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date: 30 May 2020

(p. 522) (p. 523) Index

(p. 522) (p. 523) Index

Note: Diacritical marks are not used with transliterated terms and proper names in this index, although they are used in some chapters of this Handbook. The spellings are ones commonly accepted when diacritical marks are not used. Italic page numbers refer to figures.

Abbington, James, 518
Abd al-Hamid al-Katib, 302
Abe, Stanley K., 375–76, 381
Abhinavagupta, 118, 330, 332, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 345 n. 18, 346 n. 27, 347 n. 31, 351
Abrams, M. H., 59, 62, 138
Abu Zayd, Nasr Hamid, 305
Adab, 306
Adams, Doug, 19 n. 15, 85, 407
Adams, Henry, 433–34, 440, 441
Adams, John (composer), 3
Adorno, Theodor, 239, 274, 427
Aertsen, Pieter, 450, 451, 460, 461
Aeschylus, 166
aesthetics
carnivalesque, 338–40
concepts and definitions of, 9, 11, 14, 25–26, 81, 418–23
and the environment, 38
and ethics, 418–30
“great tradition” of, 10
Indian, 330, 335–42
liturgical, 404–413
postmodern, 12–13, 73, 406–407
practical, 26–28
religious, 1, 2, 5–18, 27–34, 330, 335–42, 97–100
transgressive, 340–42
theological, 1, 4, 11, 14, 29–38, 44–54, 77–87
African American music, 112, 124, 498–519
characteristics of, 500–503
and Civil Rights Movement, 498
and politics, 500, 505, 506, 510–11, 517
sacred and secular not sharply distinguished in, 499, 502
scholarship on, 514–19
Alberti, Leon Battista, 213, 462
Aleichem, Sholem, 259
Ali, Kazim, 154, 156
Allen, Richard, 501
Alter, Robert, 132–34, 144 n. 65, 148, 261
Amaterasu, 166, 190, 398
Ambrose, 79, 289
Amichai, Yehuda, 157
Amida Buddha, 397
Angelico, Fra, 17
Anski, Solomon, 170
Antonioni, Michelangelo, 243
Apollo, 110, 168, 187
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane, 20 n. 15, 85, 225
Aquinas, Thomas, 8, 9, 31, 46, 50–51, 53, 79–80
Arcand, Denys, 165
architecture, 203–218
aniconic decoration of, 211–12
approaches to studying sacred, 18
assembly places, contrasted with temples, 203–206
Buddhist, 99, 191, 205, 368, 371, 375
Confucian, 391–92
Gothic, 6, 10, 28, 211, 213, 214, 215, 217, 422
harmony and proportion in, 213
Hindu, 6, 204, 210, 352–54
Islamic, 209, 211, 310, 311–12, 313–15
modern, 215–16
(p. 524) monumentality in, 207–209
preaching within, 205
postmodern, 12
revival styles, 214, 215, 217, 273
Romanesque, 28, 210, 215, 217, 273
sacred geometry in, 6
Shinto, 353, 396, 397, 399
symbolism in, 210–211
Taoist, 381, 383–84
Aristophanes, 167
Aristotle, 30–31, 53, 79, 92, 131, 165, 166–67, 169, 175, 280, 471
Arkoun, Mohammed, 305
Arnheim, Rudolf, 224
Arnold, Matthew, 11, 12, 151, 279
art
and creative imagination, 2, 7, 11, 13, 77–87
definitions and concepts of, 5–6, 8, 9, 12, 26
ethical and moral aspects of, 12, 36, 37, 38, 418–30, 469–75
folk, 482–83
gender critique of, 469–72
and incarnation, 33, 47, 79, 121, 122, 123, 155, 211, 351, 355, 454, 457
and politics, 413, 418, 419, 424, 425, 427–30, 455, 470, 473
popular in comparison with fine or elite, 85, 298, 372, 429, 490–95
problems in applying term, 8, 310–11, 367, 372–76, 389–90
as proclamation and manifestation, 86
and social transformation, 11, 38, 86, 428–30, 463, 511, 512
in South African anti-apartheid movement, 428–30
and the study of religion, 1–18
theology and, 30–38, 350–52
See also aesthetics; visual arts; and names of specific art forms
Artaud, Antonin, 172
Artemis, 187
artistry as spiritual vocation, 15, 31, 34, 44, 46, 51, 59, 77–97, 91–102
asceticism, 32, 33, 249, 336
Ashkenazic Jews, 212, 260, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 271, 272, 404
Auden, W. H., 154, 279
Auerbach, Eric, 131–32
Augustine of Hippo, 8, 30–32, 46, 79, 80, 86, 110, 112, 114, 167, 279, 289, 404, 419, 474
Austin, J. L., 173
Avison, Margaret, 154
Baal Shem Tov, 118
Bach, J. S., 115, 124, 287, 291
Baker, Houston, Jr., 517
Baker, Patricia, 317
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 96, 100, 175, 439
Bal, Mieke, 133, 134
Baldwin, James, 445
Balthasar, Hans Urs von, 11, 35, 46–47, 48, 50, 86, 174, 177 n. 39, 282–84, 419, 426, 442
Barca, Pedro Calderón de la, 174
Barth, Karl, 11, 35, 115, 122, 282, 284, 287, 442–43
Basil the Great, 33, 113
Baudelaire, Charles, 151
Baudrillard, Jean, 65, 452
Bauman, Zygmunt, 73, 441
Baumgaertner, Jill, 155
Baumgarten, Alexander Gottlieb, 25–26, 81
bayan, 302, 303
Beaudoin, Tom, 240
beauty
in architecture, 209, 213
biblical ideas of, 35, 45, 49, 50
concepts and definitions of, 4, 8–9, 11, 16, 25–26, 45–48, 50
of Christ, 35, 49, 79, 80, 438
of the Cross, 32, 35
and/of God, 10, 21, 30, 32, 35, 44–54, 79, 80, 86, 338
and goodness (moral and ethical), 9, 10, 31–32, 36, 37–38, 419, 420, 422, 424–26
in Hinduism, 48, 335, 338
and holiness, 12, 49, 51, 221, 287
incongruity of, with suffering, 433
in Islam, 48, 409
in Jewish mysticism, 47–48
and justice, 425–26
of Krishna, 48
(p. 525) ladder of, 45
and liberation, 37
in liturgy, 405, 406, 408, 414
of music, 111, 112, 115, 123, 287, 288
moral and spiritual, privileged over artistic, 8–9, 46, 49
multicultural, 38
of nature, 44, 46, 48–49, 433
of poetry in scripture, 147–48
in popular religion, 495
redemptive, 426
religious worries about, 44
sacramental, 33, 51, 84
of Shiva Nataraja, 490
of spirituals, 505
in the Talmud, 47
in theological or religious aesthetics, 4, 6, 9–10, 12, 15, 26, 34, 44–54, 335–38
as a transcendental, 10, 31, 32, 35, 79
in worship, 54
Beauvais, Vincent of, 31
Beck, Guy L., 359, 361, 362
Becker, Judith, 116, 117, 118, 120
Becket, Thomas, 169, 173
Beckett, Samuel, 171, 172
Beckett, Wendy, 19–20 n. 15
Beckwith, Sarah, 167–68
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 83, 120, 291
Begbie, Jeremy, 85, 123
Bellow, Saul, 447
Belting, Hans, 6, 452, 473
Benedict XVI, Pope, 11, 283
Berdyaev, Nicholas, 93, 96
Bergman, Ingmar, 238, 241, 243
Bernard of Clairvaux, 33, 209–210, 283
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo, 454
Bernstein, Leonard, 264, 266
Beuys, Joseph, 98
Bezalel, 46, 47, 270
Bhagavad Gita, 7, 48, 59, 67, 120, 147, 331
and the sublime, 68–73
Bhajan, 28, 362, 363, 364
bhakti, 7, 71, 72, 194, 343 n. 5
in Hindu devotional poetry, 61, 68, 70
in Indian dance, 194
and Hindu aesthetics, 335–37
in Hindu music, 359
Bharata Muni, 360, 363
Bharata Natyam dance style, 183, 195–96, 347–48 n. 35, 335
Bhoja, 330, 337
Bible
and art, 37, 270–72, 296
cantillation of, 264
and literature, 11, 130–41, 282, 436, 440
midrash and, 123, 134, 135
and modern dance, 196
and movies, 165, 173, 243, 246
and music, 263–64, 288–89
parables and, 86, 122, 134, 135, 136, 139, 242
poetry of, 148
strangeness of God in, 132
See also psalms
Blackwell, Albert, 115, 121
Blake, Eubie, 505, 507
Blake, William, 11, 59, 61, 67, 69, 82, 96, 98, 150
Bland, Kalman, 277
Bloch, Ernest, 266
Blondel, François, 214
Bloom, Harold, 59, 142 n. 22, 261
blues, 112, 171, 498, 505–506, 508, 513, 516, 517
Blunt, Anthony, 297
Boehme, Jakob, 52
Boethius, 57, 114
Bohlman, Philip Vilas, 267
Bonaventure, 31
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 442
Boonma, Montien, 374
Brahman, 62, 63, 66–72, 147, 359
Brahms, Johannes, 121, 291
Brancusi, Constantin, 99
Brandon, S. G. F., 225
Braque, Georges, 463
Brecht, Bertolt, 169, 170
Britten, Benjamin, 119
Brook, Peter, 172, 175
Brooks, Tilford, 515
Broude, Norma, 472
Brown, David, 19 n. 15, 35, 37, 122, 123
Brown, Frank Burch, 19 n. 6, 21 n. 28, 36, 37, 77, 85, 86, 148
Brown, Robert McAfee, 241
(p. 526) Browne, Sir Thomas, 114
Bruckner, Anton, 122
Buckley, Vincent, 152
Buddha, 84, 167, 205, 228, 336, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 491, 494
Buddhism, 5, 29, 69, 190, 328, 339, 488
aniconic aspects of, 7, 39 n. 12, 368–69
art and visual culture in, 8, 33, 39 n. 12, 99, 228, 367–76, 380
Buddha image in, 8, 84, 369, 370–72, 374, 375, 413, 455, 458, 491, 492, 493, 494–95
challenges to art history posed by, 223, 224, 374–76
Christian missionaries and, 494
dance in, 183, 191
devotional practices of, 403
and drama, 166
Mahayana, 28, 39 n. 12
mandala in, 94
music and, 358
rock gardens in, 13
and Shinto, 396, 397, 399
stupa in, 368, 495
Tantric/Vajrayana, 28, 97, 183, 413
and Taoism, 380–81
thangka art in, 97, 99, 100, 101
Zen, 13, 28, 38, 101, 166, 224, 228, 374, 413
Bulgakov, Sergei, 35
Bultmann, Rudolf, 442
Bunuel, Luis, 238, 243
Bunyan, John, 279
Burch Brown, Frank. See Brown, Frank Burch
Burckhardt, Titus, 225
Burke, Edmund, 57, 60, 81–82, 187
Burnet, Thomas, 60
Bychkov, Oleg, 20 n. 17
Cairns, Scott, 154, 155, 158
calligraphy, 28, 101, 212, 313, 379, 392, 408
Calvin, John, 31, 34, 80, 111, 112, 189, 289–90
cantata, 115, 291
cantillation, 263, 264, 322, 323
cantor, 264, 265, 267, 406, 411, 412, 414, 415
Caravaggio, 294, 462, 463
Carnatic music, 331, 361, 363
carnivalesque, the, 338–40
Carson, Anne, 159
Catherine of Siena, 469
Celan, Paul, 259
censorship, 418, 424
Ceppede, Jean de la, 149
Chadwick, Owen, 19 n. 15
Chadwick, Whitney, 470
Chagall, Marc, 274, 298
chant, 113, 147, 148, 191, 263, 264, 265, 289, 322, 323, 358, 359, 360, 363, 409, 411, 414, 415, 504
chazzan. See cantor
Chekhov, Anton, 279
Christ. See Jesus (Christ)
Christianity and the arts
dance, 183, 184, 187–89, 197
drama, 35, 167–68, 169
film, 241–45, 246, 247, 249
literature, 130–41, 148, 149, 155, 279–84
Church, Frederic Edwin, 60
Churches. See Architecture, Christian
Churchill, Caryl, 170
Clark, Elizabeth A., 474
Clement of Alexandria, 46, 114, 189
Cleveland, James, 509, 510
Clifton, Lucille, 158
clown, 250 n. 2, 327, 329, 334, 339, 340, 341–42, 343 n. 10, 344 n. 12, 345 n. 22, 348 n. 38
Clunas, Craig, 392
Cohen, Israel, 208
Cohen, Richard I., 277
Cole, Thomas, 60
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 59, 92, 279, 436
Cone, James H., 112, 516
Confucianism
and architecture, 389, 391, 392, 393
and arts, 388–93
confusing concepts about, 388–89
images and iconoclasm in, 393
(p. 527) and music, 390
and ritual performance, 389, 390
sculpture in, 391, 392
studies of, 389–93
Confucius, 190, 388, 389, 390, 393
Congar, Yves, 37
Cook, John W., 85
Coomaraswamy, Ananda K., 225, 369, 370
Costen, Melva Wilson, 517–18
Courbet, Gustave, 481
Couturier, Marie-Alain, 298
Cowley, Malcolm, 442
Cram, Ralph Adams, 217
Crane, Stephen, 441
Crawford, Richard, 288
creativity, 11, 91–102
in anti-apartheid resistance, 429, 430
in art and religion, 93–94, 97–102
bisociation and, 332
and freedom, 423, 424, 427
divine, 48, 79
and imagination, 84
in liturgy, 406
model for understanding process of, 97–100
suppressed by religion, 226
See also art; imagination
Crumlin, Rosemary, 225, 299
Cruz, Juana Ines de la, 149
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 95
Cummin, Thomas, 225
Curran, Kathleen, 217
Cutler, Norman, 351
Dali, Salvador, 297
dance, 18 n. 3, 101, 109, 111, 116, 111, 166, 169, 182–98
Bharata Natyam style of, 183, 195–96, 347–48 n.35
funerals using, 184
and Buddhism, 183, 191
and Christianity, 183, 184, 187–89, 197, 198, 346 n. 26
connected with drama, 162–63, 166, 169, 183
erotic aspects of, 186, 194, 335, 337
Greek and Roman, 187–88
and Hinduism, 27–28, 185, 186, 191–96, 333–35, 337, 340, 341–342, 346 n. 26
See also Natya Shastra; and Shiva, as dancer
in India, 191–96
and Islam, 117, 183, 189–90, 322
and Judaism, 184, 188, 197
modern, 196
pantomime, 185
prehistoric, 186
in processions, 184–85
in the Ramayana, 196
ritual aspects of, 182, 183, 185, 186, 190–91, 193, 195–96, 198
and sacred dance movement, 197
Shaker, 290
Shinto, 190–91
studies of religion and, 197–98
suspicion and rejection of, in religion, 183, 189, 197
televised, 198
trance in, 116
tribal, 186–87, 481
Danielou, Alain, 363
Dante Alighieri, 10, 124, 142 n. 22, 148, 149, 249, 279, 280, 283, 440
Daoism. See Taoism
Davis, Miles, 507
Davis, Todd, 156
darshan, 6, 8, 354
Darwin, Charles, 296, 434, 437, 440
Daumier, Honoré, 481–82
Davies, J. G., 188, 218
Debuyst, Frédéric, 216
Dehejia, Vidya, 351, 368
Delaroche, Paul, 296
Demeter, 187
Dennis, John, 57
Derrida, Jacques, 59, 63, 64, 65, 134, 172, 472
dervishes, 117, 183, 189, 325
Detweiler, Craig, 241, 245
devadasis, 185, 193, 194, 196, 340, 342
Devi, 360
Dewey, John, 96
dhikr, 189, 324, 325
Diaghilev, Sergey, 196
Dickens, Charles, 279
Dickinson, Emily, 279, 438–39, 440, 445, 446, 447
(p. 528) Diderot, Denis, 425
Didi-Huberman, Georges, 460
Dillenberger, Jane Dagget, 19 n. 15, 20 n. 21, 36, 85, 225
Dillenberger, John, 19 n. 15, 20 n. 21, 36, 85, 225
Dillistone, F. W., 139
Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite, 32, 46
Dionysus, 162, 163, 164, 166, 168, 172, 173, 187, 343 n. 8
Dix, Otto, 297
Dixon, Christa K., 516
Dixon, John W., 19 n. 15
Dome of the Rock, 312, 313, 316
Donne, John, 149, 152, 155, 279
Donoghue, Denis, 441
Dorsey, Thomas A., 498, 508, 517
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 279, 437, 438, 439, 440, 445, 446, 456
doubt and belief in modern literature, 11, 150–59, 433–47
Douglass, Frederick, 445–46
drama
African American, 171
ancient Greek, 162–64
avant-garde, 171–74
Buddhism and, 166
early Christian opposition to, 167
and cinema, 165
Corpus Christi cycle of, 167–68
ethical aspects of, 165, 167
Hindu, 327–42
Kenosis and, 174–75
liturgical, 166–67
“method” acting in, 169
mystery plays, 169
performance in, 173
and religion, 162–75
and ritual, 164, 166, 168–69, 172–73
sacramental aspects of, 168, 170
shamanism and, 166
Shinto and, 166
tragedy, 162, 166, 167, 172
and theology, 174–75
Dreiser, Theodore, 441
Driver, Tom F., 171
Drury, John, 20 n. 15
Du Bois, W. E. B., 498, 500
Duffy, Eamon, 20 n. 15
Dulles, Avery, 458
Dura Europus, 39 n. 11, 78
Durandus, William, 211
Durkheim, Emile, 172
Dwyer, Rachel, 351
Dyrness, William, 19 n. 15, 298
Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 406
and Hesychastic mysticism, 119
and icons, 6, 7, 8, 14, 33, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 122, 184, 212, 228, 245, 294
and music, 3, 122, 411
Eaton, Richard, 351
Ebert, Roger, 240
Eck, Diana, 19 n. 13
Eckhart, Meister, 62
Edwards, Jonathan, 9, 32, 34, 46, 49, 53, 115
Einboden, Jeffrey, 149
Einstein, Albert, 54
Elgood, Heather, 19 n. 13, 351, 353–54
Eliade, Mircea, 61, 62, 65, 67, 69, 72, 218, 224, 225, 245
Eliot, Charles, 440, 441, 442
Eliot, George, 439, 440
Eliot, T. S., 151, 154, 168, 170, 279
Elkins, James, 225
Ellington, Duke, 507
Ellison, Ralph, 445
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 279, 436
Empson, William, 152
Enlightenment, European, 18, 67, 82, 409
concepts of art and aesthetics in, 5–6, 9, 11, 14, 25–26, 33, 81, 221, 419, 425
ethical ideas from, 425, 434
Judaism and its arts affected by, 258, 259, 260, 263
supremacy of reason in, 82, 136, 150, 422, 435
Epstein, Dena, 516
Epstein, Heidi, 115
Erasmus, Desiderius, 168
Euripides, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 170, 173
Esslin, Martin, 171
Ettinghausen, Richard, 317
Evdokimov, Paul, 46
(p. 529) Faith
and art, 77–87
and doubt, in literature, 11, 150–59, 433–47
Farley, Edward, 34
Faulkner, William, 139, 279, 281–82, 284 n. 4
Fellini, Federico, 238, 243
Fenellosa, Ernest, 372
film
Catholic and Protestant interpretations contrasted, 244
compared with drama, 165
diverse church responses to, 242–45
Hindu uses of, 351, 355
Jesus in, 165, 173, 243
Jewish directors of, 261
methods of studying religion and, 241, 248–50
moral questions regarding, 239, 242–43
music in, 248
narrative in, 247, 248
parable-like, 242
and popular culture, 247
religion and, 3, 238–50
sacramental aspects of, 244, 245
sense of divine presence mediated by, 244–45, 351
sexuality and, 247, 248
spirituality and, 246
theological criticism and, 241–42
video and, 239
Finney, Paul Corbey, 19 n. 15
Fisher, Miles Mark, 516
Fisher, Robert E., 375
Fiske Jubilee Singers, 504
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 442
Florenskii, Pavel, 98
Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. 515
Focillon, Henri, 483–84, 494
Fokine, Michel, 196
Foley, Edward, 289
Forster, E. M., 131
Foucault, Michel, 172, 472
Foucher, Alfred, 369
Frances of Assisi, 469
Franklin, Aretha, 511
Freedberg, David, 225
Freud, Sigmund, 59, 136, 163, 172, 283, 452
Friedrich, Caspar David, 98, 299
Frost, Robert, 151, 152, 279, 443
Frye, Northrop, 59, 67
Gallie, W. B., 140
Gandhi, Mahatma, 70
Ganesha, 348 n. 38, 354, 360
García-Rivera, Alejandro, 20 n. 15, 85
Gardner, Howard, 94
Garrard, Mary D., 470, 472, 475, 477
Gaston, Anne-Marie, 197, 198, 362
Gauguin, Paul, 297
Geertz, Clifford, 168–69, 172–73
Gelineau, Joseph, 289, 414
gender, critical attention to in art and religion, 94, 198, 222, 223, 226, 243, 277, 338–40, 421, 424, 469–74
Gentz, William H., 188
geometry, sacred, 6
Gerow, Edwin, 337
Ghazzali, Mohammad al-, 48, 117
Gheeraerts, Marcus, 452, 453, 463
Gibson, Mel, 173, 298
Gilkey, Langdon, 84
Gilson, Etienne, 50
Girard, René, 172
Glass, Philip, 3, 119, 120
globalization, 86, 196, 198, 226, 232, 260, 297, 517
God
as artist and poet, 31, 32, 34, 46, 148
beautiful names of, in Islam, 48
and beauty, 10, 21, 30, 32, 35, 44–54, 338
as ultimate Connoisseur, in Indian aesthetics, 341
doubt and belief concerning, in modern literature, 150–59, 433–47
glory of, 34, 35, 44, 45, 47, 48, 50, 79, 207, 214, 426
and modern Islamic literature, 308
and movie experience, 241, 244–45
and mystery in fictional narrative, 135–36
rabbinical view of, 134
and the sublime, 32, 66–73
transcendence and immanence of, in Hinduism, 69–70
See also mysticism; and names of deities
(p. 530) Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 118, 150, 308, 422
Gogh, Vincent van, 296–97
Goldsworthy, Andy, 99
Gordimer, Nadine, 428
Gorringe, Timothy, 19 n. 15
gospel music, 14, 112, 508–10, 511, 517
Gothic architecture, 6, 10, 28, 211, 213, 214, 215, 217, 422
Gottlieb, Jack, 266
Gottlieb, Mauricy, 273
Grabar, André, 224
Grabar, Oleg, 224, 317, 454
Graham, Martha, 196
Great Mosque of Damascus, 312, 316, 454
Greco, El, 294–95
Greeley, Andrew, 241, 244
Greenberg, Clement, 482
Gregory, Andre, 173
Gregory of Nyssa, 32, 52, 79
Grotowski, Jerzy, 173
Grunewald, Matthias, 470
Guanyin, 381
Guardini, Romano, 215
Guevara, Miguel de, 149
Gutt, Christine, 399
Hadith, 39 n. 11, 48, 307, 311, 315, 322, 323, 324
Hafiz of Shiraz, 149, 317
Haggadah, 261, 272, 452, 455
Hagia Sophia, 208–209, 454
Halevi, Judah, 149, 258
Haley, Arthur, 173
Hamburger, Jeffrey, 470
Hammond, Peter, 217
Ha-Naguid, Samuel, 258
Handel, George Frideric, 110, 290, 291, 514
Hanna, Judith, 182
Hanslick, Eduard, 115
Hardy, Thomas, 438, 440
Harrán, Don, 265
Harries, Richard, 19 n. 15, 85
Harris, Max, 168, 175
Harris, Michael W., 517
Hassidism, 265
hasya, 327, 352, 360
Hart, Alexander, 273
Hart, David Bentley, 11
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 279, 438
Haynes, Deborah, 427, 428
Hazelton, Roger, 19 n. 15, 225
Heaney, Seamus, 155, 158
Heemskerck, Maarten van, 460
Hegel, G. W. F., 2, 11, 12, 34, 36, 65–68, 72, 73, 82, 421, 422, 423
Heidegger, Martin, 20 n. 23, 64, 224
Herbert, George, 149, 279
Herder, Gottfried, 481
hermeneutics, 29, 218, 305, 330, 350
Higgins, Gareth, 241
Hildegard von Bingen, 404
Hill, Geoffrey, 152, 158
Hinduism, 7, 63, 66, 68
aesthetics and poetics in, 7, 68–73, 327–42
humor and transgressive qualities in artistry of, 331–33, 338–42
aniconic forms of, 7, 39 n. 12
dance (or dance-drama) in, 27–28, 185, 186, 191–96, 335, 337, 340, 341–42, 346 n. 26
epic literature in, 331–33
and film, 342, 348 n. 37, 355
images in, 8, 27, 39 n. 12, 33, 354–55, 491
music in, 28, 358–64, 501
popular arts in, 2, 350–52, 354–55
sacred and profane in arts of, 327–342
temples in, 204, 210, 352–54
and theology of the Bhagavad Gita, 67–73
visual theology in, 350–55
worship in, 6, 27, 353–55
bhakti, 7, 61, 70, 71, 72, 194, 335–37, 343 n.5, 359, 361, 362
darshan, 6, 8, 354
prasada, 353
puja, 403
See also names of specific Hindu deities and scriptures
Hindustani music, 110, 119, 361, 362, 363
hip-hop, 499, 501, 512–13
Hirn, Yrjö, 19 n. 12, 14–15
Hirsch, Edward, 157, 158
Hirshfield, Jane, 147, 154, 156
Hisamatsu, Shin’ichi, 101, 224
Hoffman, Lawrence, 404, 405–406
Holbein, Hans, the Younger, 456
(p. 531) Holiday, Billie, 507
Homer, 92, 130, 131, 188, 279, 440
Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 49, 51, 52, 152, 279
Hovda, Robert, 414
Howard, Wayne, 359
Howes, Graham, 19 n. 6, 19 n. 15
Hudgins, Andrew, 153
Hudson, Dennis, 351
Hume, David, 25, 49
Hunt, William Holman, 296
Huntington, Susan L., 368
Hutcheson, Francis, 25
hymns, 28, 48, 124, 137, 147, 189, 216, 279, 286, 287, 289, 290, 359, 361, 362, 363, 408, 409, 500–501, 511
Ibn al-Bawwab, 313
Ibn abi’l-Dunya, 324, 325
Ibn al-Jawzi, 324
Ib al-Muqaffa, 303
Ibn Gabirol, Shlomo, 258
Ibn Khaldun, 322
Ibn Muqla, 313
Ibn Qutayba, 306, 307
Ibsen, Henrik, 169, 170
iconostasis, 205, 208
iconoclasm, 226, 227, 231, 450–63
and Buddhism, 39 n. 12, 228, 455, 458
and Christianity, 32–33, 78, 403
and Confucian images, 393
defined, 451
and embodiment, 456–58
in a gaze, 154
and intimations of ultimate mystery, 463
and Islam, 39 n. 11, 454
and Judaism, 38 n. 11, 78, 271, 277, 452
and material culture, 451–52
modern, 455
objects of, and their “life history,” 460–61
and Protestantism, 33, 39 n. 11, 212, 403, 454
iconography, 222, 224, 225, 227, 230, 233, 298, 315, 316, 370, 372, 375, 380, 381, 391
iconology, 222, 233
icons, 6, 7, 8, 14, 33, 98, 212, 228, 294
and “art,” 8, 372–74
Buddhist, 370–73
Daoist, 380
Eastern Orthodox, 6, 7, 8, 14, 33, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 122, 184, 212, 228, 245, 294, 454
“living,” 371–72, 373
as marketable objects, 97, 100
musical, 122
not made with human hands, 454
wonder-working, 33
Idelsohn, A. Z., 264, 405
idolatry in art, 92, 122, 283, 289, 372
iconoclastic fears of, 231
Jewish fears of, 270, 271, 272
missionary fears of, 488–90
Protestant fears of, 403
images
See film and video; icon; iconoclasm; visual arts
imagination, 27, 49, 54, 58, 59, 81, 82, 93, 421
and art, 2, 7, 11, 13, 14, 59, 77–87, 92, 133, 150, 295, 383, 422, 423, 425, 469–72
and Christian faith, 83–87, 133, 137, 295, 403, 455
divine, 84
ethical role of, 84
feminist critique regarding, in art and religion, 469–75
freedom of, 14
and hope, 428
and liberation, 86
poetic, in Islam, 149, 303, 305
and prayer, 158
and symbol, 66
theological and religious, 93, 455, 298–99
Impastato, David, 153
incarnation, 28, 30, 35, 39 n. 25, 47, 49, 84, 280, 452
and art, 33, 47, 79, 121, 122, 123, 155, 211, 351, 355, 454, 457
Internet, 455
iPods, 498
Irenaeus, 46, 79
Islam and the arts
aniconic and representational, 39 n. 11, 315–16
(p. 532) art and architecture, 310–18
calligraphy, 313
cantillation of Qur’an, 323
classifying and studying, 310–11
dance, 117, 183, 189, 190, 324–25
dhikr, 324–25
literature in relation to the Qur’an, 302–308
in Mughal empire, 310, 317, 350, 362
Muhammad as depicted in, 316
music, 109, 113, 116, 117, 118, 190, 321–25, 335, 363, 412
poetry, 118, 149
sama’, 116, 117, 322, 325
See also iconoclasm; mosque
Israëls, Jozef, 273
Jabès, Edmond, 134
Jackson, Mahalia, 509
Jackson, Michael, 118, 518
Jacobsen, Douglas, 19 n. 15
Jacobson, Israel, 215
Jahiz, 303, 304, 307
Jain, Kajri, 354
Jainism, 191, 328, 337, 363
James, William, 62, 117, 445
Jameson, Anna Brownell Murphy, 223
Janson, H. W., 297
Jarman, Mark, 155, 158
Jasper, David, 18n.4
jazz, 507–508
Jeffrey, Peter, 264
Jenson, Robert, 288
Jensen, Robin, 18 n. 3, 19 n. 15
Jeremias, Joachim, 148
Jesus (Christ)
beauty of, 35, 49, 79, 80, 438
in divine drama, 174–75
film depictions of, 165, 173, 243
historical questions regarding, and literature, 136–37, 435
and icons, 6
music about the Passion of, 291
and narratives of the Passion of, 136, 139
painting of the Passion of, 295
plays about life and Passion of, 165, 167–68, 169
Joby, Christopher, 296
John XXIII, Pope, 511
John of Damascus, 32, 98, 212, 404, 454
John Paul II, Pope, 37–38
Johnson, James Weldon, 505
Johnson, J. Rosamond, 505
Johnston, Robert K., 241, 243, 246
Jones, Everett LeRoi, 171
Jones, Lindsay, 1, 218
Josephus, 258
Josipovici, Gabriel, 133
Joyce, James, 279, 441
Judaism
and literature, 257–61
and museums, 275–77
and visual and architectural art, 270–77
See also iconoclasm; synagogue; temple; and specific forms of art and music
Justinian, 208
Justin Martyr, 473
Ka’ba, 316
Kabuki, 191
Kafka, Franz, 134, 135, 139, 259
Kageyama Haruki, 399
Kali, 184
Kalidasa, 329, 330, 337, 346 n. 31, 348
Kandinsky, Wassily, 299
Kant, Immanuel, 11, 14, 26, 32, 33, 35, 36, 58, 60, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 79, 80, 81, 82, 92, 421–23
Karlstadt, Andreas, 80
Karr, Mary, 154
Katz, Paul, 381
Kaufman, Gordon D., 93, 96
Kavanagh, Aidan, 405
Keach, Benjamin, 290
Kearney, Richard, 80
Keil, Charles, 517
Keller, Catherine, 11, 20 n. 23
Kermode, Frank, 131, 135, 139–40, 443, 444, 445
Khalafallah, Muhammad Ahmad, 305
(p. 533) Khan, Nusrat Fateh Ali, 118
Khuli, Amin al-, 305
Khyal, 362
Kieckhefer, Richard, 19 n. 15
Kierkegaard, Søren, 14, 33, 82, 136, 421, 423
Kim, Atta, 374
Kirk-Duggan, Cheryl A., 516–17
Kirtan, 363
klezmer, 109, 266
Kligman, Mark L., 267
Knapp, Jeffrey, 168
Koch, Kenneth, 147
Kohn, Livia, 379, 380, 383
Kol Nidre, 406
Kramrisch, Stella, 224, 351, 353
Krishna, 48, 69–72, 120, 192–93, 210, 358, 359, 362, 363
Kristeller, Paul, 19 n. 11
Kumin, Maxine, 158
Kushner, Tony, 3, 170, 259
Kuspit, Donald, 426–27
Kuyper, Abraham, 34–35, 36
Lacan, Jacques, 472
Landow, George, 296
Lane, Belden, 452
Lao Tsu (Laozi), 147, 380
Lara, Jaime, 217
Lash, Nicholas, 175
Latour, Bruno, 461
Lawrence, D. H., 130, 137, 140, 279
LeCompte, Elizabeth, 173
Lee, Li-Young, 153
Leeuw, Gerardus van der, 12, 15–16, 35–36, 61, 65, 69, 227, 405
Leidy, Denise Patry, 375
Leonardo da Vinci, 221
Levertov, Denise, 154, 158, 447
Levi, Primo, 259
Levinas, Emmanuel, 175
Levine, Lee, 217
Lewis, C. S., 250
Lidova, Natalie, 360
Liebermann, Max, 273
Lindsey, Alfred Lord, 223
Lipchitz, Jacques, 274, 298
Lissitzky, El, 274
literature
African American, 445–46
and the Bible, 130–41, 134, 140
Christianity and, 130–41, 148, 149, 155, 279–84
doubt and belief expressed in modern, 433–47
drama, 162–75
folk, 482
Hindu epic and dance-drama, 70, 327–42
Islam and the Qur’an, in relation to, 302–308
Judaism and, 257–61
parables, 86, 122, 134, 135, 136, 139, 305
poetry, 146–59
and politics, 330, 445
and race, 424, 445–46
Little, Stephen, 379–80, 381–82
liturgy. See worship
Locke, John, 81
Lollards, 167, 168
London, Jack, 441
Lonergan, Bernard, 35
Long, Richard, 99
Longinus, 57
Loughlin, Gerald, 245
Lowell, James Russell, 440
Lowrie, Walter, 225
Lucian, 187
Luria, Isaac, 174
Lutgendorf, Philip, 351
Luther, Martin, 111, 114, 132, 134, 212, 289, 404
Lyotard, Jean-François, 139, 409
Macarius, 50
MacGregor, Neil, 3
Mackey, James, 86
MacLeish, Archibald, 170
MacMillan, James, 3
Madonna (in Christianity), 461
Black, 228, 229
as Theotokos (God-bearer), 229, 452
Maeterlink, Maurice, 171
Mahabharata, 172, 173, 185, 194, 331, 333
Mahler, Gustav, 118, 119, 122
Maimon, Moses ibn (Maimonides), 258
Mâle, émile, 19 n. 12, 37, 224
(p. 534) Malick, Terrence, 3, 298
Malraux, André, 225
mandalas, 94, 210, 228, 353
Mandelstam, Osip, 147
Mander, Karel van, 461
Man, Paul de, 58
Mann, Vivian B., 277
Manning, Russell Re, 20 n. 21, n. 26
Marcus, Ivan G., 277
Marcuse, Herbert, 87, 427
Marini, Stephen, 116
Maritain, Jacques, 36, 225
Marsh, Clive, 241, 243, 244
Martin, Joel, 243
Marx, Karl, 93
Mary Magdalene, 469
Mary, mother of Jesus, 469
See also Madonna
Mass (liturgy and music), 6, 28, 109, 123, 204, 286, 291
Masson Jeffrey, 337
Matisse, Henri, 297–98, 485
material culture, 480–95
and fine art, 483–85
and “kitsch,” 482
and popular art, 480–83
and popular religion, 487–95
and religious studies, 486–95
Maultsby, Portia K., 502
McCallum, Donald, 373
McCarthy, Mary, 446–47
McClain, Carl, 242
McDannell, Colleen, 19 n. 15, 245
McFeely, William, 446
McIntyre, John, 77, 84
McKay, David P., 288
Medved, Michael, 243
Meenakshi Sundareshwar Temple, 352–55
megachurches, 205–206
Melville, Herman, 139, 279, 437–38
Mencius, 390
Mendelsohn, Eric, 216
Mendelssohn, Felix, 287, 291
Merwin, W. S., 153
Messiaen, Olivier, 119, 122
Milbank, John, 11, 20 n. 24
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 8, 96, 98, 294, 452, 458, 459, 460–61, 484
Mickiewicz, Adam, 450
Miles, Margaret, 11, 19 n. 15, 20 n. 23, 225, 239, 243
Miller, Arthur, 170
Mills, Kenneth, 225
Milosz, Czeslaw, 155, 157, 447
Milton, John, 150, 279, 435–36
Ming, Gao, 166
Mirabai, 362
Mithen, Steven, 2
Mitter, Partha, 351
Mnyele, Thamsanqa, 429
Mochizuki, Mia, 19 n. 15
Moltmann, Jurgen, 54
Mondzain, Marie-José, 452
Monk, Samuel, 57, 64
Moore, Albert C., 225
Morey, Charles R., 225
Morgan, David, 19 n. 15, 225
Mori, Mariko, 374
Moritz, Karl Philipp, 491
Morris, David B., 57
Morris, William, 425
Morrison, Toni, 447
mosque, 203, 214, 216, 311, 312, 316
arts within, 211, 212, 227
as assembly place, 204, 209, 311
and design of world, 210–11
mihrab and imagery of, 204, 310, 315
minaret of, 206
minbar within, 204, 314
Qibla of, 313
Moynahan, Michael E., 407
Muhammad (Prophet), 39 n. 11, 48, 148, 189, 303, 307, 311, 312, 313, 315, 316, 322, 323, 409
Murdoch, Iris, 36, 130, 140, 141
Murray, Les, 146, 147, 149, 150, 152, 157, 159
Murray, Mary Charles, 20 n. 15
museums, 222, 372, 374, 481, 482, 493, 494
as decontextualizing, 226, 232, 375, 379, 390
Jewish, 275–77
music
African American, 112, 124, 498–519
Augustine on, 31, 110
biblical views of, 110, 287, 289
Buddhism and, 113
cantors in, 264, 267
as Divine gift, 11–12
(p. 535) Calvin on, 31, 111, 112, 289, 290
Christianity and, 111–12, 119, 286–91
Civil Rights Movement and, 511
Council of Trent on, 290
emotion and, 110–113
Hinduism and, 48, 358–64
Islam and, 113, 118, 321–25
Judaism and, 113, 118, 263–67, 403–404
Liberation and, 511, 512
Luther on, 111–12, 289
mathematics and, 114–16
mystical aspects of, 47, 117–20, 324–25
Orpheus and powers of, 110
Pentecostal, 109, 113, 116
political aspects of, 499
Pope Pius XII on, 111
and rasa theory, 118, 119
rejection of, or disputes over, 112, 290, 321, 324, 498
religious and spiritual aspects of, 3, 109–124
sacrament and, 121–22
sacred sound (Nada-Brahman) and, 359
and sama’, 117, 190, 321, 322, 324, 325
Second Vatican Council on, 216
secular styles, in relation to sacred, 124, 498–519
and sonic theology, 359
of the spheres, 17, 32, 114
and theomusicology, 518
and time, 123
and trance, 116–18
Wesley, John and Charles, attitudes toward, 124, 290–91
See also specific genres of music; and under specific religions
mysticism, 52, 275
and aesthetic experience, 335–38
and music, 47, 117–20, 265, 324–25
Nada-Brahman, 359
Narcissus, 374, 462, 463
narrative
in the Bible, 130–41
in the Gospels, 133
in midrash, 135
in the novel, 131, 135, 137–41
Naryayanan, Vasudha, 361
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, 113
Natya Shastra, 183, 185, 191, 192, 194, 334, 343 n. 11, 360
Neo-Platonism, 30, 32, 48, 53, 59, 79, 323
Nichols, Aidan, 20 n. 15, 39 n. 25
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 437
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 150, 154, 168, 172, 421, 423, 438, 439, 445, 446
Niggunim, 118
Nochlin, Linda, 470
Noh, 191
Noon, William T., 152
Norberg-Schulz, Christian, 217
Norris, Kathleen, 153, 158
Northrop, F. S. C., 225
Nouwen, Henri, 16
Novak, Barbara, 59, 60
Nusach, 264, 265
Nye, Naomi Shihab, 146, 153
O’Connor, Flannery, 249, 283, 284, 446–47
Ofili, Chris, 232
Olin, Margaret, 277
Oliver, Mary, 155, 158
Oppenheim, Moritz Daniel, 273
oratorio, 28, 110, 115, 286, 291, 514
Orpheus, 110, 188,
Oswalt, Conrad, 243
Otto, Rudolph, 61–65, 67, 68, 69, 72, 221, 223, 224, 405
Overstreet, Jeffrey, 240–41
Page, Christopher, 288
Palladio, Andrea, 213
Pambo, 289
Panofsky, Erwin, 217, 224, 233
Parini, Jay, 159
Parker, Rozsika, 470
Parks, Suzan-Lori, 171
Pärt, Arvo, 3, 119, 120, 124
Pater, Walter, 12
Patocka, Jan, 63, 64
Pattison, George, 19 n. 15, 85
Patwardhan, M. V., 337
Paul (Apostle), 50, 241, 243
Péguy, Charles, 152
Pentecostal Christianity, 406, 409, 410, 488
and music, 109, 113, 116, 412, 508, 518
and film, 245, 249
(p. 536) Percy, Walker, 447
Persephone, 187
Picasso, Pablo, 84, 297
Pickstock, Catherine, 11
Pinney, Christopher, 351
Pirandello, Luigi, 165
Pissarro, Camille, 273
Pitts, Leonard, 118
Pius XII, Pope, 111
piyyutim, 266
Plate, Brent, 246
Plato, 8, 44, 45, 47, 51, 53, 78–79, 92, 112, 114, 167, 183, 188, 418–20, 456, 471
Plotinus, 8, 59, 79
poetry
of absence, 156–57
of Christian Gospels, 148
of Divine Comedy (Dante), 148, 149
of Hebrew Bible, 148
of Hindu scriptures, 147
and incarnation, 155
of Qur’an, 148
and religion/spirituality, 146–59
secularization and, 150–52
of spirituality renewed, 153–59
Sufi, 149
of Tao Te Ching, 147–48
politics and art, 413, 418, 419, 424, 425, 427–30, 455, 470, 473, 481, 500, 505, 506, 510, 511, 517
Pollack, Griselda, 470
Pollock, Sheldon, 337, 344 n. 14, 347 n. 31
polyphony, 11, 290
polytheism, 64, 65, 71, 72, 324
Popular arts
in comparison with elite or “fine,” 85, 372, 418, 429, 482, 490–95
Postman, Neil, 239
Pound, Ezra, 302, 303, 441
Power, Martin, 391
Prado, Adélia, 154, 155
praise songs, 501, 504, 506, 507, 509, 510, 518
prayer, 86, 229, 407, 408
Buddhist, 403, 413, 495
call to, 109, 412
Christian, 99, 286, 288, 289, 290, 411–13
and contemplation, 101, 230
and creative process, 231
and dance, 197
devotion with icons, and, 99
direction of, 204, 313
Hindu, 353, 358, 403
Jewish, 172, 207, 215, 216, 263, 264, 272, 405, 406
leading of, 414
and meditation, 101, 413
monastic, and art, 295
and music, 117, 265, 289, 358, 415
Muslim, 109, 206, 209, 311, 312, 314, 316
and poetry, 152, 158
postures for, 412
rug for, 315
Shinto, 396
See also worship
Prez, Josquin des, 111
Prickett, Stephen, 137
Procopius, 208
profane art
in relation to sacred or holy, 12, 130, 210, 227–28, 405, 499, 518
in Hindu aesthetics and poetics, 61, 210, 327, 328, 329, 330, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 341
Promey, Sally, 19 n. 15
Protestant Christianity
and church architecture, 205–206
and dance, 183
and drama, 168
and films, 242, 243, 244, 245
and literature, 7, 155, 281–82, 440, 441, 442
and music, 7, 111, 112, 121, 511, 514, 517
and visual arts, 7, 19 n. 15, 39 n. 11, 220, 227, 281, 295, 296, 372, 403, 454, 460, 487, 491, 495
and worship style, 406, 409
psalms, 45, 113
on beauty of God, 47, 49, 54
in Christian worship, 112, 289, 290
dance evoked by, 188
in Jewish worship, 264, 288
music of, 112, 264, 287, 288
poetry of, 45, 148, 149
Pugin, A. W. N., 214, 217
puja, 132, 185, 193, 360, 363, 403
Pythagoras, 114
(p. 537) Quasten, Johannes, 405
Qawwali, 109, 118
Qur’an, 48, 67, 70, 113, 148, 190, 211
calligraphy for, 212
cantillation of, 323
on dance, 189
literary qualities and influence of, 148, 302–308
and music, 322
Rabinovitch, Celia, 225
race and ethnicity, critical attention to, 445–46, 512
Racine, Jean, 173, 308
ragas, 28, 110, 119, 360, 363
ragtime, 506–507
Rahman, Fazulr, 305
Rahner, Karl, 35, 77, 281–82
Rainey, Ma, 506
Rama, 61, 68, 355
Ramanuja, 72
Ramayana, 132, 185, 194, 196, 343 n. 5, 344 n. 17
rap and hip-hop, 109, 499, 501, 502, 512–13
Rappaport, Roy A., 405
rasa 118–19, 332, 335, 341, 345 n. 18, 352, 355
Abhinavagupta’s theories of, 335–38
bliss of the supreme, related to all, 336
in dance, 194–95
in music, 18–19, 335, 359, 360, 362
in theater, 334
Rashi, 263
Reagon, Bernice Johnson, 517
religion
art mapped onto the study of, 1–18
and art in mutual transformation, 13, 16–18
lived, 380, 487–91
study of art and, 1–2, 18, 18 n. 3, 77–87
See also aesthetics, religious; aesthetics, theological: spirituality; and names of specific religions
Rembrandt van Rijn, 16, 17, 96, 275, 295–96, 457
revelation, 30–31, 47, 80, 122, 241, 307, 308
and the arts, 11, 12, 27, 28, 29, 30, 86, 87, 122, 123, 158
beauty of, 35, 47
in the Bhagavad Gita, 71
and imagination, 84
and literature, 279, 280, 282, 306,
and poetic/literary excellence of the Qur’an, 302, 303, 304, 308
and poetry of the Bible, 148
and sublimity, 61
and visual art, 298
Rice, Anne, 140–41
Richards, I. A., 152
Ricoeur, Paul, 175
Riefenstahl, Leni, 424
Riley, Denise, 471
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 151, 281
ring shouts, 501, 507
Rio, Alexis-François, 223
ritual. See drama; worship
Roach, Hildred, 515
Robinson, Marilynne, 2
Robson, James, 384
rock music, 3, 124, 266
Rockwell, Norman, 482
Rogers, Pattiann, 156, 158
Rohe, Mies van der, 215
Romanticism
ideas of art in, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 60, 64, 92, 98, 299, 422–23, 426, 444, 482
ideas of artist in, 8, 60, 82, 98
and literature, 137, 138, 139, 150, 151, 436, 437, 444, 481
and music, 265, 290, 482
religion and theology of, 32, 51, 121, 138, 150, 151, 423
Rorty, Richard, 444–45
Rose, Michael, 217
Rossi, Solomone, 265
Roth, Philip, 259
Rothko, Mark, 16–17
Rouault, Georges, 298
Rouget, Gilbert, 116, 117, 118, 120
Rowell, Lewis, 360
Rubens, Peter Paul, 454
Rubenstein, Jeffrey L., 261
Rublev, Andrei, 94
Rumi, Jalal ad-Din, ar-, 118, 149, 189–90
Runge, Philipp Otto, 82, 96, 98
Rushdie, Salman, 65
(p. 538) Ruskin, John, 425, 440
Rust, E. Gardner, 18 n. 3, 364
Ryback, Issachar, 274
sacrament, 280, 281, 406, 408, 411, 514, 517
and art, 8, 11, 33, 35, 99, 220, 221, 230, 457
and beauty, 33, 51, 84
and drama, 168, 170, 177 n. 39
and film, 244, 245
and literature, 148, 155, 281, 282
and music, 121–22, 123
and nature, 99
sacred arts, and profane, 12, 61, 62, 130, 210, 227, 327–42, 329, 330, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338
Sallman, Warner, 487
sama’, 117, 190, 321, 322, 324, 325
Sama-Gana, 359–60
Sandberg, Carl, 240
Santayana, George, 442
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 83, 170
Scarry, Elaine, 426
Schama, Simon, 16–17, 21 n. 34
Schechner, Richard, 173
Scheider, Laurel, 20 n. 23
Schelling, Friedrich, 80, 82
Schiller, Friedrich, 26
Schlegel, Friedrich von, 422
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 63, 82, 121
Schloeder, Steven, 217
Schneidau, Herbert, 132, 133
Schoenberg, Arnold, 115, 266
Schön, Erhard, 457
Schopen, Gregory, 372
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 422, 491
Schrader, Paul, 245
Schwarz, Rudolf, 215
Schwebel, Horst, 77, 85
Schweitzer, Albert, 137
Scott, Nathan, Jr., 20 n. 21
Seasoltz, Kevin, 20 n. 15
secularization, 34, 35, 61, 168, 297, 298–99, 327, 329, 341, 435–39
Sed-Rajna, Gabrielle, 277
Sendak, Maurice, 261
Sephardic Jews, 260, 263, 266, 267, 271, 272
Shakespeare, William, 53, 130, 142 n. 22, 168, 169, 174, 175, 185, 279, 308, 329, 440
shamans, 73, 97, 333
East Asian, 166
and dance, 182, 186, 190
and musical trance, 166–17
North American, 73, 186
South Asian, 343 n. 6
Shapiro, Karl, 146
Sharf, Robert H., 370, 374
Shawn, Ted, 196, 197
Shelton, Ron, 238
Shinto, 5, 166, 190, 191, 353, 396–99
Buddhist influence on, 397
kami in, 397–99
problematical as a concept, 396
ritual arts, 396–99
shrines, 399
Shiva, 71, 228, 238, 334, 347 n. 35, 348 n. 38, 354, 360
as dancer, 27–28, 184, 187, 192, 195, 331, 335, 351, 358, 490
Siddhartha Gautama, 367, 495
See also Buddha
Sikhism, 191, 362, 363
Silverman, Debora, 297
Simon, Paul, 121
Simson, Otto von, 224
Slobin, Mark, 265
Smith, David, 351
Solomon (King), 207, 208, 211, 214, 270–71
Solotorevsky, Myrna, 134
Sommer, Deborah, 393
Sophocles, 147, 162, 164, 166, 187
sorrow songs, 506
South African art of resistance, 428–31
Southern, Eileen, 515
Sövik, Edward, 216
Soyinka, Wole, 168
Spencer, Jon Michael, 112, 518
Spielberg, Stephen, 240
spirituals, 112, 291, 498, 504, 505, 515–17
Splain, Tom, 413
Stace, Walter T., 52
Stanislavski, Constantin, 169–70
Stapert, Calvin, 289
Steiner, George, 121
Steinhardt, Nancy, 391
(p. 539) Stephens, Mitchell, 240
Stern, David, 135
Stevens, Keith, 380
Stevens, Wallace, 151, 152, 279, 443, 444
Stoltzfus, Philip, 115
Stone, Bryan, 242
Storer, Robert, 197
story. See narrative
Strauss, David Friedrich, 136
Strindberg, August, 169, 171
Stroup, George, 138
stupa, 368
sublime, the
in art, 11, 15
in the Bhagavad Gita 68–73
Burke on, 57, 60, 81, 82
concepts and definitions of, 57–60, 81
and dance of Shiva Nataraja, 489
Hegel on, 65, 66–67, 68, 69, 72
Kant on, 58, 62, 64, 65, 72, 81, 82
in music, 115
Otto on, 61, 62, 63
and the Qur’an, 303
and religious experience, 15, 32, 60–73, 82, 115, 150
Schleiermacher on, 82
Schopenhauer on, 491
Sufism, 307, 315, 317, 335, 409–10
and dance, 117, 183, 189, 190, 322, 324–25
and music, 109, 113, 116, 117, 118, 324–25, 335, 363, 412
and poetry, 149
Suger of St. Denis, 10, 209, 211
Sulzer, Solomon, 265
Sunday, Billy, 441
Sun Dazhang, 391
Sur Das, 362
Sutherland, Ann, 470
Suyui, Jalal al-din al-, 304
Suzuki, D. T., 224
Sweet Honey in the Rock, 517
synagogue, 206, 207, 243, 353, 409
Ark of, 204, 272
art and architecture of, 203, 204, 208, 209, 212, 214, 215, 216, 217, 271, 272–73, 275, 276, 277
bimah in, 204, 215, 272
decoration of, 272
at Dura Europus, 39 n. 11, 78
music in, 263, 264, 265, 266, 288, 289
new media in, 239
Tabernacle in, 272
Synge John, 170
Tagore, Rabindranath, 362
tajwid, 323
tala 361
Talmud, 47, 258, 271, 272
Taoism, 28, 190, 379
architecture and, 383–84
arts and, 379–85
mountain sites of, 384
problems with terms and concepts for, 379–81, 385
studies of arts and, 379–85
Tao Te Ching, 148
tarab, 321–22
Tarantino, Quentin, 241
Tarkovsky, Andrei, 245
Tarlekar, G. H., 359, 360
taste, 25, 26, 27, 37, 86, 214, 277, 305, 351, 485, 501, 502
aesthetic and spiritual, 50, 336, 337
and class, 499
ecumenical, 37
good and bad, 36, 223, 419, 424, 426, 498
for the infinite, in religion, 82
Kant’s theories of, 11, 421–22
and moral judgment, 425
and worship, 412, 514
Tatarkiewcz, Wladyslaw, 20 n. 17
Tavener, John, 3, 120, 122, 123
Taylor, Edward, 150
Taylor, Mark C., 12
Taylor, Woodman, 351
television, 3, 165, 174, 198, 243, 261, 351, 509
Temperley, Nicholas, 287
temple art and architecture, 203–204, 205, 213, 217, 230, 488, 494
Buddhist, 99, 100, 205, 367, 371, 389, 411, 413, 495
Christian adaptations of, 208
Confucian, 393
Hindu, 6, 8, 184, 203, 206, 210, 213, 216, 327, 330, 343 n. 5, 350, 352–55, 403
(p. 540) and Indic dance, 186, 191, 192, 193–94, 195–96, 335, 346 n. 26
and Indic music, 358, 361, 362, 363, 364, 412
Taoist, 380, 381, 383, 384
Tennant, Frederick Robert, 51
Tharpe, Rosetta, 509
Theodora, 212
theology
and aesthetics 1, 4, 11, 14, 30–38
apophatic, 13, 39 n. 12
and eschatology in art and faith, 15, 50, 77, 85, 86–87, 170
feminist, 11, 115, 340
and film criticism, 241–42
Hindu polytheistic monism of the Gita, 70, 72
Hindu sonic, 359
Hindu visual, 350–52
liberation, 11, 20 n. 23, 37, 115, 340
and literary criticism, 280–84
narrative, 138
natural, 20 n. 23, 52
pantheistic, 68
process, 11
Radical Orthodoxy in, 11
Transcendental Thomist, 35
See also God; aesthetics: theological; and names of theologians
Thieseen, Gesa Elsbeth, 20 n. 22
Thite, G. U., 359
Thomas, R. S., 156, 158
Thurman, Howard, 516
Tillich, Paul, 11, 19 n. 15, 21 n. 31, 36, 77, 85, 87, 245, 281, 284, 442
Tolkien, J. R. R., 65, 73, 279
Tolstoy, Leo, 36, 279
Torah, 78, 143, 188, 204, 257, 258, 260, 271, 272, 275
Tornatore, Giuseppe, 238
Tracy, David, 37, 86–87, 244
trance, 116–18
transcendentals, 10, 31, 32, 35, 79
transgressive sacrality, 337, 341, 347 n. 32
Tranströmer, Tomas, 152, 157
Turner, Harold, 218
Turner, Victor, 173, 405
Turrell, James, 99, 100
Tutu, Desmond, 413
Twain, Mark, 279, 441
Tyler, Royall, 399
Tyler, Susan, 399
Unamuno, Miguel de, 458
Underhill, Evelyn, 117
Upanishads, 67, 70, 71, 72, 147, 354, 359, 491
Updike, John, 447
U2 (rock band), 3, 124
Valmiki, 331
Valpey, Kenneth, 351
Varma, Raja Ravi, 354
Vasari, Giorgio, 98, 459
Vatsyayan, Kapila, 197
Vaughan Williams, Ralph, 287
Vedanta, 68, 227, 363
Vedas, 9, 330, 338, 339, 343 n. 11, 358, 359, 491
Velázquez, Diego, 458
Verdi, Giuseppi, 291
Verellen, Franciscus, 380
video, 17, 351
Viladesau, Richard, 10, 20 n. 15, 37, 85
Virgil, 188, 279, 280
Virgin of Guadalupe, 228
Vishnu, 48, 68, 71, 120, 187, 192, 358, 359, 360
visual arts
and Buddhism, 8, 33, 228, 367–76, 380
and Christianity, 294–99
and Confucianism, 388–93
and Hinduism, 350–55
and Islam, 310–18
and Judaism, 270–77
and material culture, 480–95
and Navajo practices, 97, 98, 99, 101
and religion, 97–100, 220–33, 480–95
and Shinto, 396–99
in South Africa, 428–30
study of, and religion, 220–21, 222–33, 374–76, 483–85
(p. 541) and Taoism, 379–85
See also aesthetics; architecture; film and video; imagination
Vitruvius, 213
Vivekananda, Swami, 63, 68
Vodou, 404
Vogt, Von Ogden, 19 n. 15
Volp, Rainer, 19 n. 6
Vrudy, Kimberly, 18 n. 4
Waghorne, Joanne, 351
Wagner, Richard, 422
Walker, Jeanne Murray, 158
Walker, Keith, 19 n. 15
Ward, Graham, 20 n. 24
Warhol, Andy, 232
Watts, Isaac, 290–91
Webber, Andrew Lloyd, 170
Weil, Simone, 47, 52, 54
Werner, Eric, 264
Wesley, Charles, 124, 136, 290–91, 501
Wesley, John, 124, 290
Wesley, Samuel Sebastian, 291
Wharton, Edith, 441
Whitehead, Alfred North, 11
Whitman, Walt, 150
Wilbur, Richard, 152, 155, 447
Wilder, Amos Niven, 20 n. 21
Wilder, Thornton, 165
Williams, Peter, 488
Williamson, Sue, 428–29, 430
Wilson, August, 171
Wiman, Christian, 154, 155, 158
Wimpfheimer, Barry Scott, 261
Wisse, Ruth R., 261
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 53, 115, 375, 463
Witvliet, John, 405
Wolterstorff, Nicholas, 51, 225, 427
Wonder, Stevie, 511, 518
Wordsworth, William, 59, 60, 61, 150, 279, 436
worship
aesthetics of, 28, 404–13
architecture and liturgical reform in, 215–16
artistry in, 77, 403–16
improvisation in, 415
and the Mass, 6, 109, 166, 514
modern and postmodern, 215–16, 403–15
performance as verbal and non-verbal in, 411–14
post-Holocaust, 409
ritual actions in, 404
studies of, 405–406, 407, 473–73
See also prayer
Wren, Christopher, 214
Wright, Charles, 155–56, 157–58
Wright, Elaine, 317
Wright, Franz, 148, 154, 156
Wright, Richard, 445
Wu Hung, 391
Wulff, Donna, 337
Wuthnow, Robert, 2, 94, 111
Wycliff, John, 167
Wyschogrod, Edith, 409
Xuanzang, 371
Xunzi, 388, 390
Yates, Wilson, 18 nn. 34, 19 n. 15, 298
Yeats, William Butler, 154, 441
YouTube, 18 n. 1, 331, 342
Yuval, 263
Zadkine, Ossip, 274
Zaehner, R. C., 62, 65, 69
Zagajewski, Adam, 153, 157
Zeami, 166
Zen Buddhism, 13, 28, 38, 101, 166, 224, 228, 374, 413
Zimmerman, Mary, 174
Zola, Emile, 169, 481
Zwingli, Ulrich, 80, 289, 290, 455