–246
extending layer‐cake image, 246
meiosis, 247–248
unconnectable tiers of theory, 244–245
learning
animal instinct vs., 338
comparative psychology in animals, 335–336
human behavior, 412
l'homme moyen, population thinking, 67–68
life on Earth, presuming, began on Earth, 271
likelihood methods, 171 f, 172
linear hormonal model, behavioral sex differences, 586–587
Linnaeus, classifying by traits, 163–164
Lyell, Charles, 15, 17
macaque monkey
mirror neurons, 363–364
neurons' responses to stimuli, 360
macroevolution
central concern in evolutionary theory, 212
and Darwinism, 232–234
Darwin's phenomenon of divergence, 213–214
definitions over years, 212
empirical basis for, 217–219
genetics, fossil record, and biogeography, 217–219
hierarchical analysis recasting extinction, 212–213
hierarchical view of life, 226–232
history of term, 213–216
microevolution and, 5
microevolutionary processes and, 214
operative definition, 217
patterns and processes, 216–223
philosophical questions, 211–212
punctuated equilibrium, 212, 214
punctuational model, species selection and emergence, 220–223
term, 211
varieties of, 216–217
macroevolutionary patterns, 228–229
magnetosomes, indicator teleosemantics, 393–394
maize, artificial selection, 46–47
mallard ducks, embryonic experience in, 294–295
Malthus
extinction, 78
population growth theory, 79–80
Markov process, chance events, 231–232
Marxist materialism, practice over theory, 469–471
mass extinctions
biodiversity, 225–226
causal interactions, 230
nonselective mechanism, 225
survivorship after, 225
“master control” genes, term, 303
material cause, Aristotle, 13
mathematical ecology, 411
maximum likelihood tree, 171 f, 172
Mayr, Ernst
natural selection, 69–70
population mean, 70
population thinking, 64–65
reality of individual, 70–71
mechanical world, teleology, 114
medicine, normality and abnormality, 457
meme fitness, culture, 424
memetics, genetic transmission and, 424
memory, animal behavior, 332, 333–334
Mendel, Gregor, theory of heredity, 41
Mendelian disorders, biosocial conservationism, 494, 496, 497
mental content
conceptual role semantics (CRS), 389–390
consumer‐based teleosemantics, 395–397
crude causal theory (CCT), 390
desire‐first teleosemantics, 397–399
functional indeterminacy, 399–402
functionalism and functional roles, 384–385
indicator teleosemantics, 392–394
Millikan's theory, 395–397
normativity, 387–390
problem of intentionality, 382–384
scientific integration, 390–392
(p. 634)
Swampman, 402–406
teleofunctionalism and teleofunctions, 385–387
mental states
animal behavior, 334
functional roles, 384–385
thought, 383
messenger ribonucleic acid, 243
metaphors
Aristotle, 613
Cathedral of Milan, 608–609, 616–617
design in biology, 49
language of science, 10
natural selection, 36
replaying life, 205
rhetoric in spandrels of San Marco and Cathedral of Milan, 606–607
rhetoric using, 596–597, 612
tree of life, 37
metaphysical theory, population thinking, 64–65
metaphysics
evolvability, 141–142
neuroscience, 366–367
race, 498–500
methodological doctrine, population thinking, 71–73
methodological reductionism, 585
microevolution
macroevolution and, 5
macroevolution decoupling from, 226–227
macroevolution relation to, 214
microreversibility principle, origins of life, 274–276
Mill, John Stuart, 15, 17, 18
Millikan's theory, mental content, 395–397
mimicry problem, butterflies, 45
mind
biological perspective, 7
current humans, 412
philosophy of, 362–363
reading, 363
mirror neurons, philosophy of psychology, 363–364
models
evolution of modularity, 145
gene‐culture coevolution, 426–427
optimality models, 50–51
optimizing adaptive values, 4
population ecology, 515–517
structured or individual‐based population ecology, 515
modularity
model of evolution of, 145
and selection for evolvability, 143–148
term, 303
modular system, evolvability, 143
molecular biology, basic theory, 243–244
molecular information building blocks, 146–147
molecular revolution, biology and medicine, 451–452
monism, species problem, 181, 182
monkeys, 360, 363–364
monophyletic grouping, taxonomy, 167
monothematic delusions, neuroscience, 365
monsters, deviations from natural reproduction, 66
moral norms
altruism, 436, 551
behavior in accord with, 435–441
cheating and enforcement behavior, 445–446
enforcement and punishment, 441–444
game theory, 435–436
moral signals, 444–446
prisoner's dilemma, 436, 437, 438–441, 443
rules of morality, 434
stages of emergence, 434–435
moral principles, 551–552
morphological species concept, 178
morphology, study vs. behavior, 51
moths
evolvability and adaptivity of, with high melanin, 148–149
predator birds and melanic, 47–48
motivations, determining philosophy of science, 350
Muller–Lyer illusion, 387–388
mutagenesis, controlling evolution, 461
mutation
highly adaptive organisms, 139–140
nucleotide sequences in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), 243–244
population size, 139, 205
power, 461
Nagel, Thomas, model of theoretical reduction, 248–249
narrowing gaps, origins of life, 272–273, 278–279
narrow‐sense evolutionary psychology, 411–412, 418, 428
Nash equilibria, 436, 437
naturalism, philosophical turn to, 7
natural law, conflicting with doctrine of free will, 74
natural science, understanding, 370–374
(p. 635) natural selection
across biological disciplines, 37–38
adaptationism as possible conclusion, 105–106
analogy between, and invisible hand, 83–84
branching, 37
causal side of evolution, 35–37
chance, 68
change, 37
claims, 88–92
Darwin vs. modern, 82–83
evolvability, 145–146
Gould and hardening of evolutionary synthesis, 203
Hoyle challenge, 154
important influence on trait evolution, 90–91
influencing trait's evolution, 88–89
most important influence on trait evolution, 91–92
observations for insects, 47
power and weakness, 89
role in population genetics, 42
sexual selection, 36–37
struggle for existence, 36
“survival of the fittest,” 44
unpredictability of evolution, 189
natural signs, indicator teleosemantics, 392–393
nature of species, 17
nature vs. nurture
debate, 462–463
human behavior, 457–458
Nazism, eugenics, 456
neo‐Darwinian view
gradualism and punctuated equilibria (PE), 614
models of selection, 233
opinions against PE theory, 610
taxonomic understanding, 216–217
neo‐Gricean analysis, mental representation, 383
nervous system, brain and, 349
neural correlates of consciousness, 356–357
neural signals, indicator teleosemantics, 392–393
neuroethics, brain scans, 561
neurophilosophers, 349–350
neuroscience
Abrahamic traditions, 558–564
Buddhism, 557–558
challenges to physicalism, 562–564
Christianity, 558, 560–561
cognitive, bridging natural and interpretative sciences, 390–392
Hinduism, 557
Islam, 558, 562
Judaism, 558, 559
and the soul, 556–564
tension between psychology and, 371
Newton, Sir Isaac, 15, 78
niche construction
downstream developmental, 427
human activity, 417
no‐evolved‐constraints view
evolutionary psychology, 413, 414
human mind, 427
nonactuality, 116, 119
nonconstructive selectivity, extinction, 225
nonreductive mechanism, benefits of, 588–590
“normal gene,” concept, 453
normative ethics, religion, 550
normative function
notion of, 385–386
Swampbunny and Swampman, 403, 404–405
normative influence, 103–104
normativity
Aristotle's concept of teleology, 120–121
motivation for teleosemantics, 387–390
teleological antinaturalism, 117
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
racial and ethnic data in clinical trials, 466
racial self‐identification, 482–483
statistical policy directive, 482
On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin, 34
ontological reductionism, 584
ontology, biological systematics, 161–162
operational concepts, species, 184–185
opportunism, definition, 197
oppression of women, arguments supporting, 571–572
optimality models
detecting adaptation, 50–51
natural selection as trait explanation, 105–106
playing God, 50
qualitative and quantitative testing of, 93–96
sex ratios, 92, 94, 96
testing adaptive hypotheses, 103
trait expression, 92–93
orchids, Darwin and chance variation, 191–193
organisms
capacities, 115
history and development, 5
plasticity, 129, 131
(p. 636)
systematic patterns, 38
teleology in organismal biology, 128–132
origins of life studies
advances since Darwin, 266–267
analysis by philosophers, 6
big questions, 263
biology of modern living things, 267
boundary problems, 267
bringing sciences together, 264–265
broad questions for philosophical work, 266
combining theoretical, empirical, and conceptual insights, 269–270
continuity, microreversibility, actualism, 274–276
diverse subject matter, 269
diverse theories and principles, 265
heuristic principles, 273–278
historiographic hypothesis, 268
history of Western scientific study of, 267–268
integrating empirical and theoretical results, 268–269
misleading to pigeonhole researchers, 265
narrowing gaps, 278–279
phylogenetic inference and, 282–284
RNA world hypothesis, 279–282
specialized scientists, 263–264
time for philosophers of biology, 264, 267
time window, 270–273
orthogenesis, predetermined outcomes, 196
ought/normative requirement, teleology, 120–121
outgroup rule, taxonomy, 170
paleontology, 54–55
paleospecies concept, 179
Paley, William, products of design, 190
paraphyletic groupings, taxonomy, 167
parasitic wasps, 170–172
parental investment, males and females, 575–577
parsimony principle, taxonomy, 170
parsimony tree, parasitic wasps, 170, 171 f
pattern cladistics, cladism version, 170–171
Pavlov's dogs, time‐invariant indicator, 394
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 18, 20
pendentives, 55
perception, Muller–Lyer illusion, 387–388
pharmacogenetics, classification, 467–468
pharmacogenetics/genomics, ethnic drug, 465–466
phenetic distance, taxonomy, 166
pheneticists, taxonomy, 166
phenetic species concept, 178
phenomenal consciousness, Swampman, 406
phenotypic accommodation, 129
phenotypic repertoire, plasticity of organisms, 130
philosophers of biology
analysis of origin of life, 6
biologists helping, 26–28
implications for social issues, 3
origins of life study, 264, 266, 267
second generation, 25–26
Woodger as one of earliest, 21–23
philosophical influences, Darwin, 39–41
philosophy
evolutionary biology, 8
evolutionary development (evo‐devo), 302–304
philosophy of biology. See also feminist philosophy of biology; history of philosophy of biology
feminist and nonfeminist, 570–571
normative influence of, 103–104
past and future, 108–109
well‐established discipline, 11
philosophy of mind, perception and action, 362–363
philosophy of neuroscience
aesthetics, 369–370
association, 373
beliefs, 364, 365
brain and brain science, 352–353, 374–375
Capgras delusion, 365
core concepts, 353–361
dissociation, 373
double dissociation, 373–374
epistemology, 364–366
ethics, 367–369
explanation and mechanism, 371–372
fields studying brain and nervous system, 349–351
functional brain imaging, 355–356
functional localization, 354–355
functional magnetic resonance imaging, 355, 368
global frameworks, 351
inference in, 372–374
macaque monkeys, 360
metaphysics, 366–367
monothematic delusions, 365
neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), 356–357
neurophilosophers, 349–350
philosophical questions, 361–370
(p. 637)
philosophy of mind, 362–363
philosophy of psychology, 363–364
physicalism and computationalism, 351
projective fields, 358
psychiatric delusions, 364–365
receptive fields, 357–361
reduction and levels of explanation, 370–371
trolley problem, 367–368
understanding natural science, 370–374
understanding shape of, 351–353
visual neurophysiology, 359–360
philosophy of science, 15, 17
philosophy of science and biology, feminist, 9–10
photo pigments, evolvability, 147–148
phyletic gradualism, term, 616
phylogenetic inertia, ancestral influence, 98–99
phylogenetic inference, 282–284
phylogenetic species concept, 179
phylogenetic systematics, taxonomy, 167–172
phylogeny, correcting for, 98–99
physicalism, challenges to, 562–564
physical niche, human activity, 417
physical sciences, funding favoring, 531
physics, philosophy of science, 17
plasticity, 129, 131, 132
Plato, 118, 596
Pleistocene, genetic adaptations, 419–420, 422
pluralism, species problem, 181–183
polarity rule, taxonomy, 166
policy issues, agricultural biotechnology, 540
polyphyletic groupings, 167
polythetic species concept, 178
Popper, Karl, natural selection criticism, 44–45
population biology, 411
population geneticists, natural selection, 90–91
population genetics
disturbing forces, 43
extension of Mendelism, 41–42
Hardy–Weinberg law, 42–43
role and place of natural selection, 42
theory of heredity, 41
population genetic theory, 517
population growth
limited resources, 80–81
Malthusian theory, 79–80
population phenomena
history, 73–77
multiple causes, 81
sex‐ratio skew, 74, 76
population phenomenon, regularities, 71–72
populations, Darwin's ideas, 5
population size
chance of preferred mutation, 139
mutations, 205
population thinking
analogy between natural selection and invisible hand, 83–84
average man, 67–68
biologists, 4
“chance” describing natural selection, 68
Darwin and, 77–82
essentialism vs., 72–73
extinction, 77–80
Gaussian or bell‐shaped curves, 67–68
interventionalist and noninterventionalist teleology, 78–79
metaphysical theory, 64–65
metaphysical thesis, 64–71
methodological doctrine, 71–73
natural law and free will, 74–77
natural selection, 82–83
phrase, 64
population growth theory, 79–80
population phenomena, 73–77, 81
reality of individual, 70–71
rejecting divine‐intervention explanation, 82
statistical thinkers, 66–71
versions of natural selection, 69–70
positivism, scientific facts and ethical values, 459
possible conclusion, adaptationism as, 105–106
potentials, future success, 4–5
power, natural selection, 89
practical knowledge, term, 458–459
practice of science, new vs. old, 100
pragmatism
categories of DNA difference, 467
practice over theory, 469–471
scientific categories of difference, 468
precautionary principle, decision making, 519–520
predator birds, melanic moths, 47–48
prehistory, evolutionary development, 298–301, 302f
primates, testicle size adaptation, 48
prisoner's dilemma
evolutionary stability of altruism, 436
grim trigger, 443
kin selection, 438–440
name, 437
repeated interactions, 439
probabilistic disposition, evolvability, 142
productive knowledge, term, 458–459
propagation rates, war over resources, 79–80
property conception, essentialism, 174–175
(p. 638) “psychic unity of humankind,” human nature, 428
psychological mechanisms
behaviors and environments, 417–418
evolutionary psychology, 418–419
genes and environment, 420–421
psychology
philosophy of, 363–364
tension between, and neuroscience, 371
pulmonate snail, 611–612
punctuated equilibria (PE). See also rhetoric
controversy, 615–616
Darwinian evolutionary theory, 54–56
discrediting phyletic gradualism, 601–602
macroevolution, 212, 214, 220–221, 223
persuading incorrect interpretation of fossil record, 600
persuading superior features of PE theory, 602–605
rhetorical tools and strategies by Gould during PE controversy, 609–615
rhetoric at emergence of theory of, 599–605
saltationist theory, 613
theory, 55, 595
punctuational model, evolutionary biology, 228
punishment, moral norms, 441–444
qualitative testing, optimality models, 93–96
quantitative accuracy, optimality models, 94, 95
quasi‐independence, adaptive evolution, 143
Quetelet, Adolphe, probability theory application, 67–68, 70
race
biological unreality of, 499–500
concept, 8
genetics, health and disease, 492–498
health, disease, and drug treatment, 8–9
racial self‐identification, 482–483
surrogate variable, 486–488
uncertainty over extension of, 481
race in medicine
biological race concept, 484–486, 498
biosocial conservationism, 479–480, 489
collecting and reporting data differences, 478–479
conservationism, 479–480
eliminativism, 479, 480–489
eliminativism, biosocial conservationism, and metaphysics of race, 498–500
race, genetics, health, and disease, 492–498
race as surrogate variable, 486–488
strictly social conservationism, 479–480, 489
strictly social vs. biosocial conservationism, 489–498
tissue matches for transplants, 478
raffles, outcome process, 151–152
random, definitions, 228, 229
random drift, 204–206
reality of individual, population thinking, 70–71
reasoning, 4, 412
receptive fields, neuroscientific concept, 357–361
recognition species concept, 177
reduction
and levels of explanation, 370–371
reductionists and antireductionists, 563
reductionism
cultural and historical concerns, 583–584
explanatory, 584–585
mechanistic, 581
methodological, 585
methodological and epistemological concerns, 582–583
ontological, 584
reference
conceptual role semantics, 389–390
crude causal theory, 390
reflexes, physiology of animal, 331–332
“reform eugenics” movement, human genetics, 454
religion. See also biology and religion
evolutionary theory and religious belief, 545–556
questions of biology and, 9
reproductive communities, biological species concept, 177
research funding, physical science, 531
research problem agendas, concept, 304
resources, population growth, 80–81
reverse engineering, detecting adaptation, 48–50
rhetoric
Aristotle, 596–597
defining and discrediting adaptationists, 607–608
description, 596–599
discrediting competing theory, 601–602
emergence of theory of punctuated equilibria (PE), 599–605
metaphor of Cathedral of Milan, 608–609
persuading incorrect interpretation of fossil record, 600
persuading superior features of new theory, 602–605
Plato, 596
(p. 639)
scientific controversies and social function of, 597–598
spandrels of San Marco and Cathedral of Milan, 606–609
study of, in science, 595–596
study of how scientists argue, 598
threatening dissenters, 608
tools and strategies by Gould and PE theory, 609–615
use of metaphors, 596–597
using metaphors and analogies, 606–607
ribonucleic acid (RNA), molecular biology, 243
ribosomal RNA replication hypothesis, origins of life, 275–276
risk assessment, agricultural biotechnology, 538–539
river rafting, decision making, 518–519
RNA world hypothesis
basic story, 280
extension of genetic view of life, 281–282
origins of life, 279–282
Rosenberg, Alex, theory construction, 25–26
rules of morality, norms, 434
saltationism
macroevolution, 216
paleontology endorsing, 54, 55
punctuated equilibria, 613
San Marco's Cathedral, metaphor of spandrels, 596, 607, 608–609
Schindewolf, O. H.
new species, 22–23, 234
view of macroevolution, 215
science
contracting natural, and practical, 465
rhetoric in, 595–596
science and technology, policy issues, 540–541
scientific explanations, genomics research, 321–323
scientific integration, teleosemantics, 390–392
scientific progress
new vs. old theories, 99–100
truth‐seeking, 100–101
scientific study, history of, of life's origins, 267–268
seal's flipper, natural selection influencing trait, 91–92
second generation, philosophers of biology, 25–26
selected effect analysis, notion of function, 386
selection
evolvability at lineage level, 144–145
extensional, 400
fruit flies around wineries, 47
modularity and, for evolvability, 143–148
natural teleofunction, 400
neo‐Darwinian models of, 233
new evolvability explanation, 150–153
selfish gene theory, group selection, 53
“self‐organizing,” nature, 59
self‐sacrificing behavior, puzzle, 436
semantic view of theories, Darwin, 39–40
sense, conceptual role semantics, 389
sex ratio, optimality, 92, 94, 96
sex‐ratio skew, population phenomenon, 74, 76
sexuality, shuffling of genes, 53–54
sexually producing organisms, selection, 145
sexual selection
Darwin, 572
natural selection, 36–37
and parental involvement, 576–577
shifting balance theory, evolution, 43
sickle cell anemia, genetic disorders within race, 494–496
signaling games, moral signals, 444–446
Simpson, G. G.
antelopes of Belgian Congo, 198–199
evolutionary fatalism, 201
evolutionary opportunism, 196–201
orthogenesis critic, 196–197
sin, original, 548
Smith, Adam, invisible hand, 83–84
Sober, Elliot
explaining variation, 65–66
theory construction, 25, 26
social construction, race concept, 8
social implications, Human Genome Project, 451–454
social issues, implications of biology philosophy, 3
social problems, genetic basis, 455
social statistics, fundamental principle, 75
sociobiology
evolutionary perspective, 7–8
evolutionary psychology, 52
term, 411
sociological issues, evolutionary development, 296–297
soul
Abrahamic tradition, 558
Christianity, 560
concept, 564
spandrels
adaptive thinking, 420
lacking adaptive value, 55, 56
San Marco's Cathedral, 596, 607, 608–609
(p. 640) specialized scientists, origins of life, 263–264
special similarity, grouping method, 164
speciation
allopatric model, 108
corn (maize), 46–47
population regularities, 71–72
sympatric model, 108
species
historical turn, 179–181
reality of, 185–186
treating as classes and individuals, 29–30
species‐as‐individuals thesis, 180, 186
species problem
grouping organisms, 172–174
monism, pluralism, and division of labor, 181–185
species question, biodiversity and evolution, 161–162
species selection, macroevolution, 221–223
species sorting, hierarchy macroevolution, 227
Spencer, Herbert, philosophy of science, 19
spindle diagrams, 228
split‐brain experiments, neuroscience, 366–367
stability, Hardy–Weinberg law, 42–43
statistical laws, relation of chance and, 19
statistical thinkers, population thinking, 66, 67–70
stereotypes, arguments supporting gender norms, 571–572
stochastically stable equilibrium, concept, 440
strictly social conservationism. See also conservationism
biosocial conservationism vs., 489–498
race, genetics, health and disease, 492–498
requiring biological unreality of race, 499
role of racism, 490–492
variety of conservationism, 479–480, 489
struggle for existence
Darwin, 81–82
natural selection, 36, 82–83
substantial equivalence, term, 531
subsystems approach, genomics, 312–313, 314
success, evolution of evolvability, 4–5
successional species concept, 179
suction feeding, convergent evolution in Hymenochirus, 295–296
surrogate variable, race, 486–488
“survival of fittest”
natural selection, 82–83
term of Spencer, 44
survivorship, mass extinction, 225
Swampman
intentionality, 403
intentionality vs. phenomenal consciousness, 406
introduction, 402–403
mental content, 405–406
normative functions, 403, 404–405
objection to teleosemantics, 402–406
teleofunctions, 404
sympatric model, speciation, 108
symplesiomorphies, phylogenetic system, 168–171
synapomorphies, phylogenetic system, 168–172
synthesis historiography, 300
synthetic biology, microevolution and macroevolution, 214–215
“synthetic theory of evolution,” 46
systematic patterns, organisms, 38
taking development seriously, concept, 304
taxonomy
ancestry and degree of divergence, 165–166
biological systematics, 161–162
bottom‐up approaches to grouping, 164
cladistic approach, 166–172
classifying plants, 163
Darwin classification by similarities, 164–165
divergent change, 165
functional analysis, 166
homology rule, 166
Linnaeus grouping by traits, 163–164
maximum likelihood tree for parasitic wasps, 171 f
parasitic wasps, 171 f
parsimony tree for parasitic wasps, 171f
phenetic distance, 166
phylogenetic systematics, 166–172
polarity (directionality) rule, 166
symplesiomorphies, 168–171
synapomorphies, 168–172
Tay–Sachs disease, 494–496
teleofunctionalism and teleofunctions, 385–387
teleofunctions
natural process of selection, 400
normativity, 388
Swampman, 404
teleological, term, 386–387
teleological thinking, 4
teleology
antinaturalism, 116–117
argument from intentionality, 116–117, 119–120
argument from nonactuality, 116, 119
(p. 641)
argument from normativity, 117, 120–121
Aristotle's, 118–121, 124
evolvability, 129
explanatory sufficiency, explanatory autonomy, 122–125
function ascription in evolutionary biology, 125–128
goal‐directedness, 122–125
hypothetical necessity, 121, 124
interventionist and noninterventionist, 78–79
mechanical world, 114
mode of explanation, 113
in organismal biology, 128–132
ought/normative requirement, 120–121
plasticity, 129–132
Platonic, 118
principle, 18
role and status in biology, 113–114
tension between mechanistic thinking and, in biology, 115–116
transcendence and immanence, 118–121
view, 12
teleonomic, term, 386–387
teleosemantics
consumer‐based, 395–397
desire‐first, 397–399
“extensional” selection vs. “intensional” content, 400–401
indicator, 392–394
mental states, 386–387
Swampman objection, 402–406
terminology, problem in history of science, 12
testicle size in primates, adaptation, 48
theoretical reductionism. See also genetics
accuracy of revised laws, 249
corrected version of reduced theory, 249
features of, and antireductionism, 240
focus on theory, 252
picture of genetics, 239–240
problem with, 249–250
reductionist seeking new reduction, 251–252
Thomas Nagel's model, 248–249
theory‐as‐tools, ecology, 517
theory integration, origins of life, 268–269
theory of heredity, Aristotle, 66
theory of population growth, Malthus, 79–80
theory of types, Whewell, 16
thought, intentional or representational mental states, 383
time window, life's origins, 270–273
titanotheres, horns of, 196
Tooby, J., evolutionary psychology, 418–422
trait evolution
adaptationism as possible conclusion, 105–106
natural selection influencing, 88–92
trait expression, use of optimality models, 92–93
transcendental argument 143
transcendental teleology, Plato, 118
transgene organism lineages, 536
transmission phenomena, 245–246
transmutation, power, 461
tree of life, 37, 313
trilobite, 611–612, 614
trolley problem, puzzle of moral philosophy, 367–368
true causes, science, 40–41
truth, evolutionary assumptions, 101
truth‐seeking enterprise, science as, 100–101
typologist
Aristotle, 30
differences from population thinker, 66–67
natural selection, 69–70
Ultrabithorax, homeobox genes, 294
understanding, animal behavior, 332–333
unification, species, 162, 185
unificationist theory, genomics, 319–321
universal grammar, language acquisition, 413–414
universal types, Herschel, 16
unpredictability, evolutionary outcomes, 189, 204–206
variation
beak size of finches, 151–152, 293–294
origin vs. chance perpetuation of, 203
visual art, neuroscience, 369–370
visual neurophysiology, receptive field, 359–360
visual perception system, evolvability, 139, 147–148
von Baer, Karl, misconstrual of chance by Darwin, 191
Watson and Crick's discovery. See also deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
DNA structure transforming biological sciences, 238–239
weakness, natural selection, 89
Western scientific study, history of, of life's origins, 267–268
Whewell, William
philosophy of science, 15
theory of types, 16
(p. 642) Wilson, E. O.
“biological refractoriness,” 416
fitness and adaptive behaviors, 418
genetic adaptations, 415–416
niche construction, 417
psychological mechanism, 417–418
sociobiology, 411, 415–418
Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 52, 411
wineries, fruit flies and selection by, 47
women. See also feminist philosophy of biology
biological arguments supporting oppression, 571–572
Woodger, J. H., rise of philosophy of biology, 21–23
Wright, Chauncey, Darwinian philosopher of science, 18, 19
Wright, Larry, notion of function, 24
Wright, Sewall, population genetics, 41–44
zebrafish, 146, 148