- The Oxford handbook of Philosophy of Biology
- The History of the Philosophy of Biology
- Darwinian Evolutionary Theory: Its Structure and Its Mechanism
- Population Thinking
- Testing Adaptive Hypotheses, Optimality Models, and Adaptationism
- Species and Taxonomy
- Chance Variation and Evolutionary Contingency: Darwin, Simpson, <i>The Simpsons</i>, and Gould
- Beyond Theoretical Reduction and Layer‐Cake Antireduction: How DNA Retooled Genetics and Transformed Biological Practice
- Origins of Life Studies
- Philosophical Issues Arising from Genomics
- Animal Behavior
- Philosophy of Neuroscience
- Teleological Theories of Mental Content: Can Darwin Solve the Problem of Intentionality?
- Sociobiology, Evolutionary Psychology, and Cultural Evolution
- Evolution of Moral Norms
- Genes and Society
- The Concept of Race in Medicine
- Ecology and the Environment
- Agriculture and Agricultural Biotechnology
- Biology and Religion
- Feminist Philosophy of Biology
- The Rhetorical Dimension of Stephen Jay Gould's Work
Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses three claims about natural selection. The first claim is that natural selection played some role in the evolution of traits. The second claim is that natural selection played an important role in the evolution of traits. The third claim is that natural selection was a sufficient explanation of traits and that traits are locally optimal. An optimality mode was created for the generation of a prediction as to what a trait should be. By comparison, the testing and assessment of the predictions of optimality models have advanced. A related attempt is the testing of adaptive hypotheses with comparative data which are observations typically gathered from multiple species, and this provides an insight into an evolutionary trend.
Steven Hecht Orzack is the president of and senior research scientist at the Fresh Pond Research Institute. His research interests include comparative methods in evolutionary biology, demography, evolutionary ecology, genomics, population genetics, and the history and philosophy of biology. He is the co‐editor, along with Elliott Sober, of Adaptationism and Optimality. His “spare” time is taken up by family, sports, music, and politics.
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