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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 633) Index

(p. 633) Index

Abbey, Edward, 421, 427, 433, 438, 441n 18
Aboriginal worldviews, 386
Abortion, 318–20
Abu‐Sway, Mustafa, 211
Academic field, 406–12, 424–25, 598
Academy of Evangelical Scientists and Ethicists, 579
Activism, 196–97
Adam (and Eve)
creators relationship to, 105
human sin of, 122
original sin of, 562
Adams, Richard, 350
Africa
as “cradle of humanity,” 605
creation myths of, 562
liberation struggle of, 540– 41
religious practice in, 266–70
rituals in, 263–64
African Americans
ecology/racism of, 136
white views of, 367–68
African Association of Earthkeeping Churches. See Association of African Earthkeeping Churches
African cultures
creation stories in, 279
initiation ceremonies in, 271–72
“mythic gaze” of, 367, 368
mythology in, 277–78
nature part of, 261–63
rites‐of‐passage ceremonies in, 260
water in, 274–81
African Earthkeeper's Union, 553
African earth‐keeping church, 539
African Initiated Churches (AICs), 536, 538, 541, 566n 11
African religions
churches founded by, 537
land important to, 477
The African: The Nature of the Continent (film), 275
Agbon festival, 276
Agee, James, 441n 18
Agganna Sutta (parable), 192
Agrarian society, 26, 35–36, 277
Ahimsa (nonharming), 191
Ahnishinahbaeótjibway, 304
Ahnishinahbaeótjibway (Wub‐e‐ke‐niew), 289
Ahnishinahbaeótjibway Mide, 289, 304
Aiken, Robert, 185
Air quality, 12
Aladura churches, 278
Albanese, Catherine, 406
Albrecht, Gloria, 321
Alchemical view, 224
Alexander of Hales, 334
Alexander the Great, 94
Allah, 213–14
Allan, Sarah, 231
Allen, Paula Gunn, 508n 95
Alliance for Religion and Conservation, 471
Alters, 267
Always Coming Home (Le Guin), 436, 439
America
Catholic environmental thought emerging from, 66
ecological thinking in, 52
secularization of, 570–71
American frontier, 593
Amte, Baba, 502
Analogical reasoning, 209
Anarchism, 438
Ancestors, 526–27
Ang San Suu Kyi, 9
(p. 634) Animal Apocalypse, 36
Animal theology, 348–49, 358–59
Animal Theology (Linzey), 137
Animals
Buddhism's view on, 438–39
clean v. unclean, 44
Hinduism revering, 164
human beings caring for, 45–46
Sabbath rest including, 47
theologians of, 348–49, 354–55, 358–59
the Torah concern for, 45
treatment of, 162–64
“Animals of the righteous,” 37
Animism, 431
Anishinabe peoples, 289, 301–2
Anishinabe/Ojibway traditions, 301
Anjali, Gurani, 154
Annan, Kofi, 605
Anthanasius, 102
Anthropocentric religion, 446–47, 531
Anthropocentric view, 123, 134
Anti‐science ecoradicals, 452–53
Anti‐Semitism, 31
Aparigraha (nonpossession), 154–55
Apocalypse Now and Then (Keller), 138
Apocalyptic movement, 36
Apocalyptic thinking
religious conservatives with, 384
Republican party influenced by, 141
Appalachia, 75
Aquinas, Thomas, 68–69, 120, 316
Arctic Dreams (Lopez), 422
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 468, 500
Aristotle, 209, 316, 365
Arius, 201
Ariyaratne, A.T., 488
The Art of Worldly Wisdom (Rexroth), 438
The Ascetic dimension, 110–12
Asceticism, 111
Ashok, Emperor, 179
Association of African Earthkeeping Churches (AAEC), 473, 536, 538, 565n 4
Association of Evangelical Relief and Development Organizations, 573
Association of Zimbabwean Traditional Ecologists (AZTREC), 474, 536, 538, 544–45, 550
At Home in the Web of Life (U.S. Bishops), 78
Athanasius, 106, 109
Atharva, Rishi, 165, 166
Atharva Veda (scripture), 165
Au Sable Forum, 578
Augustine, 120, 314, 342, 364
teachings of, 68–69
women inferior from, 366
Austin, Mary, 420, 436
Austin, Richard Cartwright, 136, 350
Awareness
Buddhist environmental, 184–85
ecology, 155–56
environmental crisis, 215
meaninglessness in, 434
of spirituality, 432–35
Ayur Veda, 320
Ayvazian, Andrea, 470
Aztecs, 511–12
Bacon, Francis, 449
Badejo, Diedre, 261, 268
Bahuguna, Sundarlal, 179
Bal Tashchit (Do not destroy), 43
Balance, nature in, 226–29
Baniwa views, 298–99
Bapu, Murari, 503n 12
Barbour, Ian, 138
Barnhill, David, 18
Barth, Karl, 120, 129–30, 133, 353
Bartholomew, Patriarch, 13
Bartram, William, 419, 426
Basel Convention, 494
Bass, Rick, 421, 432
Basso, Keith, 303
Beijing School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 472
Berger, Peter, 237
Bergson, Henri, 49
Bernstein, Ellen, 52
Berry, R.J. “Sam,” 582, 583
Berry, Thomas, 80, 81, 157, 405, 409, 478, 479, 480
Berry, Wendell, 93, 420
Beston, Henry, 422, 430
(p. 635) The Bible
environment destroyed in, 563
God—lands rightful owner, 42, 363
Israel agrarian society in, 35–36
natural world in, 35
species diversity recognized by, 43–44
stewardship from, 577
Biblical teachings, 573
Biblical worldview, 369
Big Bang theory, 41
Biodiversity
crisis of, 5
of earth, 381
ethics of, 529
principle of, 458–59
Biologists, 380–81
Bioregionalism, 424, 426
Biotic community, 82
Birch, Charles, 134, 138, 139, 451, 457, 459
Birth, 271
Birth control, 212–13
Bishops
of Columbia River Watershed, 82
International coalition of, 78–79
land/resource use discussed by, 76–77
Midwestern, 76
Black, Maggie, 274
Blackgoat, Roberta, 305, 306
Blewett, Jane, 480
The Blind Watchmaker (Dawkins), 343
Bodily experiences, 297
Body of the cosmos, 371
Boff, Clodovis, 518
Boff, Leonardo, 79, 80, 517, 519
Bonaventure, 341–42
nature according to, 337–38
theology of, 334–35
Bonifazi, Conrad, 135
Bookchin, Murray, 63n 82
Booth, Wayne C., 575
Boston Daoxue, cosmology of, 253
Bouma‐Prediger, Steven, 141
Boy Scouts, 594
Bradford, William, 426
Bradstreet, Anne, 426
Brahe, Tycho, 40
Brahmanical variant, 147
Brannon, Ike, 588
Bratten, Susan, 137
Brazil, 520
Breath
Buddhism focus of, 12
harmony maintained with, 228, 230
as prana, 156
Bresciani, Umberto, 240
A Brief, Liberal, Catholic Defense of Abortion (Dombrowski‐Deltete), 322
Bright, April, 287
Bronze age, 26–27
Brown, Joseph, 296
Brown, Peter, 317
Browner, Carol, 494
Brun, Tony, 519
Brunner, Emil, 130
Bryant, Pat, 492
Bryant, William Cullen, 592
Buber, Martin, 41, 50
Buddha‐nature, 193
Buddhism. See also Green Buddhism
abortion problem for, 318–20
animals wise in, 438–39
breathing focus in, 12
China introducing, 256n 21
commandments in, 385–86
ecocrisis addressed by, 185–86
environmental awareness in, 184–85, 199
environmental crisis role of, 196–202
environmental teachings of, 199–200
environmental themes in, 190–96
environmental thought in, 187–90
environmentalism of, 487
food practices in, 189
Four Noble Truths taught in, 191
golden age of, 254n 7
influence barriers of, 200–202
Jainism influencing, 191
modest consumption of, 490
nature writers from, 434
as nature‐friendly tradition, 249
Qi related to, 193
religion of, 317–19
social movement of, 486
Sramanical faith producing, 148
Three Jewels refuge in, 198
(p. 636) Buddhism and Ecology (Batchelor‐Brown), 186
Buddhism and Ecology (Tucker‐Williams), 188
Buddhist Compassion Religious Tzu‐Chi Foundation, 486
Bullard, Robert, 406, 493
Bullitt‐Jonas, Margaret, 468
Burke, Edmund, 591
Burroughs, John, 592
Bush, George W., 494, 507n 79, 588
Butala, Sharon, 432
Butler, Joseph, 125
Byzantine churches, 108
Cabasilas, Saint Nicholas, 101
Callicott, J. Baird, 301, 405, 461
Calvin Center for Christian Scholarship, 578
Calvin, John, 115, 120–23, 321
Camera, 93–94
“Canticle of Brother Sun,” 69
Capra, Fritjof, 153
Cardinal, Douglas, 294
CARE International, 471
The Care of Creation (Berry), 582
Caring for Creation (Oelschlaeger), 137
Carling, Bob, 587n 20
Carpenter, Edward, 355
Carson, Rachel, 436, 577, 595, 608n 24
Cartesian objectification, 452
Catholic church
ecological thought from, 79–82
perspective changes in, 86
Catholicism, 321–22
earth views in, 65
ecology and, 66
environmental issues engaging, 75
social thought in, 70–71
Catlin, George, 592
Cattle, mistreatment of, 151
Cenozoic era, 398–99
Central Land Council of Australian Aborigines, 498
Ceremonies
African cultures initiating, 271–72
Rites‐of‐passage, 260
tree‐planters, 556
Chamadia, Kamlesh, 503n 12
Chang Hao, 240
Chapple, Christopher, 174, 411
Charles, Prince, 153
Chavez, Hugo, 524
Chavis, Benjamin, 492
Cheng Hao, 242, 250
Cheng Yen, 486, 487
Ch'i, 317
Chidester, David, 589
Chimhangwa, Bishop, 544, 559
China
Buddhism introduced in, 256n 21
consumerization of, 237
Daoism in, 232–35
environmental crisis faced by, 234–35, 249
Sichuan Province in, 233
Chinese, 223
balance strived for by, 228
five blessings of, 176–77
interdependence from, 193
medicine, 226–27
Monastic temples of, 194
philosophy, 231
religion of, 317–19
Chipesia, Peter, 293
Chipko movement, 179
Christian church
ecological crisis blamed on, 132–33
feast days of, 109
God eternal being in, 102–3
Christian ecotheology, 447
Christianity, 321–22
as anthropocentric religion, 446–47, 531
common good from, 67–68
creation teachings of, 101–2
creation's redemption hope of, 352–53
earth responsibilities recognized by, 476
ecological crisis helped by, 363
environmental degradation fought by, 556
eschatological orientation of, 94
evolution challenging, 130
Greek/Hebrew forged in, 364
healing the earth, 543
institutional evil condemned by, 580–81
life on earth not preoccupation of, 65
moral aspects of, 95
sexuality attitudes of, 321–22
transportation choices of, 485
(p. 637)
viewpoint developed for, 587n 20
White, Lynn, blaming, 384
women/Jews viewed by, 367
Christians and the Good Earth (Williams), 137
Christology
cosmological, 371
creation theology of, 120
Chrysostom, Saint John, 98, 317
Chryssavgis, John, 17
Chun‐fang Yu, 318
Chung‐ying Cheng, 240
Church(es)
African religions founding, 537
Aladura, 278
earthkeeping, 555
earthkeeping mission of, 557, 559
earthly heaven in, 114n 13
as environmental healer, 540–46
images removed from, 118
natural law used by, 73–74
theological orientation of, 560–64
Circle of life, 289
Civic earth religion, 604
Clark, Stephen R.L., 354
Climate changes
global, 4, 188, 203, 484
human beings influenced by, 482–83
Climate Stewardship Act, 484
Clinton, Bill, 494
Club of Rome, 481–82
Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL), 33, 54, 404, 470
Cobb, John B., Jr., 17, 138, 321, 403, 405, 441n 16, 451, 457, 459
Cohen, Jeremy, 317
Cohen, Joel E., 315
Cohen, Michael P., 594
Cole, Thomas, 592
Colonization, 528
Columbia River Watershed, 78–79, 86, 87
bishops of, 82
international attention of, 89n 38
living water discussed by, 84–85
Commandments, 385–86
Commerce, 29
Commission for Racial Justice, 492
Common good
Christianity for, 67–68
human well‐being in, 74
humans needing, 314–15
Community, 82–87, 495
Concern‐consciousness, 241, 253
Confessor, Maximus, 107, 108, 110
Confucian tradition
ecological crisis concerning, 238–39
Guanzi not part of, 255n 17
philosophies studied in, 239–40
Qi and, 244
the Way embodied in, 252
Western modernity confronting, 237
Confucianism
Chinese religious culture shaped by, 317
cultivating humanity envisioned in, 251
Liu Shuxian themes of, 255n 15
religious dimensions of, 250
as social ethic, 241
Congressional testimony, 86–87
Conradie, Ernst, 140
Consciousness
concern, 241, 253
ecosystem transformed through, 600
of environmentalism, 176, 414
experience v., 51
genetic perspective in, 340–41
of realities distinction, 433
spiritual, 432–33
universal, 173–74
of Western nations, 452
Consecration, 97–98
Conservative evangelicals, 141
Con‐spirando women's collective, 523
Consumerism, 189
China's, 237
hedonism of, 582
Consumption
Buddhism's modest, 490
condemned, 211
excesses in, 110
regulating, 44
Western nations disproportionate in, 202, 212
Contemporary themes, 195–96
(p. 638) Contreras, Eduardo, 519
Cooper, James Fenimore, 592
Cooper, Susan Fenimore, 420, 423
Corruption, 172
“Cosmic Christology,” 133
Cosmic incarnation, 106
Cosmic order, 511–12
Cosmic transfiguration, 99
Cosmogonic myths, 298
Cosmogony, 223–24, 603
Cosmological beings, 304–6
Cosmological thinking, 131, 246–47
Cosmology
of Boston Daoxue, 253
Christological, 371
creation stories of, 284
Jainist, 149
Cosmos creativity, 372
Coston, Carol, 479, 480
Council of Nicea, 102
Courses, academic, 411
“Cradle of humanity,” 605
Created cocreator, 333
Creation
African myths of, 562
anthropocentric terms of, 123
Buddhist views of, 438–39
community commitment for, 82–87
creator distinct from, 104
crisis of, 74–82
divine union in, 338
fallenness of, 98–99
God everywhere in, 162–63
human beings balance with, 370
human beings destroying, 584–85
humanities responsibilities to, 168
humanity participant in, 41
inherent value of, 79
nature writing continual process of, 431–32
out of nothing, 101–2
redemption hope for, 352–53
sacredness in, 425
stewardship of, 85–86
theology of, 97–99
transformation required for, 99
World Council of Churches respecting, 134
“Creation care,” 581
Creation myths
of Huarorani of Ecuador, 513
of Mayans, 512
Creation narrative, 34–35, 49
Creation out of nothing, 104
Creation stories
of African cultures, 279
cosmological context in, 284
Creation theology, 120
Creative genesis, 382
Creator
Adam's relationship to, 105
creation distinct from, 104
world complexity requiring, 124–25
Crimes, 13
Crisis
of biodiversity, 5
human beings facing, 4–5
Crisis in Eden (Elder), 135
Cronin, William, 412
The Cross, 108–10
Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor (Boff, L.), 519
Cua, A.S., 252
Cults of Mary, 516
Cultural trends, 124
Cultures
Chinese religious, 317
ecological relationship with, 276–77
Jewish, 41, 42, 54–55, 367
Modernity, 124–32
Muslims diverse, 208
worldviews expressing, 400
Zaramo, 265
Cypria, 316
Cyrus, King, 27
Dalton, Anne Marie, 410
Daly, Herman, 138, 321
Daneel, Marthinus L., 140, 474
Daoism
body interpreting world for, 226–27
China's nature and, 232–35
Chinese religious culture shaped by, 317
cosmogony of, 223–24
evolution and, 222
(p. 639)
as harmony with nature, 221–22
linear aspect of, 224
moral medical terms of, 229
nature understood by, 226
The Way concept from, 222–23
yin/yang in, 385
Daoist religious movement, 232–33
Darwin, Charles, 130, 327
Darwinian theory, 49, 378, 448
Daur Mongol people, 302–3
Davies, Geoff, 477
Dawkins, Richard, 342, 343
de Alacón, Hernando Ruiz, 512
de Bary, W. Theodore, 236, 240
de Chardin, Teilhard, 317
de las Casas, Bartolomé, 515, 516
de Witt, Calvin, 142–43
Deacon, Terry, 409
Death, 273–74
“Deep time,” 430
Deism
cosmological God in, 344
in Protestant circles, 125
Deltete, Robert, 322
Democracy, 437
Democratic society, 9
Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 356–57
Derr, Thomas Sieger, 140
Descartes, René, 124, 449
Desert Solitaire (Abbey), 422, 434
Deudney, Daniel, 604
Developed nations, 84
Development strategy, 172–73
DeWitt, Calvin, 18
Dharma, 164
attributes of, 168–69
environment with, 175
universe considered in, 171
Dharma Bums (Kerouac), 185
Dharma Gaia (Hunt‐Badiner), 186, 187
Dharma Rain (Kaza‐Kraft), 188
Dharmic ecology
environmental karma in, 168–71
of India, 178–79
Diaspora religions, 526–27
Diego, Juan, 516
Dillard, Annie, 349, 420, 427
Dilworth, David, 239
al‐Din Rumi, Jalal, 209
Diné Citizens Against Ruining our Environment (Diné CARE), 496
Direct perception, 433
Discipline of ascesis, 110
Disciplines, 424–25
The Dispossessed (Le Guin), 436, 439
The Divine, 372
earth, 584–85
embodiment, 107
energy, 40, 104
essence, 277
gift, 75–76
Hinduisms relationship with, 161
image, 34
incarnation, 105
Liturgy, 101
in nature, 162
word, 107–8
Divine‐human partnership, 543
Divinity
creation and, 338
earth losing, 584–85
Dobzhansky, Theodosius, 328
Dockrat, Hashim, 212
Doctrine of creation, 34, 35, 41, 42
Dombrowski, Daniel A., 322
Domination, male v. female, 364–65
Dong Zhongshu, 246
The Dream Seekers (Irwin), 299
Du Weiming, 240, 241, 252
Dualism
biblical worldview distorted by, 369
ecological model against, 453
Dujiangyan irrigation project, 233
Dutton, Yasin, 212
Earth
biodiversity of, 381
Catholicism's view of, 65
Christians responsibility to, 476, 543
(p. 640)
destroyers, 559–60
divine wonder of, 584–85
God creating, 476
homo sapiens jeopardizing, 376–77
humanities treatment of, 478–79
humans subduing, 68
life on, 394–95
life supported by, 160–61
as living, pulsating entity, 167
nurturing, 373–74
people sustained by, 315
plight of, 307
religions care of, 404–5
Spirit of God animating, 379
Earth Charter, 167, 177–78, 514, 600, 601
Earth Community, Earth Ethics (Rasmussen), 137
Earth Day, 186
Earth Dialogue conference, 415
Earth in the Balance (Gore), 137
The Earth Is the Lord's (Land‐Moore), 142
Earth Liberation Front, 599
Earth Summit, 514
Earth‐centered spirituality, 421, 428
Earthkeepers call, 535–36
Earthkeeping
as Christ's body, 543
church, 555
church's mission of, 557, 559
movement for, 553
rural determination of, 558–59
spirit of, 539–40
strategies of, 544–45
ZIRRCON movement for, 565n 2
Earthkeeping (Evangelical scholars), 578
Earthkeeping in the Nineties (Wilkinson), 142
Earthly heaven, 114n 13
Earthwise (de Witt), 142
Eastern religions, 4
Eaton, Heather, 405, 410
Eckel, David, 200
Ecoawareness, 155–56
Ecocentric worldviews, 531
Ecocrisis, 185–86
Ecodigenous religions, 529
Ecofeminist
principles of, 530–31
religious, 521–23
woman/nature interconnection for, 362
Ecojustice, 136
Ecokarma, 195
Ecological awareness, 155–56
Ecological challenges, 161
Ecological crisis, 20n 19
Christian church blamed for, 132–33
Christian thought helping, 363
Confucian tradition faced by, 238
as global crisis, 6
healing steps for, 372–73
new Confucians addressing, 238–39
North America faced by, 249
reformation tradition and, 132–43
religious remedy of, 369
rich nations inflicting, 484–85
The Ecological Crisis (John Paul II), 77
Ecological harmony, 385
Ecological imaginaries, 298–99
Ecological model
dualism in, 453
Jesus Christ inspiring, 451–52
mechanical model v., 449–55
Ecological phase, 6–7
Ecological sins, 547–49
Ecological theology, 348–49
animal v., 358–59
anti‐science ecoradicals in, 452–53
fatalistic view of, 350
Ecological wisdom, 33
Ecological Zionism, 50–51
Ecology, 52
African Americans and, 136
in America, 52
Baniwa views in, 298–99
of Catholic church, 79–82
Catholic thought toward, 66
concepts in, 388
concerns of, 16–17
crimes against, 13
cultural relationship with, 276–77
German pietism not interested in, 59n 37
human beings imbalancing, 161
and human ecology, 387–90
(p. 641)
India's, 178–79
intellectual influences on, 405–6
Jainism self‐conscious of, 150–53
Judaism and, 26–33
justice for, 373
karma in, 195–96
public policy transformation to, 179–80
religion and, 260–61
religion influencing, 6–7
religions connection with, 17
stewardship of, 561
theology of, 135, 348–49
yin/yang balancing, 385
Ecology and Liberation (Boff, L.), 519
Economic classes, 71
Economic development, 175–76
Ecoreligious approaches, 56, 186
Ecosattvas, 194
Ecospirituality, 173, 175–76
Ecosystem
conscious transformations for, 600
grassroots efforts for, 402
management of, 387
moral/spiritual values for, 416
new way of life required for, 373
population sustained by, 80–81
resources devoured in, 398–99
science of, 378
Ecotheology
Latin America's evolving, 519
natural world processes and, 447–48
nature with, 456–59
nature's inadequacy in, 455
scientific concepts of, 448
Ecotourism, 234
Ecumenical developments, 140
Ecumenical movement
as Fambidzano, 552–53
Machokoto addressing, 554–55
theology of, 132
Edgar, Robert, 404, 500
Edwards, Jonathan, 591
Egoistic good, 314
Ehrlich, Gretel, 189, 420, 422
Ehrlich, Paul, 401, 415
Eightfold Path, 192
Einstein, Albert, 181
Eiseley, Loren, 314, 596
Elder, Frederick, 135
Elder, John, 423
Eliade, Mircea, 421
Elites, 215
Elmusa, Sherif, 216
Emancipation, 30–31
Embodied knowledge, 293, 294–95, 297
Embodiment of power, 303
Embryo‐fetus, 320–21
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 427, 592
Émile (Rousseau), 591
Encyclopedia of Religion (Jones), 411
Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (Taylor‐Kaplan), 411
Endangered species, 472
Endangered Species Act, 16, 143, 379, 574, 586n 5
Energy conservation, 472
Energy flow, 226–27
Energy policy, 468
Engel, Ronald, 406
Environment
biblical destruction of, 563
churches healing, 540–46
degradation of, 602
dharma/karma to, 175
fluid interchange with, 230
green religion's concerns for, 597–98
gulf region's deteriorating, 214
human beings and, 176–77, 249
human devastation of, 5–6
human moral choices about, 192
Latin Americas struggles with, 511
policies for, 388
rites‐of‐passage and, 270–74
ritualization of, 268
ritual/religion and, 260
stewardship of, 547, 554, 579
U.S. Catholic bishops statements on, 89n 40
waters value to, 234
Environmental action, 604
Environmental activism, 469, 527
Environmental awareness, 184–85, 199
(p. 642) Environmental challenges, 171–80
Environmental crisis
Buddhism's role in, 196–202
China facing, 234–35, 249
Christian ecotheology response to, 447
global acceleration of, 187
Hinduism facing, 171–80
humans too shortsighted in, 390–91, 402–3
Jewish ecological thinking about, 56
Judeo‐Christian tradition causing, 32–33
in Latin America, 527–28, 532
of Muslim world, 215
Muslim's sharing blame for, 214
racial nature of, 491–92
religion's contribution to, 8–9
religion's politicized by, 7
religion's response to, 18–19
religion's struggle with, 510–11
religion's value to, 12–13
scale of, 178
value questions in, 377
Environmental defense, 588
Environmental degradation, 556
Environmental ethics
actions linked with, 530
Hindus propounding, 171–80
humans requiring, 393–95
of Islam, 216–17
of Jewish culture, 42, 54–55
Jewish legal sources on, 42–48
religious agreement in, 348–49
Environmental Ethics and Christian Humanism (Derr), 140
Environmental justice
Bush redefining, 507n 79
distribution unequal of, 491
natures treatment in, 392–94
principles of, 15, 493
race and, 494
Sierra Club adopting policy of, 507n 74
social justice and, 401
Environmental movement
religious support of, 9
spiritual dimension of, 14–15
Environmental organizations, 15–16, 217
Environmental philosophy and ethics, 411–12
Environmental policies
importance of, 13
religions role in, 401–2
Environmental protection
mental aspects of, 487
spiritual/ethical values in, 414
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 589
Environmental theology, 560
Environmental Theology (Austin), 136
Environmentalism, 489–90
from the 60's, 596–601
advocates of, 194
of Buddhism, 487
Buddhism friendly toward, 199–200
in Buddhism traditions, 190–96
Buddhist thoughts on, 187–90
Catholicism engaged by, 75
community life necessary for, 495
consciousness of, 176
contemporary Jainism and, 150–53
of dharmic ecology, 168–71
ethical perspectives in, 412–14
Hinduism and, 165–66
human consciousness in, 414
Islamic sources of, 208–12
of Israel, 31–32
moral sensibility in, 15
of Native Americans, 498–99
nature stewardship in, 173
postmodern, 453–54
protests for, 558
religious, 469
as religious imperative, 598
seeds of, 593–96
as spiritually holistic, 597
Yoga and, 154
Episteme, 297
Eraj, Yusuf Ali, 213
Eriugena, 103
Erosion, 4
“Erotics of place,” 437
Eschatology, 94, 95
Eternal being, 102–3
Ethical code, 232–33
Ethics
biodiversity with, 529
challenge of, 313
(p. 643)
ecotheology and, 448
environmentalism with, 412–14
of Jainism, 149
religions and, 389–90
science/praxis with, 576
Ethnoreligious identity, 513–14
Eucharist, 95–96
European Americans, 590–93
European Jews, 29–30
European theology, 139
Evangelical Christians, 141
Evangelical Declaration on the Care of Creation (Berry), 583
Evangelical Environmental Network (EEN), 485, 580
as partner organization, 584
purpose of, 582
Evangelical environmentalism
academic, 578–79
defining, 575–76
Jesus great model for, 570
Larsen coining term of, 585n 1
needs of, 569–70
network emergence of, 579–84
roots of, 577–78
Evangelical relations, 572–73
Evangelicalism
defining, 583
human distrust in, 572–73
knowledge/praxis sources for, 573–74
meaning of, 571–72
Evangelistic outreach, 566n 11
Evil, 11
Evolution, 332
as adaptive, 331
Christian thinking challenged by, 130
creative genesis in, 382
Daoism and, 222
framework of, 326–27
genetic engineering turning point of, 328
humans late in, 380
hypothesis accepted of, 131
nature as, 221–24
science of, 602
Evolutionary kinship, 606
Experience, 51
Eye of the Heron (Le Guin), 436, 439
Fackenheim, Emil, 53
Fagunwa, D.O., 280
Faith
fanaticism from, 342–43
of indigenous people, 385–86
Faith and Earthkeeping Project, 476
Faith‐Man‐Nature Group, 135
False idol, 210
Fambidzano, 552–53
Fanaticism
faith leading to, 342–43
secular/religious, 10
Faramelli, Norman, 135
Farawo, Bishop, 544, 546
Fast Food Nation (Schlosser), 188
Fatalistic view, 350
Feminism, 142
Feng Youlan, 237
Ferre, Frederick, 138, 452
Festival of Sukkot, 28–29
Finch, Robert, 441n 15
Finger, Thomas N., 142
Fisher, George, 409
Fitra (very nature of things), 210–11
FitzGerald, Kevin, 330
Five blessings, 176–77
Five phases, 228
Five vows (vratas), 152, 154
Flesh, 111
Fletcher, Joseph, 333
Floresta, 525
Foltz, Richard, 411
Food ethics, 188–89
For the Common Good (Birch/Daly), 138
Foreman, Dave, 499
Forest monks, 186
Forums, 409–10
Four Noble Truths
Buddhist teaching of, 191
desire‐suffering in, 189
Fourfold embodiments, 288–89, 300, 306
Fourfold interacting spheres, 297
Fox, Matthew, 351
Fox, Stephen, 594
Francis of Assisi, 69–71
Francis, Saint, 69–70
French Revolution, 30
(p. 644) Fruit‐bearing trees
protecting, 43
Tu Bishevat taxing, 62n 67
Fundamentalism, 141
Gabriel, Mike, 600
Gaia and God (Ruether), 139
Gaia Hypothesis, 595
Galeano, Juan Carlos, 513
Gandhi, Mahatma, 152, 154, 470
Gans, David, 40
Gardner, Gary, 415
Garrard‐Burnett, Virginia, 524
Gatta, John, 427
Gebara, Ivone, 519, 521
Gelderloos, Orin, 578
Gender relations, 257n 36
Gene expression, 339
Genesis farm, 482
Genetic engineering, 44
dismal prospects of, 5
evolution turning point from, 328
Genetic impulses, 314
Genetic perspective, 340–41
Genetic variations, 383
Gennep, Van, 270
German pietism
ecology not interest of, 59n 37
medieval Kabbalah influenced by, 39
German theology, 128
Gershom, Leviben, 38
Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad, 213
Gibson, James, 302
Gibson, William E., 136
Gift‐giving, 301
Glacken, Clarence, 405
Glassman, Bernie, 187
Global acceleration, 187
Global climate changes, 188, 203, 484
Global crisis, 6
Global warming, 482, 485
most vulnerable influenced by, 483
weather extremes from, 481
Globalization, 482
Glossberg, Joseph B., 318
God
in all things, 97
be fertile and increase from, 316–17
as body of cosmos, 371
communicating with, 30
cosmological/biological, 344
creation of, 3–4, 162–63
earth creation of, 476
earth‐keeping spirit of, 539–40
as eternal being, 102–3
in everything, 81
Greeks and, 112
Hinduism and, 168
human soul impressed with, 71
image‐bearers of, 585
images of, 120–21
as lands rightful owner, 42, 363
as lawgiver, 125
as meme, 343
natural laws of, 36, 73–74, 125–26
natural world creation of, 132
nature grounds for believing in, 124
nature perfect worshipping, 263
nature prerogative of, 35
nature same as, 163, 369
playing, 333–34
presence of, 380
read/hear the word of, 118
religious environmentalism and, 502
theology centered on, 359
theology from word of, 117
as transcendent, 581
as transcendent/immanent, 104–5
trees part of, 544
trees property of, 42–43
the world and, 102–3, 113
as Yahweh, 25–26
God hidden, 122
God in Creation (Moltmann), 139
God manifest, 122
“God's Gardeners,” 569
Goldberg, Eric, 600
Gomez‐Ibanez, Daniel, 175
Goodall, Jane, 605
Goodenough, Ursula, 409
Goodman, Lori, 495, 497, 499
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 402, 414, 601
Gordon, Ahron David, 50, 51
(p. 645) Gore, Al, 137, 470
“Gospel of the trees,” 559
Gotama, 190–91
Gottlieb, Roger, 406, 411
Gould, Stephen Jay, 229, 383, 601
Grace, 125
Graef, Sunyana, 200
Granberg‐Michaelson, Wesley, 142, 578
Grassroots Leadership Training Program, 201
Graves, 266
Great Chain of being, 39
Greeks, 112, 364
Green, Arthur, 53
Green Belt Movement, 504n 18
Green Buddhism
activists in, 196–97
critiquing, 198–99
history of, 185–87
interdependence emphasis of, 201
local problems requiring, 202
Green chimurenga, 536, 553, 555, 557
Green Cross International, 601
Green religions, 589, 590
achievements of, 537–38
as environmentally concerned, 597–98
evolutionary kinship to, 606
as nature‐as‐sacred religions, 598–601
nature's connection to, 602–4
Green sermons, 560
“Green sisters,” 475
Greenhouse gas emission, 484
Greening sacraments, 546–58
Greenpeace, 355
Gregory of Nyssa, 95, 105
Griffin, David, 138
Grim, John, 186, 408, 410, 515, 538
Gross, Paul R., 452
Gross, Rita, 198, 318
“Ground of being,” 428
The Ground of Being, 129
Guanzi, 255n 17
Gudorf, Christine, 322
Gulf region, 214
Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch, 595
Gustafson, James, 136, 461
Gutierrez, Gustavo, 516
Ha‐am, Ahad (Asher Ginzberg), 49
Hadsell, Heidi, 518, 520
Haines, John, 431
Hall, Douglas John, 136
Han Confucianism, 246
Han Dynasty, 254n 7
Hardin, Garrett, 391
Harmony, 228, 230
Harris, Ian, 193, 198, 199, 201
Harris, Marvin, 597
Harris, Peter, 582
Hart, John, 17
Hartsborne, Charles, 131
Harvard Conference Series, 407–9
Harvey, Graham, 406
Hasidic theology, 40, 41
Hayes, Zachary, 341
Hayner, Steve, 581
Hazardous waster facilities, 492
Headwaters Forest, 468–73
“Healing nature's enmity,” 455
Hearing, 119, 120
Heaven, 240
Heaven on earth, 108
Hebrews, 364, 369–71, 388–89
Hedonism, 582
Hefner, Philip, 333
Hegel, G.W.F., 128
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, 454–55
Hellenism, 94
Hellfire and Lightning Rods (Ferre), 138
Henry, Carl F.H., 571
Herbert of Cherbury, 125
Heresy of fanaticism, 96
Heresy of relativism, 96
Hermeneutical principle, 529
Herz, Carlos, 518
Heschel, Abraham Joshua, 52
Hessel, Dieter, 406
Higher Superstition (Gross‐Levitt), 452
Hinduism
all creation respected by, 162
animals revered in, 164
divine being in, 161
ecospirituality heritage of, 173
environmental challenges to, 165–66, 171–80
God's creation in, 168
(p. 646)
moral values of, 180–81
spirituality/practicality of, 319–20
strategies for, 172
Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam in, 164–67
Hirsch, Samson Raphael, 48
“The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis” (White), 363, 403, 577
Hogan, Linda, 420, 430
Holiness/wholeness, 61n 59, 96–97
Holistic conception, 340
Holocaust, 53
Holy See, 83–84
Holy Spirit, 96–97
Homo sapiens
earth in jeopardy from, 376–77
earth's care up to, 394–95
Homosexuals, 368
Hooked (Kaza), 189
House Made of Dawn (Momaday), 430
How Many People Can the Earth Support (Cohen), 315
Hsu Fuguan, 237
Hu Wufeng, 242, 250
Huarorani of Ecuador, 513
Hua‐Yen, 420, 429, 430
Huerta, Dolores, 492
Human authority, 572–73
Human behavior, 330
Human beings
Allah's relationship with, 213–14
animal care by, 45–46
Cenozoic era and, 398–99
climate changes influencing, 482–83
common good needed by, 314–15
common good of, 74
as creation destroyers, 584–85
creation responsibility of, 168
creations balance with, 370
crisis faced by, 4–5
earth subdued by, 68
ecological imbalance from, 161
environment and, 5–6, 176–77, 249
environmental crisis and, 390–91, 402–3
evangelicalism distrust of, 572–73
in evolution, 380
exploitative tendencies of, 169
genetic impulses of, 314
godlike role of, 449–50
greed of, 46
Hinduism guiding, 180–81
humanness needed for, 583
individual goals in, 391
interdependence of, 43
karma of, 170
land ethic needed by, 393–95
life's richness for, 457
minds creativity of, 127
moral choices by, 192
Mother Earth mistreated by, 605
as Muslim by nature, 210
natural world manipulated by, 358
nature hostile to, 454–55
nature impacted by, 11–12
nature working with, 318
nature's relationship with, 376–77
original sin of, 122
putting ourselves first, 393–95
redemption required for, 392
religious traditions and, 4
salvation of, 99
shared values of, 290
sin of, 122
supremacy over nature by, 73
theology centered on, 359
trees equal status with, 563
vegetation interdependence with, 561–62
as viable species, 236, 248
worldviews of, 400
Human body, 36–37
Human community, 13–14
Human consciousness
environmentalism with, 414
genetic perspective in, 340–41
Human ecology, 387–90
Human Genome Project, 335
Human heart, 126
Human mind, 128–29
Human nature
distinct, 330–31
nature and, 390–92
understanding, 329–30
Human soul, 71
Human‐centered, 112, 213
(p. 647) Humanities contributions, 411–12
Humanity
Confucianism envisioning, 251
creation and, 41
earth's treatment by, 478–79
natural world separated from, 135
nature and, 318
planetary biosphere impact of, 220–21
power influencing, 314–15
religious future of, 606
Human‐nature bond, 513
Hume, David, 127
Humphrey, Caroline, 302
Hunt‐Badiner, 186, 187
Hurricanes, 203
Hurwitz, Charles, 469
Hybridization (interspecies mating), 356
Hylosystemism, 339
“Hymn to Mother Earth,” 161
Idolatry, 142
Igjugarjuk, 298
I‐It relationship, 50
Image‐bearers, 585
Images
church buildings without, 118
of God, 120–21
Imaginative engagement, 336–37
In the Beginning … Creativity (Kaufmann), 372
Incarnation, 105–6
India
abortion in, 320
dharmic ecology in, 178–79
ecological challenges in, 161
environmental challenges in, 171–80
population/industrialization growing in, 174–75
well‐being of, 176
Indigenous Environmental Network, 496
Indigenous episteme, 299–300
Indigenous groups
ethnoreligious identity maintained by, 513–14
international attention to, 514–15
Latin America's devastated, 5, 512
rituals of, 513
Indigenous hermeneutics, 259
Indigenous people
Brazil's dwindling, 520
devastation of, 5, 512
displacement of, 510
diversity of, 285–86
faith of, 385–86
historic lessons for, 499
lifeways of, 286–88
natures sacredness known by, 81
panindigenous activism of, 514
pollution influencing, 497–98
promoting rights of, 308n 15
religion/ecology and, 289–306
religions of, 286, 306–7
religious ecologies of, 283–84
religious knowledge of, 297
society of, 296–300
tradition of, 284, 288
values of, 599
Indigenous Peoples' Earth Charter, 514
Indigenous religions, 511–15
Industrial development, 481–82
Industrialization, 174–75, 332
Inheritance, 341
Initiation ceremonies, 271–72
Inner life, 126
Institutional evil, 580–81
Intellectual movements, 30, 405–6
Interdependence
Chinese emphasizing, 193
Green Buddhism emphasizing, 201
of human beings, 43
human/vegetation, 561–62
in nature, 461–62
International attention, 89n 38, 514–15
International coalition, 78–79
International Evangelical Environmental Network (IEEN), 569
InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, 142
Interventions
metaphors of, 331–38
natural functions disrupted by, 460
natural world with, 456–57
(p. 648) Intuition‐thought process, 295–96
Irwin, Lee, 299
Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology (Cobb), 138
Isaac the Syrian, 106
Islam
environmental ethics of, 216–17
environmentalism from, 208–12
as religion of fitra, 210–11
Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences (IFEES), 217, 471
Islamic Foundation for Science and Environment, 217
Islamic law, 211
Islamic tradition
natural resource sustainability from, 471–72
natural world valued in, 207
Islands, the Universe, Home (Ehrlich), 189
Israel
the Bible describing, 35–36
environmentalism thriving in, 31–32
holiness of, 61n 59
physical landscape concern in, 32
Israelites, 26–27
Italian literature, 70
I‐Thou relationship, 50
Jackson, Bernice Powell, 491
“Jain Ecology,” 152
Jain, Sandhya, 320
Jainism
Buddhism influenced by, 191
cosmology/ethics of, 149
environmentalism in, 150–53
karma dispersed in, 150
living nature in, 158
principles of, 147–50
religious principles of, 152
Sramanical faith producing, 148
water in, 156–58
Jainism and Ecology (Singhvi), 153
James, William, 130
Jeffers, Robinson, 429
Jefferson, Thomas, 592
Jesus Christ
earthkeeping and, 543
ecological model inspire by, 451–52
evangelical environmentalism's model of, 570
incarnation of, 106
as muridzi venyika, 558
restorative reach of, 572
union with, 563
world recreation from, 99
Jew(s)
commerce involvement of, 29
as creations stewards, 47–48
emancipation of, 30–31
environmental crisis challenge to, 56
European, 29–30
of modern society, 55
moneylending positioning, 57n 11
nature consideration of, 48–54
of Western nations, 32
Zionism and, 49
Jewish culture
bookishness of, 41
Christian myth of, 367
environmental ethics in, 42, 54–55
Jewish environmentalism, 55, 56
Jewish ethics, 25–26, 47–48
Jewish legal sources, 42–48
Jewish life
survival of, 31
Torah center of, 28
Jewish literature, 34–41
Jewish movement, 31
Jewish periodicals, 33
Jewish philosophers, 41
Jewish relationalists, 38–39
Jewish Renewal Movement, 53
Jewish tradition
doctrine of creation in, 34
ecological wisdom in, 33
embryo‐fetus view from, 320–21
no waste in, 19n 1
Jiva Vicara Prakaranam, 157
John of Kronstadt, Saint, 103, 111
John Paul II (Pope), 75, 77, 86, 342, 478, 482
Jonas, Hans, 55, 414
Jones, Linsey, 411
Judaism
apocalyptic literature from, 36
ecology and, 26–33
(p. 649)
ecoreligious contribution from, 56
emergence of, 27
Hellenism influencing, 94
modernizing, 31
Nazism and, 53–54
as organic unity, 52
Pharisaic‐rabbinic, 27–28
postbiblical development of, 25
reinterpretation of, 55–56
reproduction stressed in, 320–21
the Second Temple period transforming, 27
wilderness glorified not found in, 35
Judeo‐Christian faith, 278, 577
Judeo‐Christian rituals, 269
Judeo‐Christian tradition, 32–33
Julia Ching, 240
Justice
ecology with, 373
karma and, 163–64, 170
religious environmentalism with, 482
Kabbalah, 39, 40, 63n 75
Kabbalahists, 55
divine energy affirmed by, 40
Great Chain of being and, 39
Kant, Immanuel, 127, 128, 591
Kantzer, Kenneth, 581
Kao Tzu, 318
Kaplan, Mordecai M., 41, 51
Kapleau, Philip, 187, 193
Karma, 149, 385
concept of, 169
ecological view of, 195–96
of environment, 175
of human beings, 170
Jainism dispersing, 150
justice of, 163–64, 170
Kaufmann, Gordon, 372, 405
Kaza, Stephanie, 188, 189
Kazantzakis, Nikos, 113
Keller, Catherine, 139, 321, 406
Kepler, Johann, 40
Kerouac, Jack, 185
Khalid, Fazlun, 212, 217
Khilafa (successor), 209
Kierkegaard, Søren, 128
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 9, 154, 470
King, Mary Clare, 330
Kohn, Livia, 230
Kook, Abraham Isaac, 51, 63n 75
Koyukon people, 431
Kraft, Kenneth, 188, 195, 198
Kufukidza nyika, 542
Kumar, Satish, 151–52
Küng, Hans, 404
LaFleur, William, 318
Lama, Dalai, 185, 186, 386, 404
Land
African religions and, 477
divine gift of, 75–76
God rightful owner of, 42, 363
human ethics of, 393–95
Native American's respecting, 498
puritanism exploiting, 591
Land of Little Rain (Austin), 422, 436
Land, Richard D., 142
Land‐based commandments, 42
Language games, 129
Lao Tzu, 318
Laozi (god), 225–26
Larsen, David, 569, 585n 1
Latin America
colonization violence in, 528
ecotheology evolving in, 519
environmental struggles in, 527–28, 532
indigenous groups devastated in, 5, 512
indigenous religions in, 511–12
international attention to, 514–15
panindigenous activism in, 514
the poor of, 532
Protestants in, 523–25
religious/environmental struggles in, 511
Roman Catholicism dominant in, 515
theology growing in, 517
women oppressed in, 522
Law of interdependence, 193, 201
Lawgiver, 125
Laws of nature, 234–35
Jewish relationalists reflecting on, 38–39
Torah laws differing from, 37–38
Laws of Vasishta, 319–20
Le Guin, Ursula, 420, 436, 439
Learning of the Way, 244
(p. 650) Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 592
Leax, John, 142
Leo XIII (Pope), 71–72
Leopold, Aldo, 423, 461, 595
Levitt, Norman, 452
Lewis, C.S., 97
Liang Shouming, 237
Liberation, 540–41
The Liberation of Life (Birch‐Cobb), 138, 457
Liberation theology, 516–20
the poor principle in, 529
social ecology proposed by, 518–19
Life
earth with, 160–61, 394–95
human beings enrichened by, 457
regeneration/redemption/reverence of, 382–84
richness of experience in, 459
suffering/enjoyment in, 457–58
Life stages, 271–74
Life/death paradox, 274–80
Lifeways
concept of, 289
fourfold embodiments and, 288–89
of indigenous peoples, 286–88
of native communities, 290
Lilburne, Geoffrey R., 136
Lilienblum, Moses Leib, 49
Linguistic theory, 39–40
Linzey, Andrew, 137
This Little Planet (Hamilton), 135
Liu Shuxian, 240, 255n 15
Liu Zongzhou, 242
Living nature, 158
Living water, 84–85
Living with Animals (Birch‐Vischer), 139
Locke, John, 20n 13, 125
Logan, James, 135
Logoi, 107–8
Logos (the divine word), 107–8
Loori, Daido, 185, 187, 200
Lopez, Barry, 422
Lord Krishna, 162
Lord Shiva, 170
Lord Vishnu, 170
“The Lord's acre,” 550, 555
Lorentzen, Lois, 518
Lotka‐Volterra equations, 389, 454–55
Loughlin, Chris, 479
Louis the Pious, 29
Lovedo people, 270
Lovelock, James, 450
Loving Nature (Nash), 136
Lowdermilk, Walter, 403
Lower Anthracite Project, 87
Lubchenco, Jane, 409
Luther, Martin, 115–20, 321, 353
Maathai, Wangari, 402, 504n 18
MacGillis, Miriam, 479, 480
Machokoto, Bishop, 475, 553–55
Macy, Joanna, 14, 185, 187, 201
Maguire, Daniel, 412
Mahabharata, 319
Maharshi Durbasha, 169
Mahavira, 148
Mahayana Buddhism, 487, 488
Mahayana Themes, 193–94
Maimonides, Moses, 37
Makeham, John, 240
Male, 365
Management, 387
Mankiller, Wilma, 492
Mao Zedong (Tse‐tung), 237
Mapuche people, 291–92
Markandeya, Rishi, 168
Marriage, 273
Marxist social analysis, 517, 518
Mascall, E.L., 353
Masoro, Sauro, 560
Masumoto, David Mas, 424
Mather, Cotton, 591
Matter
gene expressing, 339
holistic conception of, 340
transcendent potential of, 339–42
Matthiessen, Peter, 189, 420
May, Roy H., Jr., 525
Mayan, 512
Maybury‐Lewis, David, 401
Mazui, Ali, 275
Mbecki, Thabo, 604, 605
McDaniel, Jay, 139, 351, 406
McFague, Sallie, 139, 321, 405, 450, 456, 459
(p. 651) McGlynn, Edward, 72, 80
McKibben, Bill, 11, 137
McNeill, John, 412
McNeill, William, 405
Meadows, Dennis, 415
Mechanical model, 449–55
Mechanical science, 449–50
Medicine, 226–27
Medieval cosmological picture, 38
Medieval Kabbalah, 39
Meditation, 190–91
Meme, 343
Mendieta, Eduardo, 515
Menominee tribe, 499
Mercantilism, 30
Merton, Thomas, 188
Metaphors, 331–38
Metaphysical concepts, 245, 432
Metaphysical reductionism, 337, 344
Metaphysical world, 428, 429
Metaphysics, process, 457
Miller, James, 410
Miracles, 125–26
Mishra, Veer Bhadra, 494
Mitchell, John Hanson, 431
Modern society, 55
Modernity culture, 124–32
Moltmann, Jürgen, 139–40, 455, 582
Momaday, N. Scott, 420, 424, 430
Monastic temples, 194
Moneylending, 29, 57n 11
Montefiore, Hugh, 355
Moore, Louis A., 142
Moral choices, 192
Moral values
ecosystem requiring, 416
of Hinduism, 180–81
nature requiring, 54
Morality, 355
of Christianity, 95
of Daoism, 229
environmentalism requiring, 15
of religious environmentalism, 18
Moses, 563
Mother Earth, 164–67
Earth Charter protecting, 177–78
extended family of, 167–68
humankinds foolishness toward, 605
Native Americans and, 610n46
Native Americans honoring, 499
Native Americans revering, 600
Mou Zongsan, 237, 241–42
Mountains, 422
Moyers, Bill, 409
Muhammad, Prophet, 211
Muir, John, 592, 594
Müntzer, Thomas, 115
Muridzi venyika (Jesus Christ), 558
Murphy, Patrick, 436
Muslim world
environmental crisis awareness growing in, 215
environmental nongovernmental organizations in, 217
Muslims
culturally diverse, 208
environmental crisis and, 214
human beings naturally, 210
human‐centered issues in, 213
women's rights in, 212–13
Mutations, 330
Mutumbu (corpse), 551
Mystical experiences, 427–28
Mysticism, 296
“Mythic gaze,” 367, 368
Mythology, 277–78
Naess, Arne, 405
Nakedness, 272
Narmada Bachao Andolan, 502
Narmada dam, 501, 502
Nash, James A., 136, 140
Nash, Roderick, 591
National Conference of United States Catholic Bishops, 78
National Conferences, 186
National Council of Churches, 500
National Environmental Policy Act, 387–88
National Park Service, 594
National Religious Partnership for the Environment, 142
Native Americans, 368
animism of, 431
environmentalism of, 498–99
(p. 652)
land importance of, 498
Mother Earth and, 610n46
Mother Earth honored by, 499
Mother Earth reverence by, 600
religious traditions of, 495–96
sacred places of, 424
survival of, 599
Native communities, 290
Natural functions, 460
Natural hierarchy, 85
Natural law, 36, 73–74, 125–26
Natural resources
exploitation of, 521
Islamic teachings for, 471–72
rituals managing, 270
Natural selection
competition in, 456–57
genetic variations in, 383
Natural symbols, 526
Natural systems, 387
Natural theology, 124
Natural world
in the Bible, 35
disenchantment of, 99
ecotheology and, 447–48
as God's creation, 132
humanity separated from, 135
humans manipulating, 358
intervention in, 456–57
Islamic tradition valuing, 207
linguistic matrix of, 39–40
romantic thinkers opposing, 127
sacredness of, 427
Sisters of Earth relating to, 479
as spiritual gift, 591
Naturalists, 593
Nature. See also Earth; Ecological crisis; Ecology; Environment; Environmental crisis; Environmental ethics; Environmental justice; Environmentalism
African cultures infused with, 261–63
alchemical view of, 224
as balance, 226–29
Bonaventure's thought on, 337–38
Buddhism friendly to, 249
Calvin awestruck by, 121–22
crimes against, 13
Daoist harmony and, 221–22
Daoist understanding of, 226
degradation of, 248–49
divinity in, 162
ecofeminist and, 362
ecotheological ethics applied to, 456–59
ecotheology views on, 455
environmental justice for, 392–94
environmental theology and, 560
environmentalism and, 173
European Americans attitudes about, 590–93
as evolution, 221–24
fluidity of, 229–32
God and, 124, 163, 369
as God's machine, 126
God's prerogative of, 35
green religions connection to, 602–4
hostility from, 454–55
human beings supreme over, 73
and human nature, 390–92
human relations with, 376–77
humankind working with, 318
humans impact on, 11–12
as Idolatry, 142
indigenous hermeneutics including, 259
indigenous peoples and, 81
interdependence in, 461–62
intimacy with, 427
Jainism and, 158
Jewish ethics focusing on, 47–48
Jewish literature on, 34–41
Jewish reflections on, 48–54
linguistic theory and, 39, 40
Luther's apperception of, 119
metaphoric text of, 335–37
moral values for, 54
new physics and, 131
nonhuman inferior, 368–69
political framework for, 178
realist perception of, 352
religion traditions and, 4
religions role in, 399–401
religions view of, 16, 377
reverence for, 441n 16
sacredness of, 422–23, 426–29
(p. 653)
sanctification of, 28–29
society harnessing, 233–34
spirits/ancestors in, 526–27
spirituality based on, 595–96
as spontaneity, 224–26
stewardship of, 173
theologies valuing, 7, 49
valuing, 378–80, 386
worldviews involving, 400
Nature (Whitman), 592
Nature poetry, 438
Nature writing
of Buddhism, 434
creation continual process in, 431–32
deep time explored by, 430–31
metaphysical reflections by, 432
nature sacred views in, 421
religious dimensions of, 420–21
social spirituality in, 435–39
spiritual consciousness of, 432–33
spiritual traditions of, 439–40
Nature‐as‐sacred religions, 598–601
A nature‐friendly tradition, 249
Nature‐related spirituality, 604
Navarro, Ricardo, 518
Nazianzus, Gregory, 112
Nazism, 31
Judaism and, 53–54
theology of nature and, 133
Nelson, Michael P., 15
Nelson, Richard, 420, 431
Neo‐Confucian cosmologies, 245
Neo‐Confucian discourse, 242–44
Nerve gas, 490–91
Neuhaus, Richard John, 140
New Age spirituality, 599
New Confucians
concern‐consciousness of, 241
ecological crisis addressed by, 238–39
gender relations from, 257n 36
nothing antinature about, 247–50
Newman, John Henry, 322
Newton, Isaac, 124
Ngozi (vengeful spirit), 551
Nhongo, Bishop, 558
Nhongo, Samuel, 558
Nietzche, Friedrich, 352
Noah, 563
Nondualism, 197–98
Nonhuman animals, 368–69, 457–58
Nonsupernaturalistic nature religions, 602, 603–4
Nonviolence, 154
Norgaard, Richard, 401
North America, 249
North American Free Trade Agreement, 514
Northcott, Michael, 455
Northern Song Dynasty, 246–47
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 592
Nursery, 546
Nyalutanga (mythological character), 265
Objectification, 452
Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Kant), 591
Oelschlaeger, Max, 137
Oil drilling, 468, 500, 514
Old Testament commandment, 105
Oliver, John, 355
Olson, Sigurd, 431
On Human Nature (Wilson), 338
On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (Schleiermacher), 127
On the Future of Life (Wilson), 415
Ontological parity, 257n 34
Opium War, 236
Organic complexity, 223
Organic system, 52, 229
Organisms
challenge/support of, 382–83
reproductive edge of, 327
Origin of Species, 326
Original Blessing (Fox), 351
Original sin
of Adam, 562
consequences of, 98–99
of human beings, 122
woman‐blaming myth and, 366
Orr, David, 315
Orthodox Christianity, 110–11
Orthodox liturgical tradition, 109
Orthodox Protestants, 125–26
Orthodox spirituality, 101
Orthopraxis (correct action), 518
(p. 654) Osanyin (god), 279
Osun (goddess), 279
Osun river, 268, 277
Osun Seegesi: The Elegant Deity of Wealth, Power and Femininity (Badejo), 268
Ottoman Empire, 30
Ouspensky, Pyotr Demianovich, 595
Overproducing, 317
Paganism, 599
Palamas, Saint Gregory, 103
Paley, William, 125
Palmer, Clare, 411, 458
Palmer, Martin, 471
Pan Yue, 234
Panentheism, 103
Panindigenous activism, 514
Parsvanath, 148
Pastoral Constitution, 73, 74
Paul, Saint, 111, 372
Paul VI (Pope), 74
p'Bitek, Okot, 267
Peasant society, 553
Penetration anthropology, 291
Pentecostalism, 141
Periodic redemption, 370–71
Personhood, 294–95
Peterson, Anna, 515
Peterson, Brandt, 530
Pharisaic‐rabbinic Judaism, 27–28
Phenomenal world, 428
Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (Burke), 591
Philosophy, 41, 128–29, 231, 239–40, 411–12
Physical landscape, 32
Physical world, 427
Physics, 131, 452
Pietism, 126
Pig slaughter ritual, 269
Pilgrim at Tinker Creek (Dillard), 349
Pilgrimage, 422–23
Pinchot, Gifford, 593, 594
Pius XI (Pope), 72
A Place in Space (Snyder), 189
Planetary biosphere, 220–21
Planetary consciousness, 374
“Planters of the Home,” 504n 24
Plato, 365
Pocahontas (film), 600
Policies
ecology, 179–80
energy, 468
environmental, 13, 388, 401–2
environmental justice, 507n 74
public, 179–80
science, 413–14
Political sovereignty, 290
Political views, 437
Politics
nature and, 178
religious authorities and, 8
of religious environmentalism, 10–11, 475
Pollard, William, 135
Pollution
indigenous people influenced by, 497–98
race's relationship with, 492
Pollution and the Death of Man (Schaeffer), 577
Ponting, Clive, 412
The Poor
Appalachian exploitation of, 75
concern of, 71
Latin America and, 532
liberation theology of, 529
oppression of, 522
Pope, Carl, 500
Population
ecosystem sustaining, 80–81
managing, 316
Postmodernism, 452–54, 460
Potable water, 82–83
Poverty, 489
The Practice of the Wild (Snyder), 189
Prana, 156
Praxis
evangelicalism and, 573–74
of science/ethics, 576
Precepts of Lord Lao, 232–33
Primavesi, Anne, 353
Principles of Environmental Justice, 15, 493
“Principles of Land Stewardship,” 76
Process theologians, 138
Process thinkers, 452
Process thought, 458
Production, 392–93
(p. 655) Protestant movement, 142, 321–22
Protestant Reformation, 115–16, 332
Protestants
Deism popular with, 125
ecumenical developments of, 140
German, theology, 128
of Latin America, 523–25
major tenet of, 524
Pentecostalism and, 141
theology of, 129–30
Protests, 558
Public life, 9
Public policy, 179–80
Publications, 410–11
Punarjanma (cycle of rebirth), 162
Pure perception, 433
Purification, 551
Puritanism, 591
Qi
Buddha‐nature related to, 193
energy flow of, 226–27
esthetic dimensions of, 252
as most comprehensive term, 244–45
power transmitted by, 229–30
yin‐yang polarities analyzing, 247–48
Qian Mu, 237
Qi‐theory, 246
Quakers, 592
Quality of life, 177
Quantum theology, 103
Questions of Heaven (Ehrlich), 422
Qur'an, 208
stewardship concepts from, 209
tawhid concept in, 210
Rabbinic corpus, 36–37
Rabbinic Judaism
literary sources of, 29
nature sanctified in, 28–29
Rabbis, 36–37
Race, 491–92
environmental justice and, 494
pollution's relation with, 492
Racism, 136
Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, 496
Radioactive waste, 508n 90
Rainforests, 315
Rainmakers, 270, 279
Raison d'être, 118, 260
Ramsey, Paul, 333
Rappaport, Roy, 405, 597
Rasmussen, Larry, 137, 321, 406, 456, 538
Rastafarianism, 527
Realist, 352
Reality, 433
Recombinant DNA, 328–29
Red (Williams), 422
Red Sky in the Morning (Speth), 415
Redemption, 352–53, 392
Reductionism, 338–42
The Reenchantment of Science (Griffin), 138
Reforestation, 525
Reformation tradition
ecological crisis and, 132–43
modernity culture and, 124–32
Reformers
cultural trends influencing, 124
influence of, 127
theologies of nature of, 123
Refuge (Williams), 435
“Refugees from development,” 501
Regan, Tom, 455
Reichel‐Dolmatoff, Gerrardo, 597
Reincarnation, 365
Religion(s). See also Green religions; Spirituality; World religions
alternatives to, 596–97
Chinese/Buddhist, 317–19
defining, 101, 589–90
dogmatic tendencies of, 412
earth's care from, 404–5
ecological crisis remedied through, 369
and ecology, 260–61
ecology connection with, 17
ecology influenced by, 6–7
environmental crisis and, 8–9, 12–13, 18–19
environmental ethics agreeing with, 348–49
environmental imperatives in, 260
environmental organizations goals similar to, 15–16, 217
environmental struggles of, 7, 510–11
environmental thought/practice through, 401–2
(p. 656)
environmentalism imperative to, 598
environmentalism in, 469
ethics and, 389–90
future of, 602–3
green types of, 598–99
humanities future and, 606
indigenous hermeneutics including, 259
of indigenous people, 286, 289–307
indigenous peoples knowledge of, 297
innumerable subdivisions of, 321–22
intellectual influences on, 405–6
Latin America struggles with, 511
natalist thrust of, 316–22
nature sacred in, 377
nature viewed by, 16
natures views shaped by, 399–401
participation requested of, 402–3
radical political views by, 8
resource commitment of, 391–92
sacredness in, 313
science conflict with, 483–84
splits within, 374
suffering transcended through, 400
Western monotheistic, 3–4
words/actions different by, 9
worldviews from, 401
Religion and Ecology
academic field in, 406–12, 598
challenges to, 412–13
Religious authorities, 8
Religious conservatives, 384
Religious dimensions
of Confucianism, 250
of nature writing, 420–21
Religious ecofeminist, 521–23
Religious ecologies, 283–84
Religious environmentalism, 471
God's creation defended by, 502
hallmarks of, 493
justice perspective of, 482
moral aspect of, 18
politics of, 10–11, 475
spreading of, 593
supporting, 500–501
ZIRRCON embodying, 474–75
Religious leaders, 403–5
Religious paths, 480
Religious practice, 266–70
Religious principles, 152
Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), 592
Religious syncretism, 513, 529
Religious traditions
of Africa, 266–70
group elements mixed in, 529
humans/nature distinction by, 4
of Native Americans, 495–96
scholars reexamining, 407
Religious Witness for the Earth, 469
Renewing the Earth (U.S. Bishops), 78
Reproductive edge, 327
Republican party, 141
Rerum novarum (On the Condition of Labor), 71, 72, 77
Resources
ecosystem depleted of, 398–99
religion committing, 391–92
utilization of, 211
Ress, Mary Judith, 522, 523
Resurrection, 108–10
“Reverence for life,” 129
Rexroth, Kenneth, 420, 429, 430, 434, 438
Rey, Terry, 526
Right Conduct, 197
Right Livelihood, 192
“Right relations,” 455
Right View, 192
Rishibha, 148
Rites‐of‐passage, 260, 270–74
Rituals
of Africa, 263–64
environmental, 268
environmental imperatives in, 260
of indigenous groups, 513
Judeo‐Christian, 269
in life stages, 271–74
natural resources managed through, 270
natural symbols in, 526
pig slaughter, 269
rainmaking, 279
shrines important in, 267
symbolism in, 265
tree‐planting, 551
(p. 657)
water used in, 157
worldviews expressed through, 400
Rivers, 277
Rolston, Holmes, III, 18, 137, 405, 460, 461
Roman Catholicism, 515–16
Roman Empire, 254n 7
Romano, Mary, 479
Romantic movement, 126–27
Rosay Martin Seed Project, 479
Rosenzweig, Franz, 41
Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques, 591
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), 356
Ruddy duck, 356
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 79, 80, 86, 139, 405, 451
Rukidi, Jok, 267
Ruling‐class, 365–66
Ruling‐class‐males, 522–23
Rupp, George, 409
Rural Hours (Cooper), 423
Sabbath, 47
Sabbatical year, 46–47, 61n 64
The Sacrament(s)
considering, 92–93
ecological sins in, 547–49
eternal time and, 96
of Eucharist, 95–96
greening of, 546–58
Luther's teaching of, 117–18
as means of consecration, 97–98
symbol and, 100–101
theology of, 93–94
tree‐planters location of, 564
Sacramental principle, 99, 105–6
Sacramental universe, 86
Sacred earth, 429–32
Sacred other, 425
Sacred place, 424, 425
Sacred sites, 386
Sacredness
of creation, 425
of natural world, 427
of nature, 422–23, 426–29
religion from, 313
of wild animals, 262
Sagan, Carl, 137, 470, 601
Saiving, Valeria, 139
Salvation, 99, 572
Sanders, Scott Russell, 420
A Sandy County Almanac (Leopold), 595
Sangha, Green, 201
Sannatan Dharma, 319
Santeria, 527
Santideva, 194–95
Santmire, H. Paul, 135
Sarvodaya Movement, 488
Schachter‐Shalomi, Zalman, 46
Schaeffer, Francis, 577
Scharper, Stephen, 410
Schipper, Kristofer, 233
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 126, 127
Schlosser, Eric, 188
Schmidthausen, Lambert, 201
Schneider, Stephen, 601
Scholars, 407
Schumacher College, 152
Schweitzer, Albert, 129, 353, 596
Science
of ecosystem, 378
of evolution, 602
modern, 450
policy limits of, 413–14
postmodernism, 453–54
religions conflicting with, 483–84
response of, 414–16
theology separate from, 130
values of, 381
Science‐ethics‐praxis triad, 576
Scientific concepts, 448
Scientific materialism, 338–39
Scientific worldview, 124, 126
The Second Temple
destruction of, 36
Judaism reformed in, 27
Second Vatican Council, 73–74
Secular America, 570–71
Secular developments, 123
Secular environmentalism, 16
Secular fanaticism, 10
(p. 658) Secular nationalist movement, 31
Secularization, 570–71
Seed, John, 187
Sèègèsí, Osun, 261, 268
Seeing, 119, 120
Sefer Yetzirah, 59n 38
Self, Earth, and Society (Finger), 142
Selflessness, 487
Self‐sacrificing system, 350
Self‐transcendence, 340
Self‐transformation, 222–23
Selka, Stephen, 524
A Sense of Place (Lilburne), 136
A Sense of the Divine (Gustafson), 136–37
Serageldin, Ismail, 409
Seraphim of Sarov, 108
Seton, Ernest Thompson, 593
Sexuality, 321–22
Shah, Pravin K., 151
Shalom, Shin, 503n 3
Shaman‐healer, 287
Sharma, Arvind, 320
Shemini Atzert (Eighth Day of Assembly), 29
Sherrill, Richard E., 135
Shiva, Vandana, 479
Shomrei Adamah (Keepers of the Earth), 52, 63n 79
Shrines, 266, 267
Shvetashvatara Upanishad, 162–63
Sichuan Province, 233
Siddhas, 148
Sierra Club, 500, 501, 507n 74, 594
Sikh community, 472
Silent Spring (Carson), 436, 577, 595, 596
Silko, Leslie Marmon, 420, 424
Simmer‐Brown, Judith, 199
Simons, Menno, 115
Singh, Karan, 167
Singhvi, L.M., 153
“Single community of life,” 81
Sisters of Earth
human/earth connection from, 477–78
natural world relations sought by, 479
religious paths respected by, 480
Sittler, Joseph, 133, 403
Sivaraksa, Sulak, 187, 197, 201
Six Billion and More (Bratten), 137
Slave trade, 276
Slavery, 365–66
Slovic, Scott, 432
Small, Fred, 468, 470, 475
Small, Gail, 495, 497
Smil, Vaclav, 412
Smith, Huston, 385
Smith, Jonathan Z., 598
Smuts, Barbara, 409
The Snow Leopard (Matthiessen), 189, 422, 434
Snyder, Gary, 185, 189, 193, 420, 439
Social construction, 128–29
Social ecology
Bookchin associated with, 63n 82
liberation theology proposing, 518–19
Social encyclical, 71
Social ethic, 241
Social justice, 401
Social life, 13
Social movement, 486
Social nature writing, 435–36
Social revolution, 488
Social spirituality, 435–39
Social theory, 439
Society
corruption of, 46
economic classes of, 71
harnessing nature for, 233–34
of indigenous people, 296–300
sustainable, 134
Sokal, Alan, 453
“Sokal hoax,” 453
Sola Scriptura, 574–75
Solitude, 435
Soloveitchik, Hayim Dov, 49
Somatic knowledge, 295–96
Somé, Malidoma Patrice, 272
Song‐Yuan‐Ming‐Qing, 237, 242, 247
Learning of the Way and, 244
Neo‐Confucian cosmologies of, 245
Southwest Environment Equity Project, 87
Speciation, 460
Species, 43–44, 335
The Specter of Speciesism (Waldau), 188
Speth, James Gustave, 415
(p. 659) Spirit(s)
flesh dualism and, 111
of nature, 526–27
Spirit of God, 379, 544, 556
Spirit wife, 270
Spiritual dimensions
ecosystem requiring, 416
of environmental movement, 14–15
knowledge of, 304
of secular environmentalism, 16
Spiritual gift, 591
The Spiritual Legacy of the American Indian (Brown), 296
Spiritual nature writing, 435
Spiritual power, 422
Spiritual traditions, 439–40
Spirituality
awareness in, 432–35
earth‐centered, 421, 428
in environmentalism, 414
of Hinduism, 319–20
of naturalists, 593
nature‐based, 595–96
in universe, 81
Spiritually holistic, 597
Sponberg, Alan, 198, 201
Sponsel, Leslie E., 512
Spontaneity, 224–26
Squirrels, 356–57
Sramanical faith, 148
Sramanical variant, 147
Sri Lanka, 488–90
Standing Ground (Leax), 142
State of receptivity, 433
Steward, Julian, 405
Stewardship
biblical concept of, 577
creation cared for through, 85–86
of ecology, 561
environmental, 547, 554, 579
environmentalism and, 173
history of, 332–33
as human‐land relationship, 363
Jew's creation, 47–48
principles of, 581
Qur'an's concept of, 209
Stott, John, 583
Strong, Maurice, 409, 600
Super, Natural Christians (McFague), 456
Supernaturalism, 603
Supreme Power, 160
Sustainability, 134
development strategy of, 172–73
of economic development, 175–76
natural resource, 471–72
of natural systems, 387
Swimme, Brian, 409
Symbol, 100–101
Symbol of purification, 551
Symbolic languages, 299
Symbolism, 265
Symeon, Saint, 101, 112
System, 340
Systematic Theology, 129
Taiwan, 486–88
Takacs, David, 601
Talmud, 43
Tang Junyi, 237
Tatia, Nathmal, 154
Tawhid (unity), 210
Taylor, Bron, 17, 18, 406, 528
Temple, William, 131
“Terripolitan Earth Religion,” 604
Tertullian, 94, 102, 111
Thailand, 186
“The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis” (White), 403, 577
“Theistic evolutionists,” 131
Theme of providence, 120
Theological rationalists, 118
Theology
animal v. ecological, 358–59
Barth denying natural, 120
of Bonaventure, 334–35
churches orientating, 560–64
of creation, 97–99
of domination, 515–16
ecological, 135, 348–49
of ecumenical movement, 132
European, 139
God v. human centered, 359
God's word in, 117
(p. 660)
intellectual movements and, 30
as language games, 129
in Latin America, 517
liberation, 516–20
natures spiritual value from, 7, 49
Protestant, 129–30
the Sacraments and, 93–94
science separate from, 130
two‐books, 574–75
“Theology of Crisis,” 129
Theology of nature
Calvin's, 121–22
Nazis with, 133
process theologians of, 138
reformers with, 123
“Theology of the cross,” 119
A Theology of Things (Bonifazi), 135
Theravada themes, 190–92
Thich Nhat Hanh, 185, 187, 189, 195, 197, 404
This Sacred Earth (Gottlieb), 411
Thompson, Jim, 355
Thoreau, Henry David, 127, 421–22, 432, 592
Three Jewels, 198
Tibetans, 195
Tillam, Thomas, 426
Tillich, Paul, 129, 353
Tirthankaras, 148
Titmuss, Christopher, 187
Toepfer, Klaus, 402, 414
The Torah
animal perpetuation in, 45
God communication through, 30
human/trees interdependence from, 43
in Jewish life, 28
laws of nature differing from, 37–38
natural law from, 36
“Tower experience,” 116
Toxic Wastes in the United States, 492
Toynbee, Arnold, 313
Tradition, 153–55
“Traditional ownership,” 287
Traditions
Anishinabe/Ojibway, 301
Buddhism's nature‐friendly, 249
Buddhist, 190–96
Confucian, 237–40, 244, 252, 255n 17
Confucian ecological, 238
of indigenous people, 284, 288
Islamic, 207, 471–72
Jewish, 19n 1, 33, 34, 320–21
Judeo‐Christian, 32–33
Native Americans, 495–96
Orthodox liturgical, 109
reformation, 124–43
religious, 4, 266–70, 407, 495–96, 529
spiritual, 439–40
Transcendent dimension, 427
Transcendentalism, 427, 581, 592
Transfiguration, 111
Transformation, 99, 179–80, 222–23, 225, 600
Transgenetics, 328–31
Transplantation, 329
Transportation choices, 485
Tree‐planters
of AZTREC, 550
ceremonies for, 556
sacramental location for, 564
Tree‐planting Eucharist, 547–58, 552
Tree‐planting liturgy, 548
Trees
cutting of, 269
as God's property, 42–43
gospel of, 559
human equal status with, 563
nursery's for, 546
planting of, 537–38, 544
planting sermons for, 541–42
rituals for, 551
spirit of God in, 544
value of, 548–50
Tu Bishevat, 48, 62n 67
Tucker, Mary Evelyn, 17, 18, 186, 408, 410, 538
Tulsi, Acarya, 150
Turner, Fredrick, 593
Turner, Victor, 270
“Turtle Island,” 436
Tutu, Desmond, 9
Two‐books theology, 574–75
Tza'ar Ba'alei Hayyim (Distress of living creatures), 45–46
Tzu‐Chi
guiding principles of, 487
Sri Lanka modernization by, 489
(p. 661) U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, 387
Universal consciousness, 173–74
Universe
dharma considering, 171
physical/spiritual in, 81
as self‐sacrificing system, 350
transformation within, 225
Unnatural Jew, 28
Unsnarling the World Knot (Griffin), 138
“Uplifting the divine sparks” doctrine, 60n 43
Urban development, 174
Urerlebnis, 117, 118
U.S. Catholic bishops
congressional testimony from, 86–87
environmental statements of, 89n 40
Vadillo, Omar, 212
Vajrayana themes, 194–95
Vallely, Anne, 150
Value system, 176
ecosystem science using, 378
indigenous people's, 599
tiered, 458
Vasquez, Manuel, 527
Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam (Family of Mother Earth), 164–67
Vatican, 83–84
Vatican theology, 322
Vegetation, 561–62
Virgin of Guadalupe, 516
Virtues, 47
Vischer, Lukas, 139
Vishwa Hindu Parishad, 179
Voodoo, 527
Wages, 71
Waldau, Paul, 188
Walden (Thoreau), 592
Walden Pond, 440n 3
Wang Fuzhi, 246–47, 250
Wang Yangming, 242, 245, 250, 251
Wapendama, Bishop, 541
“War of the trees,” 536, 541
Wars, 287
Washington, D.C., 468
Waskow, Arthur, 46, 53, 470
Wastefulness, 211
Water
Chinese philosophies affinity with, 231
environmental value of, 234
in Jainism, 156–58
life/death paradox and, 274–81
rituals using, 157
as symbol of purification, 551
Vatican addressing issues of, 83–84
wars over, 287
Water: Life Force (Black), 274
Watson, Walter, 239
The Way
Confucian tradition embodying, 252
Daoist concept of, 222–23
The Way and Its Power, 223, 225, 226
Way of Highest Clarity, 225
Way of the Celestial Masters, 233
Weather extremes, 481
Weber, Max, 348
Websites, 410
Wesley, John, 126
Western Apache (or New Mexico), 303
Western monotheistic religions, 3–4
Western nations
classes negated by, 366–67
Confucian tradition confronted by, 237
consciousness of, 452
Jews in, 32
overconsumption of, 202, 212
secularized developments in, 123
Whale shark, 503n 12
“What Would Jesus Drive,” 485
White, Lynn, Jr., 32, 132, 208, 248, 317, 363, 446, 577
Christianity blamed by, 384
“The Historical Roots of our Ecological Crisis” by, 363, 403, 577
Whitehead, Alfred North, 131
Whitman, Walt, 592
Wholeness, 96–97
Why questions, 345
Wild animals, 262
Wilderness, 35, 424, 426
Wilderness Act, 423
Wilderness movement, 594
(p. 662) Wilkinson, Loren, 142, 581
Williams, Daniel Day, 137
Williams, Rowan, 404
Williams, Terry Tempest, 420, 435, 441n 15
Wilson, Allan, 330, 338
Wilson, E.O., 137, 315, 343, 383, 401, 415
Wirth, Timothy, 409
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 129
Women
Aristotle's views of, 365
Christian views of, 367
ecofeminist and, 362
exploitation of, 521
Latin America oppressing, 522
original sin blamed on, 366
ruling‐class‐males oppressing, 522–23
Women's rights, 212–13
“Woodcraft Indians,” 594
Worcelo, Gail, 480
The Word, 116
Wordsworth, William, 127
The World
creator required for, 124–25
Daoism and, 226–27
difference revealing, 245
God and, 102–3, 113
as human‐centered reality, 112
production in, 392–93
World Council of Churches, 134, 139, 481
World recreation, 99
World religions, 597–98
ecological phase of, 6–7
reorientation required by, 12
“World Scientists Warning to Humanity,” 403
World Summit on Sustainable Development, 604
World Wildlife Fund, 471
A Worldly Spirituality (Granberg‐Michaelson), 142
Worldviews
aboriginal, 386
competition between, 345
as cultural expressions, 400
ecocentric, 531
religions role in, 401
Worldviews: Religion, and the Environment (Foltz), 411
Worldwatch Institute, 415
Xenotransplantation, 329
Xiong Shili, 237
Yahweh, 25–26
Yang systems, 227, 247, 248
ecological harmony in, 385
five phases of, 228
The Yijing, 244
Yin systems, 227, 247, 248
ecological harmony in, 385
five phases of, 228
Yoga Sutra, 153
Yoga tradition, 153–55
Yoruba mythic history, 276, 279–80, 280
Zaidi, Iqtidar, 213
Zaramo culture, 265
Zeus, 316
Zhang Dainian, 255n 16
Zhang Hao, 240
Zhang Zai, 250, 251
Zheng Zhongying, 250
Zhou Dunyi, 250
Zhou Dynasty, 246
Zhu Xi, 241, 247, 250
Zimbabwe, 473–77, 536
Zimbabwean Institute of Religious Research and Ecological Conservation (ZIRRCON), 474–75, 536, 538, 545, 565n 2
Zionism, 51–52
ecological, 50–51
as Jewish people revival, 49
as Jewish secular nationalist movement, 31
secular, 51
Ziyang, Zhou, 230
Zoloth, Laurie, 320
Zumârraga, Juan de, 516
Zvanaka, Solomon, 473
Zwingli, Huldrych, 115, 321