Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 February 2020

(p. 601) Index

(p. 601) Index

A&E, 344, 566
Aarseth, Espen, 237, 241, 242, 243, 256n32
Abschied vot Gestern (Kluge), 130, 132
Absolutism, computationalism and, 520
Abstract art, 43
Abu Ghraib images, 151–52
Academic study: celebrity studies and, 189, 194, 201–2;
classical film theory and, 48;
film and media studies and, 16–17, 18, 265–66;
media culture and, 4–5;
realism and, 86, 95–96, 107
Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS), 339, 340
Accommodation, film and media studies pedagogy and, 536
Ackerman, Chantal, 108
Acland, Charles, 461
A Clockwork Orange (Kubrick), 224, 245
Action-adventure films, 23, 24
Active learning, 534–35, 536, 551
Actors: Chinese action images and, 369–70;
early cinema and, 196;
media celebrity and, 189–90, 197, 215n15;
the work of stardom and, 202–5;
wu xia films and, 370
Actualités, 26, 27, 296–97
Adamson, Andrew, 437
Adaptations: of computer and video games, 235;
copyright and fair use, 558–59;
direct adaptations, 239–40;
indirect adaptations, 240–43;
intermedial borrowings and, 244–47, 248;
of other media's capabilities, 243–44
Addictions and Subtractions (Gavira), 468
Administrative structures, computationalism and, 518–19
Adoring Audience, The (Lewis), 207
Adorno, Theodor, 13–14, 15, 137, 193, 214, 253
Advertising: 24 and, 314–15, 324n8;
computers and, 509;
cross-promotion and, 335–36;
digital media and, 177;
media celebrity and, 197, 198–99, 205–6;
photography and, 168;
soft affiliations and, 344;
technological advances and, 308
Aeneid (Virgil), 373, 385
Aesthetic forms, Latin American media and, 469–71
Aesthetics, 43, 49
Affiliation, media conglomeration and, 341–42, 350–51
Africa, film industry in, 271
African-Americans, 5, 210–11, 266
After Theory (Eagleton), 40
Alberoni, Francesco, 190, 202–3
Aldrich, Robert, 98
Alea, Tomás de, 475
Alexander, Karen, 210
Alexandrov, Grigori, 57
“Ali—The Whole Story,” 563–64
All About Lily Chou-Chou (Iwai), 418
Allá en el Rancho Grande (Fuentes), 491
Allegory, painting and, 167, 178
Allen, Richard, 66–67
Allen, Robert, 190
Allen, Woody, 8
Alliez, Eric, 316, 317
Almodóvar, Pedro, 545
Alonso, Lisandro, 473
“Alternative” culture, textual analysis and, 268
Althuserian Marxism, 530
Althusser, Louis, 86, 129, 170, 227
Altman, Rick: computer and video games and, 248–49;
film genre theory and, 225, 225–26, 228, 233;
hybrid film genres and, 234–35;
“semantic/syntactic/pragmatic genre theory,” 229–30, 245
Altman, Robert, 11
Alvarado, Manuel, 531, 533
Alvaray, Luisela, 465–66
Alvey, Mark, 337–38
Amae (indulgence), 393, 396
Amateur photography, digital media and, 176, 179
Ambassador of America in Natural Colors, The (el-Tilmissani), 496
“Ambiguous Ecologies: Stardom's Domestic Mise-en-Scène” (Dixon), 206
America (Baudrillard), 105
American Family Association, 7
American Lung Association, 264
American Medical Association, 263–64
American Mutoscope & Biograph Co. v. Edison Mfg. Co. (1905), 558–59
“An American View” (Greenberg), 41
Amores perros (Iñárritu), 471, 479, 493
Amsinck v. Columbia Pictures Indus., Inc. (1994), 577–78n14
Ana and the Others (Murga), 473
(p. 602) Analytical film theory, 66–67
Anarchy, 134
Anatomy of Dependence, The (Doi), 393
Anderson, Aaron, 369
Anderson, “Bronco Billy,” 199
Anderson, Perry, 530
Andrew, Dudley, 76n54, 91, 255n19, 532
Ang, Ien, 156n75
Anima Mundi Animation Film Festival, 478
Animation, 416, 417, 436, 437, 478
Annie Hall (Allen), 8
Anthropological studies, 225, 226–27, 233, 261, 263, 268–73
Anti-intellectualism, 92
Antitrust suits, 301
Aoyama (character), 400, 401–2, 403
Appadurai, Arjun, 272–73
“Apparatus: Metapsychological Approaches to the Impression of Reality in the Cinema” (Baudry), 62
Apparatus theory, 61–64, 65;
analytical film theory and, 66–67;
feminist film theory and, 67;
film theory and, 66;
Gilles Deleuze and, 72
Appert, Eugéne, 167, 171–73
Araújo, Joel Zito, 475
Architecture, montage and, 55
Archodidou, Anthi, 551, 554
Argentina: digital media and, 448;
documentary films and, 476;
film industry and, 460, 466–67;
film production and, 455, 492;
high-definition television (HDTV) and, 459;
Hollywood films and, 458;
Latin American media and, 454;
textual analysis and, 275–76;
World War II and, 491
Argentina Latente (Solanas), 476
Aristotle, genres and, 236
Armella, Carlos, 476
Arnheim, Rudolf, 95, 96, 97
Arriaga, Guillermo, 479
Art, film as: film and media studies pedagogy and, 530;
film genre theory and, 227;
film studies and, 9, 10, 16;
film theory and, 49–50;
Frankfort School and, 14;
realism and, 95, 96, 97
Art cinema, 117, 415
Art criticism, 43, 74n12
Articulable, the, 366, 367, 370, 385
Artistic establishment, 44, 45, 47, 104–5
Art of the Cinema (Kuleshov), 54
Art of the Moving Picture, The (Lindsay), 4, 45
Arts, the: European radicalism and, 121;
photography and, 161–62, 177–78;
relation of cinema to, 55;
video art, 418
Asada, Akira, 392–93, 395–96
Asami (character), 400–401, 402–3
Ash, Timothy Garten, 151
Ashes of Time (Wong), 374
Asian diaspora, 421
Asian film, digital culture and, 414–21
Assimilation: film and media studies pedagogy and, 536;
wu xia films and, 380
Associated Press, the, 175
Association of Independent Video and Filmmakers, 572
Astruc, Alexandre, 71–72, 98
Atari Anthology, 249–51, 253
AtomFilms, 331, 358n10
Attitude markers. See hedges and attitude markers
Audience competence, media conglomeration and, 357
Audience research, media celebrity and, 207–8
Audiences. See spectators
Audio technology, television and, 291. See also sound techniques
Audition (Miike), 396, 400–404, 408
Aufderheide, Pat, 571–573
Auteur-structuralism, 530
Auteur theory, 47, 63, 71, 530–31, 532
Authorship: aura and, 32, 33, 34;
“behind-the-scenes” style television shows and, 354;
Chinese action images and, 376;
digital media and, 31;
media celebrity and, 197;
media conglomeration and, 340;
sound techniques and, 56
Automobiles, computationalism and, 517
Avant-garde films: commerce and, 69;
conventions of filmmaking and, 28;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 531;
non-auratic cinema and, 32–33;
Soviet Union and, 56;
visual narratives and, 25
Avid Technologies, 449
Baader-Meinhof Gang, 130, 138, 177
Babenco, Hector, 468, 477
Babington, Bruce, 200, 208
Baby's Meal, The (Lumière), 92
Background materials, copyright and fair use, 575–76, 577n8
Badiou, Alain, 50
Baird, John Logie, 294, 297
Balaban and Katz Theater Corporation, 300
Baláz, Béla, 51, 52–53, 54, 96
Baldwin, James, 210
Balshofer, Fred J., 577n1
Bañeros (Ledo), 460
Banks, Indian cinema and, 426, 427
Banks, Miranda, 337
Barnauw, Erik, 101–2
Barthélemy, René, 294
Barthes, Roland, 160, 161, 376
Batchen, Geoffrey, 158
Battle in Heaven (Reygadas), 473, 474
Bauche, Vanessa, 479
Baudrillard, Jean, 104, 105
Baudry, Jean-Louis, 62
Bayoumi, Muhammad, 494
Bazin, André: apparatus theory and, 63;
cinematic realism and, 59–60;
contemporary scholarship and, 103;
film theory and, 9, 73;
French New Wave and, 98;
Italian neorealism and, 96–97;
montage and, 55;
performative realism, 108;
Peter Matthews (p. 603) and, 92;
realism and, 84, 85–86, 88, 89–90, 96, 105;
television and, 288;
terminology, differences in, 101;
virtual reality and, 29
Bean, Jennifer, 212
Beginning and End (Ripstein), 475
Behind the Music, 328, 329
“Behind-the-scenes” style television shows, 328–29, 335, 353–54, 357
Bell, Alexander Graham, 290, 291
Beller, Jonathan, 142, 151
Benet, Ricardo, 470–71
Ben Hur, copyright and fair use, 559
Benigni, Roberto, 543
Benjamin, Walter: aura and, 14–15, 32, 33;
the committed documentary and, 119;
photography and, 160–61, 180;
realism and, 86–88, 89–90
Berg, Charles Ramirez, 492
Berger, Lee, 18
Berlin Wall, fall of, 115, 135
Berman, Saul J., 315
Bernal, García, 479
Bernard, Tom, 18
Bertillon, Alphonse, 166
Best practices, fair use and, 571–76
Bet-hedging affiliations, 342, 344
Better Tomorrow II (Woo), 384
Bias of computation, 510
Bicycle Thief, The (De Sica), 277
“Bicycle Thief” (Bazin), 92
Bielinsky, Fabian, 476
Bielstein, Susan, 573
Bijker, Wiebe, 293
Bilder der Welt und Inschrift des Krieges (Farocki), 142, 143
Bill Graham Archives v. Dorling Kindersley Ltd. (2006), 562–63, 564
Binzell, Peggy, 360n22
Biograph, 198
Bird, Elizabeth, 215n8
Birmingham School, 225, 236–37
“Birth of a New Avant-Garde: La Caméra-stylo, The” (Astruc), 71, 98
Birthrate, Japanese, 399–400
Bize, Matías, 472
Black, Joel, 107–8
Black-and-white photography, digital media and, 176
Black market investments, Indian cinema and, 426, 427
Blade Runner (Scott), 417
Blind Director, The (Kluge), 140
Blockbuster Video, 493–94
Blog entries, 244
Blow-Up (Antonioni), 90
Blum-Byrnes Accords, 9
Blurred Boundaries: Questions of Meaning in Contemporary Culture (Nichols), 107
Boddy, William, 293
Bolivia, 455
Bolivia (Caetano), 469
Bollywood, 271–72, 417. See also Indian cinema
Bolter, Jay, 3, 18
Bolter, Jay David, 70, 239, 244
Bono, 342, 343, 346
Boorstin, Daniel, 107, 189, 193–94, 214
Bordwell, David: Christian Metz and, 64;
cognitive film theory, 66;
film theory and, 39–40;
Grand Theory and, 38–39;
realism and, 99, 100;
wu xia films and, 370
Bose, Derek, 427
Boxer Rebellion, 383
Box office returns, 11, 460, 463, 463–64, 488
Boyle, Danny, 228
Brady, Matthew, 169, 170
Brakhage, Stan, 76n53
Bram Stoker's Dracula (Coppola), 269
Branching trees, textbooks and, 537, 538
Brand identities, media conglomeration and, 349–50
Braudy, Leo, 189, 191
Bravo, 328, 329
Brazil: animation and, 478;
digital media and, 448, 462–63;
film production and, 456, 492;
high-definition television (HDTV) and, 459;
Latin American media and, 454, 464–65;
television and, 458
Brecht, Bertolt, 98–99, 100, 115, 116, 130
Bresson, Robert, 65
Brilliantbutcancelled.com, 353, 354
British cinema: documentary films and, 116;
media celebrity and, 199, 200, 208;
political documentary and, 124–25;
realism and, 104
British Film Institute, 529
British Sounds (Godard), 144, 154n39
British Stars and Stardom (Babington), 208
Britton, Andrew, 205
Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act (2005), 7
Broadcasting and Cable, 357, 358
Broadcast systems, television and, 290, 291
Brooks, Peter, 53, 317
Buckingham, David, 528, 532–33, 534
Buckland, Warren, 18
Buenos Aires International Independent Film Festival, 470
Buena Onda Films, 463
Buffy the Vampire Slayer, 337
Buñuel, Luis, 468
Burning of the Red Lotus Monastery, 368
Burning with Desire (Batchen), 158
Burns, Reid, 450, 455
Bus 174 (Padilha), 476
Buscombe, Edward, 225, 227
Bush, George W., 7, 12, 346–47
Business practices: AtomFilms, 358n10;
computers and, 519–21;
media conglomeration and, 340–41, 355, 356. See also media conglomeration
Business process modeling (BPM), 519, 520
Buyyala, Prashant, 437
(p. 604) Cable and satellite television, 423, 457–58, 493
Caetano, Adrian, 467, 469
Cagney, James, 203
Cahiers du cinéma: André; Bazin and, 59;
apparatus theory and, 61–62;
classical film theory and, 47;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 530, 532;
suture theory, 65
Cahn, Edward, 566
Calculation, development of, 518–19, 520
Caldwell, John, 13, 18
Calfee, Robert, 535, 536–37, 541
Camcorders, 149
Camera Lucida (Barthes), 160
Camera obscura, 287, 288, 291, 303n5
Caméra-stylo, 71–72, 72–73
Camera techniques: aura and, 32;
conventions of filmmaking and, 27;
digital media and, 450;
documentary films and, 132, 133;
horror films and, 405
Campaign Against Censorship (India), 441
Campanella, José, 476
Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. (1994), 570
Cannes Film Festival, 454, 469
Cansino, Margarita Carmen. See Hayworth, Rita
Canudo, Ricciotto, 44, 50–51
Caouette, Jonathan, 72–73
Capitalism: 24 and, 316–17;
Alexander Kluge and, 136, 137;
China and, 387;
computationalism and, 509, 515, 520, 521;
documentary films and, 115,122–23, 134;
film theory and, 41;
Indian cinema and, 425, 430, 442;
infantile capitalism, 393–94, 393–94, 395–96, 397, 403–4, 408;
media conglomeration and, 332–33;
postmodernity and, 366;
realism and, 104–5;
textual analysis and, 268. See also Marxism
Capuzzo, Heitor, 458, 478
Carandiru (Babenco), 468, 477
Carlin, George, 7
Carrera, Carlos, 447
Carroll, Noël, 38, 39–40, 94, 100
Carte-de-visite photography, 162, 163
Cartesian rationalism, 514
Cartoon Network, 234
Case studies, textbooks and, 542–47, 549–53
Casetti, Francesco, 49
Cassavetes, John, 108
Castration, threat of, 68
Categorization. See textual categorization
Catholic Church, 10, 263
Causality, film and, 48
Cavalcanti, Alberto, 116
Cavell, Stanley, 100
Ceausescu, Nicolae, 146–47
Celebrity and Power: Fame in Contemporary Culture (Marshall), 195
Celebrity studies. See media celebrity
Cell phones, 244, 352, 524n30
Censorship: Catholic Church and, 10;
Gilda (Vidor) and, 278;
Indian cinema and, 438, 439–42, 443;
media conglomeration and, 349;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 498;
pirated films and, 420;
television and, 302;
wu xia films and, 368
Central Board of Film Certification (India), 439, 441
Central do Brasil (Salles), 447
“A Certain Tendency of the French Cinema” (Truffaut), 47
Certeau, Michel de, 247, 252
César, Ines de Olivera, 473
Chabrol, Claude, 9, 47
Chahine, Yousef, 494
Chalone, César, 479
Chambliss, Marilyn, 535, 536–37, 541
Chan, Evans, 18, 418
Chan, Jackie, 366, 369
Chanan, Michael, 476
Chance, cinematic realism and, 61
Chang Cheh, 369
Change, media and, 3–4
Chaplin, Charlie, 190–91, 191
Characters: female characters, 311, 323–24n4, 391–409;
genre and, 238
Charles, John, 368
Chartier, Roger, 261
Cheang, Shu Lea, 418
Cheney, Dick, 324n12
Chen Kaige, 387
Chess programs, 238
Chijona, Gerardo, 475
Chikushi, Tetsuya, 394
Chile, 454
Chinese action images, postmodernity and: bardic wu xia films, 375–77;
epics and counterepics, 373–75;
martial arts culture and, 365–68;
pristine nationhood and, 377–81;
“refining” the action image, 368–71;
wu xia films and, 371–73, 382–87
Chinese Connection, The, 383
Ching Siu Tung, 374
Choice theory, 540
Chow, Stephen, 372, 384
Christianity, evangelical, 515
Churning, media conglomeration and, 351
Cidade de Deus (Meirelles and Lund), 447, 468–69
Cimino, Michael, 11
Cine-Brechtians, 100
Cinefex Workshop, 416
Cinema 1: The Movement Image (Deleuze), 72
“Cinema and Suture” (Oudart), 65
Cinemanía, 462
Cinema of Attraction: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde (Gunning), 93
“Cinema of attractions,” 93, 109
“Cinema of interactions,” 35
Cinema: or the Imaginary Man, The (Morin), 77n69
Cinemas: costs and, 500;
film industry and, 301, 302;
Indian cinema and, 426, 427, 428–29, 430–31, 432–33;
Latin American media and, 460, 461, 465;
in the Middle East, 494;
multiplexes, 431, 461, 465;
television and, 301
(p. 605) Cinematic conventions. See conventions
Cinematic realism. See realism
Cinematics, video games and, 240–41
Cinema verité, 117, 577n8
Cinephilia, apparatus theory and, 63
Ciotat, La (Méliès), 29
Citizen Kane (Welles), 9, 545
Citizenship, computationalism and, 515–16
Civil War, U.S., 169–70
Claiming the Real (Winston), 102
Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America (Gamson), 195
Clair, René, 56–57, 60–61, 119
Clark, Danae, 204, 217n45
Clark, T. J., 129, 179–80
Classical film theory, 43–49, 58, 94–97
Classical Hollywood Cinema, The (Bordwell, Staiger, and Thompson), 64
Classic realist text (CRT), 99
Classification systems, photography and, 164–65, 166
ClearType, 550
Closed systems, 523n23
Close Up (journal), 75n27
Close-up shots, 50–53, 76n62, 127
Clothing, 278
Clover, Carol, 405
Cochran, Bob, 310–11
Cognition, study of, 514
Cognitive film theory, 66
Cohan, Steven, 318, 322
Cold War, the, 487, 496
Collaboration: computationalism and, 518;
media celebrity and, 205
Collateralization, 332, 355
Columbia, 454
Columbus, Chris, 23, 434
Comedies, 475, 476
Comedy Central, 234, 344, 352
Comic books, 6–7, 246–47
Commerce: independent cinema and, 69;
media celebrity and, 209;
photography and, 158
Commercial success: Alexander Kluge and, 140–41;
Harun Farocki and, 144;
media celebrity and, 189–90, 196;
news media and, 168;
photography and, 162;
political documentary and, 128
Commercial television, 265–66, 287
Committed documentary, the, 118–19
Communication, transparent immediacy and, 26–27
Communications systems, television and, 290, 291, 292, 298
Communication technologies: Asian film and, 418, 419;
computationalism and, 521–22;
Japanese horror films and, 391, 406
Communism: fall of, 115;
film industry and, 6
Community of inquiry, 536
Comolli, Jean-Louis, 61
Competition: computationalism and, 518;
globalization and, 499;
Indian cinema and, 425–26
Comprehension, deep and surface learning and, 536, 537–39
Computational politics, 511–12, 520
Computational sovereignty, 512–14
Computational utopianism, 516–18
Computer and video games: aura and, 33;
conventions of filmmaking and, 27–28;
cross-promotion and, 337;
direct adaptations and, 239–40;
film adaptations of, 235;
film and, 21, 22;
film genre theory and, 230–32, 230–33, 237–44, 247–48, 248–49;
genre and, 226, 253;
remediation strategy and, 23–26;
visual narratives and, 30. See also new media
Computer consultants, 519–20
Computer editing, 450–52
Computer engineering, 520
Computer-generated imagery (CGI), 370, 387, 416, 437. See also special effects
Computer industry, India and, 436
Computer models, 519
Computers, cultural studies and, 508–9;
the bias of computation, 510;
computational politics, 511–12;
computational sovereignty, 512–14;
computational utopianism, 516–18;
development of calculation and, 518–19;
instituting computers, 519–22;
rationalism and, 514–16
Computer technology, Eastern and Central European revolution and, 148–49
Concentration camps, 143
Conceptual stretching, globalization and, 485
Concine, 464
Concrete thinking, textbooks and, 548–49, 550
Conditional knowledge, 535, 536
Condor trilogy, 374, 376, 381, 382–83
Conglomeration. See media conglomeration
Conservativism, computationalism and, 514
Conspiracy, media and, 14
Constitution, U.S., copyright and fair use, 560–61
Constructivist psychology, 536
Consumerism: computationalism and, 517, 521;
Japan and, 393–96;
Japanese horror films and, 401–2, 403–4, 407–8;
wu xia films and, 381
Consumption: film genre theory and, 237;
globalization and, 488;
media celebrity and, 207–9;
textual analysis and, 269
Contact men, 333, 334
Contemporary scholarship, realism and, 103–9
Contingent affiliations, 342, 346–47
Continuity, illusion of, 294, 295
Continuity editing, 542–43
Contrapuntal sound films, 57
Control, need for, 320–21
Conventions: cognitive film theory and, 66;
computer and video games and, 23;
genre and, 225–26, 228, 247;
Indian cinema and, 434–36;
Japanese horror films and, 391–92;
Latin American media and, 469, 473–74;
origins of film conventions, 26–27;
of photography, 159;
romance conventions, 376, 380, 381, 438;
wu xia films and, 375–76
(p. 606) Convergence: digital media and, 3;
film and media studies and, 16–19;
media conglomeration and, 329–30. See also hybrid television genres
Cook, David, 106
Coolie (Desai), 435
Cooling, Christopher, 323n3
Coordinadora Latinoamerica de Cine y Commumcacion (CLACPI), 452
Coppola, Francis Ford, 11
Copyright: about fair use, 560–68;
best practices of fair use, 571–73;
critiquing fair use, 568–69;
“Documentary Filmmakers’ Statement of Best Practices on Fair Use,” 574–76;
film and media studies and, 264, 266;
principles of, 557–60;
structural meaning of fair use, 569–71
Copyright Act (1870), 558
Copyright Act (1978), 561
Copyright clearance, documentary films and, 571–72
Copyright infringement, 557–58. See also fair use
Cordero, Sebastián, 471
Corman, Roger, 566
Corporate media, television and, 294, 297
Corruption: computationalism and, 521;
Latin American media and, 455
Cosmatos, George P., 315
Costello, Michael, 237
Costs: digital cinema and, 432–33;
digital film distribution and, 463;
digital film production and, 437–38, 450, 453;
digital media and, 449;
globalization and, 488, 499–500;
of going to the movies, 431, 456;
high-definition television (HDTV) and, 458–59;
international film circulation and, 486;
postproduction and, 453;
production costs, 337, 355;
television production and, 337, 355;
of video games, 235
Courbet, Gustave, 167
Courts, U.S., copyright and fair use, 560–61, 563–68, 569–70
Court TV, 567
Craven, Wes, 409
Creativity, media conglomeration and, 340
Crewdson, Gregory, 178
Crimean War, 169
Crime of Father Amaro (Carrera), 447
“Crimes of the Commune” (Appert), 171–72
Critical deconstruction, 327, 328
Critical genres, 226, 255n20
Critical proofs, 357
Critical reflexivity. See reflexivity
Criticism: apparatus theory and, 63, 66;
art criticism, 43;
film genre theory and, 225, 226, 228, 230, 233–34, 247;
film theory and, 39;
hybrid film genres and, 235–36;
television shows and, 308–9;
textual analysis and, 263;
traditional media education and, 528
Cronenberg, David, 105
Cross-promotion, 332, 335–36
Cross-referencing, electronic textbooks and, 553
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (film, Lee), 366, 367, 369, 370, 371
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (book, Wang), 367
Crying Game, The (Jordan), 545
Cuarón, Alfonso, 23, 447, 466, 493
Cuba, 449–50, 454, 492
Cubitt, Sean, 554
Cultural anxieties: 24 and, 315–21;
horror films and, 396–97;
Latin American media and, 473;
Ringu (Miike) and, 398, 399–400
Cultural capital, media conglomeration and, 332
Cultural diversity: Chinese action images and, 372–73;
media conglomeration and, 341, 347–48, 348–52
Cultural forces: film and, 70;
media celebrity and, 194
Cultural identity, 380–81, 493
Cultural imperialism, international coproductions and, 338
Cultural influence: computer and video games, 22;
computer and video games and, 24;
film and, 21;
textual analysis and, 262;
of United States, 486–87;
United States and, 499
Cultural legitimacy, media conglomeration and, 347–48
Cultural literacy, photography and, 159
Cultural narratives, Latin American media and, 467, 468–71
Cultural politics: classical film theory and, 47;
media celebrity and, 201;
medium specificity and, 43, 44–45;
textual analysis and, 261, 265–66, 267–68, 269
Cultural practices, technological advances and, 289
Cultural redemption, photography and, 161
Cultural references, to Gilda (Vidor), 277–78
Cultural responsiveness, media conglomeration and, 341
Cultural studies: the bias of computation, 510;
computational politics, 511–12;
computational sovereignty, 512–14;
computational utopianism, 516–18;
computers and, 508–9;
development of calculation and, 518–19;
instituting computers, 519–22;
media studies and, 15;
rationalism and, 514–16
Cultural Studies (Grossbery, Nelso, and Treichler), 508
Culture, American: film theory and, 40–41;
media celebrity and, 193;
media conglomeration and, 340;
media culture and, 5–8;
realism and, 107
Culture, contemporary, 108, 195–96
Culture and Environment (Leavis and Thompson), 528
Culture industries: Latin American media and, 464, 465–66;
textual analysis and, 267–68
“Culture Industry, The” (Adorno and Horkheimer), 193
(p. 607) Curriculum, deep and surface learning and, 536, 539–41
Curtin, Michael, 271–72, 375
Customary usage, copyright and fair use, 569–70
Customer satisfaction, media conglomeration and, 351
“Cuteness.” See kawaii style
Cut scenes, 30
Cybernarratives, 417, 418, 419, 421
Cycles of the Heavenly Dragon (Jin), 379
Daguerre, Louis Jacques Mandé, 162, 291
Daguerreotypes, 162
Dallas, 156n75
Dances with Wolves, 269
Dark Water (Nataka), 411n31
Daughters of the Wind, 475
David, Jacques-Louis, 167
Dayan, Daniel, 65
Debord, Guy: documentary films and, 129–30,133–35;
European radicalism and, 117;
photography and, 168, 179–80;
spectacle and, 73
Decentralization, society and, 517–18
Declarative knowledge, 535
Decolonization, China and, 386–87
Decontextualization, textbooks and, 543
DeCordova, Richard, 195, 198
DeCurtis, Anthony, 328
Deep and surface learning: about, 537–39;
case study, 542–47;
comprehension and, 537–39;
curriculum and, 539–41;
electronic textbooks and, 550, 551, 554;
student-centered learning (CORE), 541–42
Deep-focus, long-take filmmaking, 60, 88
Deep Learning for a Digital Age (Weigel), 535
Deer and the Cauldron, The (Jin), 380
Deficit financing, 337–38
Defining genres, film genre theory and, 228–29
Definitive Elvis, The, 564–65
Delaroche, Paul, 182n24
Deleuze, Gilles, 50, 72, 73, 388n2, 515
DeLillo, Don, 108
Delluc, Louis, 50
DeMille, Cecil B., 495
Democracy, computers and, 510, 513
Denny, Reginald, 567
Deregulation, of media. See government regulation
Deren, Maya, 76n53, 96
Derrida, Jacques, 40
Descartes, René, 514, 515
Descriptive texts, 537, 538
De Sica, Vittorio, 9
Determinations: of apparatus theory, 72;
of the concept of television, 287
Détourne, of images, 134
Deutschland im Herbst (Kluge), 130, 138–39
Devil Finds Work, The (Baldwin), 210
Dewey, John, 536
Dhanwani, Rashmi, 437
Dhingra, Tushar, 434
Dialectical materialism, 54, 57
Dialectic of Enlightenment (Adorno and Horkheimer), 13–14
Dialects, sound techniques and, 57
Diamond, Hugh, 165
Dian xue effect, 376
Diarios de motocicleta (Salles), 474
Diasporic cultural identities, 273
Diaz Torres, Daniel, 475
Dick, Kirby, 572
Dick, Philip K., 105
Dictionary of New Media, 550
Die Hard, 235
Die Patriotin (Kluge), 130
Digital animation, 415
Digital cameras, portability of, 71
Digital delivery systems, 244
Digital divide, the, 511–12, 523n11
Digital installation art, 30, 34
Digital intermediate (DI) technology, 455
Digital intermediates, 335
Digital media: Asian film and, 414–21;
aura and, 33–35;
caméra-stylo and, 72–73;
convergence and, 17;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 145;
European radicalism and, 117, 118;
externalizing risk and, 335;
film distribution and, 444n22, 444n25;
film theory and, 70;
future of filmic narrative and, 21–36;
globalization and, 500;
Indian cinema and, 431–32, 436–38, 442;
Latin American media and, 447–48, 448–55, 479–80;
media celebrity and, 213;
medium specificity and, 70–71;
photography and, 158–80;
piracy and, 420;
postmodernism and, 106;
“quality television” and, 322–23;
technological advances and, 289;
television and, 109, 458–59;
transparent representation and, 28–31;
visual narratives and, 25–26;
volitional mobility and, 314
Digital theory, 70–71
Digital video (DV) films, 415, 417–18
“Digital World Picture, The” (Geuens), 70
Dignity of the Nobodies (Solanas), 476
Direct adaptations, 239–40
Direct cinema, 117
Directors, 9–10, 11, 56, 197
DirecTV, 344, 457
Disclosures, stages, 357
Discord, sound techniques and, 57
Disdéri, A.A.E., 162, 163
Disney/ABC, 327, 344
Distance, television and, 288
Distinct properties, new media and, 239
Distribution, new media and, 148–49;
Abu Ghraib images and, 151–52;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 145
Distribution, of films. See film distribution
Distribution, of images, 176, 179
Distribution systems, 339
Diversity, cultural. See cultural diversity
(p. 608) “Divining the Real” (Matthews), 85–86
Dixon, Simon, 206
Doane, Mary Ann, 93–94, 100
“Documentary Filmmakers’ Statement of Best Practices on Fair Use,” 571, 573, 574–76
Documentary films: 1920s and 1930s, 121–28;
conventions of filmmaking and, 27;
copyright and fair use, 559, 563–66, 569, 571–76;
digital media and, 72–73;
early cinema and, 296;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 145–52;
European radicalism and, 114–21, 114–52;
fiction and, 107;
Indian cinema and, 436, 439–40, 443;
Latin American media and, 451–52, 461, 470, 476–77;
post-World War II era, 129–44;
realism and, 101–3, 108
DOGME-95 manifesto, 106, 107, 415
Doi, Takeo, 393
Domestic audiences, Latin American media and, 468
Domestic coproduction, 337–38
Doordarshan television company, 423
Dorling Kindersley, Ltd., 562–63
Dot-com crisis, 345
Dowaliby, James, 338–39
Dowd, Maureen, 324n12
Down to Earth (Hall), 277
Dramatists, sound techniques and, 57
“Dramaturgy of Film Form, The,” (Eisenstein), 54, 55
Drifters (Grierson), 125
Drug discovery, 521
Drug use, 264
Dreyer, Carl Theodor, 132
Duck Season (Eimbcke), 475
Dudow, Slatan, 116
Dune (Lynch), 493
Duong, Senh, 414
Duplicate negatives, externalizing risk and, 335
Durant, Alberto, 455
DVDs and videotapes: electronic textbooks and, 547;
filmic narrative and, 34–35;
Indian cinema and, 430;
Latin American media and, 456, 462;
Spanish-language films and, 493–94;
textual analysis and, 267
Dyer, Richard, 194, 205, 211, 212–13
Dziga Vertov Group, 154n39
Eagleton, Terry, 40–41, 41–42
Eakins, Thomas, 295
Early cinema, realism and, 91–94
Easkins, Emily, 40
Eastern and Central Europe: digital media and, 118;
European radicalism, documentary films and, 143–44, 145–52;
government media and, 120;
television and, 115
Eastland, James O., 7
Eastwood, Clint, 237, 545
Eaton, Jana, 533
Eclectic realism, 104
Economic conditions: computationalism and, 516;
film and media studies and, 12–13;
globalization and, 487–88;
Indian cinema and, 425, 430;
Latin American media and, 448–49, 464–65, 491, 492;
power elites and, 511–12
Economic incentives, film production and, 272
Economic reductionism, 267
Economic success, 21, 22
Economies of scale, 331
Economies of scope, 331–32, 349
Ecuador, 451
Edelman, Bernard, 559
Edison, Thomas, 290, 291–92
Edison v. Lubin (1903), 557–58
Editing techniques: cinematic realism and, 60;
digital editing, 416;
digital media and, 448, 449–50;
early cinema and, 296;
film genre theory and, 237;
film theory and, 53–56;
Latin American media and, 450–52;
political documentary and, 122, 125, 126;
wu xia films and, 370
Educational tools, 510
“Education and Criticism” (Rohdie), 530–31
Efficiency, computers and, 520
Egyptian film industry, 485, 489, 500
Eimbcke, Fernando, 475
Eisenstein, Sergei: the committed documentary and, 119;
film theory and, 49–50;
montage and, 54–56;
realism and, 93, 96, 101;
sound techniques and, 57
Elderly capitalism, 393
Eldred v. Ashcroft (2003), 561
E-learning. See electronic textbooks
Election fraud, 149, 150
Electronics companies, television and, 297–98
Electronic textbooks, 547–53
Elitism, political documentary and, 141, 151
Ellis, John, 191
Elsaesser, Thomas, 155n58, 554
Elvis Presley Enters., Inc. v. Passport Video (2003), 564–655
Embedded computers, 516–17
Embrafilme, 464
Emerging Pictures, 463
Emotional range, films and, 46
Emotional response, of spectators, 54, 84
Empiricism, film theory and, 41–42
Empowerment. See power
“End of TV as We Know It, The: A Future Industry Perspective, 306–7
“En mass celebrities,” 212
Entertainment culture, 107, 173, 173–74, 176
Entertainment news shows, 336
Enthusiasm (Vertoz), 122–23
Epic and Empire (Quint), 373
Epics and counterepics, 373–75, 378
Episodic structure, television and, 310
Epstein, Jean, 50, 51–52, 54, 119
Ergodic artifacts, 237, 243, 256n32
(p. 609) Eroticism, Gilda (Vidor) and, 275, 277
Errázuriz, León, 471, 472
Escalante, Amat, 473–74
Escapism, political documentary and, 125
Eskelinen, Markku, 241, 242
Estamira (Prado), 476, 477
Ethnicity. See race and ethnicity
Ethnography: photography and, 164;
textual analysis and, 263, 268–73
E-Trade, 343, 346
European radicalism, documentary films and: 1920s and 1930s, 121–28;
about, 114–21;
Eastern and Central Europe, 145–52;
post-World War II era, 129–44
European radicalism, photography and, 165–66
Evita (Parker), 276
Evolution, of film, 87, 99
“Evolution of the Language of Cinema” (Bazin), 60, 84
Examples, textbooks and, 545–46
Exceptionalism, wu xia films and, 378
Exhibition sector. See cinemas
EXistenZ (Cronenberg), 105
Expanded horizons model, textbooks and, 548
Experimental films, 437–38, 451, 489. See also avant-garde films
Experimentation, with images, 151
Expert knowledge, textbooks and, 539–42, 545, 546–47, 550–51, 554
Exposure times, photography and, 166
“Extensions of man,” 4, 11
Externalizing risk, media conglomeration and, 334–40
Façade Renovation Grant program, 272
Faces, close-ups and, 52
Fahrenheit 9/11 (Moore), 439
Fair use: about, 560–68;
best practices of, 571–73;
critiquing, 568–69;
“Documentary Filmmakers' Statement of Best Practices on Fair Use,” 574–76;
structural meaning of, 569–71
Falicov, Tamara, 466–67
Falling dominoes, textbooks and, 537, 538
Fall of the Romanov Dynasty, The (Shub), 126
Families: 24 and, 316, 320;
Indian cinema and, 436;
Japanese horror films and, 399–400
Famous Players Film Company, 199
“Fanboy,” 419
Fan magazines, 191, 192, 193, 198
Fans: Asian film and, 419;
film genre theory and, 248;
genres and, 226;
media celebrity and, 207, 207–9, 213. See also spectators
Fantasy: Chinese action images and, 367–68;
media celebrity and, 208, 213;
textual analysis and, 272–73;
wu xia films and, 368, 376, 383–484
Farid, Samir, 497
Farnsworth, Philo, 294
Farocki, Harun, 117, 141–44, 151
Fascism, 41, 87, 88, 90
Feature films. See films
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 7, 264, 301, 304n22, 346, 360n27
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 330
Feher, Michel, 316, 317
Female characters, 311, 323–24n4, 391–409
Feminism: 24 and, 309, 311;
Japanese horror films and, 403;
textual analysis and, 275;
wu xia films and, 379–80
Feminist film theory, 67–69, 150, 208, 266
Fenton, Roger, 169
Fetishism, 64
Feuer, Jane, 310
Fiction: Alexander Kluge and, 137;
apparatus theory and, 64;
copyright and fair use, 568;
documentary films and, 130, 136;
photography and, 171–72, 176–77
Figgis, Mike, 523n3
Fight Club (Fincher), 105–6
Figures, textbooks and, 543
Film, late age of, 3, 21–22
Film, shooting on, 453
Film aesthetics, 116–17
Film and media studies: current scholarship in, 262–66;
Gilda (Vidor), 267–74;
multidisciplinary scholarship and, 267–74;
textual analysis and, 261
Film and media studies pedagogy, 527, 553–54;
deep and surface learning, 535–47;
education in Great Britain and the United States, 529–32;
electronic textbooks, 547–53;
traditional and progressive education, 528–29, 532–34;
traditional textbooks and, 534–35
Film and Video Festival of Indigenous Peoples, 462
Film: An Introduction (Phillips), 535, 542–47
Film: A Psychological Study, The (Munsterberg), 48
Film Art: An Introduction (Bordwell and Thompson), 64
Film as Art (Arnheim), 95
Film-based interpositives, 335
Film clips, repurposing of, 134, 142–43, 143–44. See also copyright
Film credits, 197, 216n26
Film critics. See criticism
Film Culture, 532
Film distribution: Alexander Kluge and, 140–41;
digital media and, 444n22, 444n25;
Harun Farocki and, 144;
Indian cinema and, 427–28, 429, 431–33, 442;
Latin American media and, 448, 451, 456–57, 457–58, 461–63, 465, 479;
media conglomeration and, 331–32;
niche markets and, 438;
political documentary and, 128;
simultaneity and, 299;
textual analysis and, 269–71, 273. See also international film circulation
Film festivals: Asian film and, 415, 418;
auteur theory and, 47;
Indian cinema and, 437, 440–41;
Latin American media and, 451, 452, 469, 470, 478, 479
Film, Form, and Culture (Kolker), 527, 547, 551–53
Film/Genre (Altman), 225–26, 233
(p. 610) Film genre theory, 224–53
Filmic narrative, digital media and, 21–37. See also narrative
Film industry: apparatus theory and, 62–63;
film studies and, 11;
genres and, 234–35;
globalization and, 484–90, 499–500;
Indian cinema and, 425–29, 433;
international, 271–73;
Latin American media and, 450–56, 460, 463–67, 464–65;
media celebrity and, 193, 196;
media conglomeration and, 356;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 495;
piracy and, 414;
post-World War II era and, 6;
television and, 300–302
Filmmakers: deep-focus, long-take filmmaking, 60;
film theory and, 49–58;
Latin American media and, 453, 466, 467;
Mexico and, 479
Film noir, 9, 255n20, 274–79
Film producers, 230, 247, 272
Film production: Asian film and, 416–17;
“behind-the-scenes” style television shows and, 353–54;
computers and, 509;
digital media and, 17;
domestic coproduction, 337–38;
externalizing risk and, 335;
film studies and, 11;
globalization and, 486;
Indian cinema and, 425–26, 436–38, 442;
Latin American media and, 450–55, 455–56, 491–92;
media conglomeration and, 355;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 495;
post-Fordist flexibility and, 333, 334;
textual analysis and, 273
Film projectors, 173
Films: copyright and fair use, 557–76;
cross-promotion and, 335–36;
cultural influence of, 262–63;
direct adaptations and, 239–40;
feature films, 331;
media conglomeration and, 355;
textual analysis and, 267;
the work of stardom and, 205
Film spectatorship theory, 242
Film studies, 9–11, 12–13, 16. See also film and media studies
Film theory: apparatus theory and, 66;
classical film theory, 43–49, 94–97;
film genre theory and, 224–53;
filmmakers and, 49–58;
film studies and, 10–11;
medium specificity and, 38–79;
in post-World War II era, 58–73;
realism and, 84–109;
television and, 286–87
Final Cut Pro, 450
Final Fantasy, 235
Final Solution (Sharma, Rakesh), 440
Financing: deficit financing, 337–38;
globalization and, 485–86;
Indian cinema and, 426, 427;
Latin American media and, 465, 466;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 496–97
Fincher, David, 105–6, 568
Finzan (Sissoko), 545–546
Firearms, wu xia films and, 383–84
First-shift programming, 350
Fiske, John, 15, 375, 376, 508
Fist of Fury, 383, 386
Flaxman, Gregory, 72
Fleisher, Richard, 11
Fleming, Victor, 229
Flibbert, Andrew, 12, 18
Flichy, Patrice, 292
Focus on the Family, 7
Folsom v. Marsh (1841), 570
Fonda, Jane, 131–32
Fondo de Inversión y Estímulo al Cine Mexicano (FIDECINE), 466
Ford, John, 132, 225, 247
Forensic science, photography and, 176
Formalism, 103, 151, 261
Formalization, computers and, 511
For Marx (Althusser), 129
“Formative tendency,” 91, 92, 93, 109
Foucault, Michel Paul, 292
Fourth wall, theater and, 46
Fox News, 24 and, 312, 313, 315
Frampton, Hollis, 76n53
France, 9, 269, 292, 338
Frankfurt School, 13, 14, 193
Freedom (Alonso), 473
French cinema: Alexander Kluge and, 137;
documentary films and, 129–30, 131–36;
French New Wave, 10, 47, 71, 97–100, 497;
media celebrity and, 199, 200;
melodrama and, 9, 53
Frenzy of Renown (Braudy), 191
Fresh Kill (Cheang), 418
Freud, Sigmund, 93, 94, 96, 100
Freund, Giséle, 182m8
Friday the 13th (Cunningham), 409
Friedkin, William, 369
Friedman, Thomas, 485
From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film (Kracauer), 13, 61, 90
Frow, John, 15, 508
Fuentes, Fernando de, 491
Fukasaku, Kinji, 11
Fuller, Samuel, 98
Fulong Gong, 385
Fundamentalism, film theory and, 40
Gabler, Neal, 107
Gaines, Jane, 102, 102–3
Galavisión, 457
Gale, Wayne, 188
Game decks, 238–39, 240
Game players, 238, 241, 242–43, 247–48, 248–49. See also spectators
Game shows, 322
Gamson, Joshua, 195–96
García, Gael, 447
Gardner, Andrew, 169
Gaspin Jeff, 329
Gates, Bill, 524n30
Gaviria, Victor, 468
Gellar, Sarah Michelle, 409
Gellhorn, Martha, 128
Gender, identity politics and, 211–12
(p. 611) General Electric, 344
Generation X. See shinjinrui (Generation X)
Generic innovation. See genres
Genette, Gérard, 254n8
Genre deconstruction, 328–29
“Genre difference,” 237
Genre expectations, computer and video games, 241, 242–43
Genre reception, film genre theory and, 233, 236
Genres: changing reference points to, 245–46;
computer and video games, 230–31, 232, 233;
defining, 231, 249–51, 254n11;
film genre theory and, 228–29;
horror films, 391–409;
Indian cinema and, 434–36;
Japanese horror films and, 408–9;
Latin American media and, 469, 474–79;
media conglomeration and, 351–52;
new media and, 237–44;
television and, 234, 306–23
Genre semantics, 254n8
Genre syntax, 254n8
Genre theory. See film genre theory
Geographical positioning systems (GPS), 517
Geopoliticial crises, 24 and, 316, 318
German cinema, 61, 90, 116, 130, 135–42
German Expressionism, 84, 85, 95, 96
Gesture, 52, 53
Gettysburg, Battle of, 170
Geuens, Jean-Pierre, 70–71, 73
Ghost in the Shell (Oshii), 417
Ghost stories, 397–400, 404–8
Gilbert, Matthew, 308–9, 310, 323–24n4
Gilbreth, Frank, 295
Gilda (Vidor), 260, 261, 274–79
Gillespie, Marie, 273
Ginsburg, Fay, 102
Gledhill, Christine, 187, 189, 190
Globalization: 24 and, 319, 324n11;
China and, 387;
Chinese action images and, 366;
film and media studies and, 17, 18;
film industry and, 270–73, 484–90, 499–500;
Indian cinema and, 425, 441, 442;
international coproductions, 338–39;
labor and, 339–40;
Latin American media and, 490–94;
media culture and, 12;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 494–98;
postmodernity and, 365–66;
television and, 304n14
Godard, Jean-Luc: classical film theory and, 47;
documentary films and, 129–30,131–32, 133;
European radicalism and, 117;
French New Wave and, 98;
Harun Farocki and, 144;
Kiarostami, Abbas and, 106;
media studies and, 9
The Godfather (Coppola), 11
Goebbels, Joseph, 298
Golumbia, David, 15, 18
Gomery, Douglas, 190
Gondry, Michael, 106
Gongadze, Georgiy, 150
González-Rubio, Pedro, 476
Good Morning America, 566
Google, 521
Gorin, Jean-Pierre, 131–33
Gorky, Maxim, 44
Gourmont Rémy de, 44
Government media, 120, 145–46, 147–48, 150
Government regulation: Egyptian film industry and, 497, 498;
globalization and, 486, 487, 499, 500;
Indian cinema and, 426, 430, 434, 439–42;
Latin American media and, 454–55, 459–60, 464–65, 466, 467, 493;
media conglomeration and, 327, 329–30, 341, 347–48, 351–52, 357;
post-World War II era, 6–7;
television and, 301
Governments: Alexander Kluge and, 138–39;
computationalism and, 512–14, 514–16, 518–19, 520;
media conglomeration and, 341–43;
political agendas and, 120
GPS, 517
Grade inflation, 533
Gramophones, 288, 291
Gramsci, Antonio, 15
Grand Syntagmatique, 64
Grand Theft Auto video games, 23
Grand Theory, 38–39
Graphical user interface (GUI), 30–31
Graphic novels, 6–7, 246–47
Great Britain: documentary films and, 116;
film and media studies and, 265–66;
film and media studies pedagogy in, 529–32;
Hollywood films and, 269;
international coproductions and, 338;
media celebrity and, 199, 200, 208;
political documentary and, 124–25;
realism and, 104
Great Train Robbery, The (Porter), 245
Great Wall Motion Picture Studio, 262
Greenberg, Clement, 41, 43, 74n12
Greenfield, Jeff, 363n46
Grier, David Alan, 518
Grierson, John, 101, 116, 121, 124–25
Gross, Peter, 146
Grossberg, Lawrence, 15
Grudge, The (Shimizu), 409
Grupo Chaski, 461–62
Grupo Clarín, 457
Grupo Televisa, 457, 458, 493
Grusin, Richard, 35, 70, 239, 244
Guantanamera (Alea and Tabío), 475
Guatemala, 451
Guattari, Félix, 515
Guerin, Frances, 18
Guess Who's Coming to Dinner? (Kramer), 210
Gunning, Tom, 93, 109, 216n21
Gutenbergian paradigm of education, 553, 554
Hadamovsky, Eugen, 298
Hall, Stuart, 15, 248, 508, 529
Hallam, Julia, 104
Hamaca Paraquaya (Encina), 454
Hamm, John Christopher, 380–81
Hampton, Benjamin, 194
Han Chinese ethnicity, 377–78, 380
(p. 612) Hanfeizi, 386
Hansen, Miriam Bratu, 61, 88, 138, 209
Hanson, Curtis, 545
Hard affiliations, 342, 343
Harrelson, Woody, 188
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, 434
Hartley, John, 375, 376
“Harvest of Death” (O'Sullivan), 170
Hastie, Amelie, 322
Hawks, Howard, 228, 229, 495
Hays, Will, 262
Hays Office, 10, 490
Hayworth, Rita, 204, 212, 275, 277, 278
HDTV, 458–59, 478
Health, film and media studies and, 263–64, 266
Heavenly Bodies (Dyer), 194, 211
Heavenly Sword and the Dragon Saber, The (Jin), 374, 380, 382
Heaven's Gate (Cimino), 11
Hedges and attitude markers, 543, 545–46
Hegelian Master-Slave dialects, 510
Hemingway, Ernest, 127
Hermosillo, Humberto, 472
Heroes, 193, 374, 386–87
Hero (Zhang), 384–85
Heterogeneity, 56
Hierarchical structures, 538–39, 544–45, 548
“High culture.” See art, film as
High-definition television (HDTV), 458–59, 478
High-end cinemas, in India, 431
Hill, Gary, 157n76
Hill, Tim, 437
Hilmes, Michele, 293, 300–301
Himpele, Jeff, 270
Hindi cinema, 427, 428
Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes (Hurt), 572–73
Hirsch, Paul, 333, 359n12
Historical documentaries, copyright and fair use, 571, 572, 576
Historical documents, photographs as, 170–73
Historical genres, 225–26, 229
Historical hieroglyphics, 142
Historical narratives, 302n2
Historicism: apparatus theory and, 66;
film theory and, 73;
media celebrity and, 194–95;
realism and, 86
History: computer and video games and, 250–52;
film and media history, 11–12;
Guy Debord and, 180;
photography and, 160–61, 166–68, 175, 178;
of television, 289–93
History of the Non-Fiction Film, A (Barnouw), 101–2
History painting, 177–78
Hitchcock, Alfred, 25, 83, 84, 85, 95–96, 318, 406, 530
“Hitchcocko-Hawksians,” 13
Hitchcock's Films (Wood), 530
Hitomi (character), 406
Hobbes, Thomas, 512–13, 515, 520
Hofheinz v. A & E Television Networks, Inc. (2001), 564, 566
Hofheinz v. AMC Productions, Inc. (2001), 566
Hofheinz v. Discovery Communications (2001), 566
Hoggart, Richard, 15, 529
Hollander, Richard, 18
Holliday, George, 156n62
Hollywood films: Asian film and, 421;
Egyptian film industry and, 498;
feminist film theory and, 150;
globalization and, 499;
Latin American media and, 458, 460, 492;
media celebrity and, 191, 193, 196–99, 200–201;
piracy and, 420;
star texts and, 206;
stylistic practices and, 489
Holy Girl, The (Martel), 473
Homes, of celebrities, 206
Homework (Hermosillo), 472
Homework (Kiarostami), 106
Homosexuality, 274–75, 318–19, 418, 419;
Asian film and, 418
Hong Kong film industry, 367, 369, 371–73, 416
Hong Kong International Film Festival, 418
Horizontal integration, 330
Horkheimer, Max, 13–14, 193, 214
Horror films: Audition, 400–404;
genre and, 228;
genre studies and, 408–9;
Ju-On, 404–8;
Ringu, 397–400;
women in Japanese films, 391–97
Hour of the Furnaces, The (Solanas), 476
Hours Go By, The (César), 473
House Committee on Un-American Activities, 6
House of Flying Daggers (Zhang), 369, 372
How to Read a Film (Monaco), 527, 535, 538–39, 540–41, 547, 549–51
Ho Yuk—Let's Love Hong Kong (Yau), 418
Huillet, Danièle, 129
Human computers, 518–19
Human nature, computationalism and, 513, 514–15, 522
Hurt, Byron, 572
Hurwitz, Leo, 129
Huston, John, 493
Hybrid film genres, 234–35, 409
Hybrid television genres, 308, 309
Hypermedia. See hypertext systems
Hypertexts, textbooks and, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554
Hypertext systems, literary works and, 29–30
Ibermedia, 464
IBM Institute for Business Value, 306–7
Iconocraphy, 240, 241, 247
Identity politics, 202, 209–12
Ideological state apparatus (ISA), 99
Ideology: film and media studies pedagogy and, 528, 529, 531–32;
film genre theory and, 227, 236;
textual analysis and, 265. See also political agendas
Illegal downloads, 264
Illusion: analytical film theory, 66–67;
apparatus theory and, 62;
realism and, 94
(p. 613) Image, The (Boorstin), 193
Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, The (Boorstin), 107
Images: Alexander Kluge and, 135–36, 136–37, 139–40;
authenticity of, 142–43, 146, 147, 148–49, 150, 176–77, 178–79;
cinematic realism and, 59–60;
digital media and, 159;
distribution of, 176, 179;
documentary films and, 131–32,132–33, 134–35;
experimentation with, 151;
French New Wave and, 99;
Harun Farocki and, 141–43;
history and, 166–67;
Marxism and, 145;
masculinity and, 318;
media celebrity and, 205;
new media and, 151–52;
photography and, 165;
political agendas and, 118–21;
realism and, 88
Image tracks, 99–100
“Imaginary Signifier, The” (Metz), 62, 65
“Imaginary signifiers,” 63
IMAX films, 25, 433–34
Imperialism: China and, 379, 383, 385, 386–87;
computationalism and, 518, 519;
literature and, 373;
wu xia novels and, 378
Imports and exports. See international film circulation
Iñárritu, Alejandro González, 447, 466, 479, 493
In Bed (Bize), 472
Independent cinema, commerce and, 69
Independent Feature Project, 572
Independent Film Channel (IFC), 573
Independent Motion Pictures (Imp), 198
Indexicality, images and, 59, 60, 70, 86
India, nationalism and, 377
Indian cinema, 271–72;
Asian film and, 417;
censorship and, 439–42;
digital film production and, 436–38;
globalization and, 489;
industry structure and policy, 425–29;
the Internet and, 419;
masala film and, 434–36;
media celebrity and, 200, 201;
new media and, 423–25, 442–43;
viewing experiences and, 430–34
Indigenous people, Latin American media and, 449, 451–52, 462
Indirect adaptations, 240–43
Individual control genres, 232
Individualism, 401, 402, 511, 514
Industrial artifacts, 357
Industrial economy, 332–33
Industrial flexibility. See post-Fordist flexibility
Industrialism, 122–23, 124
Industrial Light and Magic, 174
Industrial reflexivity and critical self-representation, 352–58
Inert knowledge problem, 531–32
Infantile capitalism, 393–94, 395–96, 397, 403–4, 408
Information cascades, 353
Information economy, 316, 318, 320, 333
Informing texts, 537, 538
Infrastructure, film industry and, 455–56, 466. See also film production
Inmortal, El (Moncada), 477, 478
“Inner form,” 227, 236, 254n8
Innis, Harold, 510
Innovation, television and, 306–7, 307–8
Inou, Rie, 392
Input boundaries, 334
Instituto Mexicano de Cinematografía (IMCINE), 465
Instruction, film and media studies pedagogy and, 536–37, 541–42
Intellectual audiences, 131, 138
Intellectual property rights, 17, 420, 456–57. See also copyright
Interactivity: 24 and, 314–15;
aura and, 33, 34, 35;
computer and video games and, 24, 30–31;
computer-generated special effects and, 25;
conventions of filmmaking and, 27–28;
film genre theory and, 232, 237, 242–43, 248;
narrative and, 31;
textbooks and, 547–48, 549;
visual narratives and, 26
Interdisciplinary studies. See multidisciplinary scholarship
Interfaces, computer and video games, 238, 239
Interiority, computationalism and, 515
Intermedial borrowings, 248, 289–90, 294
Intermediality, 300–302
Intermedia texts: adaptations of, 244–47;
computer and video games, 243;
film genre theory and, 236, 241–42;
new media and, 238–39
International coproductions: Asian film and, 415;
externalizing risk and, 338–39;
globalization and, 485–86;
Indian cinema and, 430–31, 433;
Latin American media and, 450, 454, 464, 468, 479
International Documentary Association, 572
International film circulation: Asian film and, 414–15, 419, 420–21;
globalization and, 486, 488;
Indian cinema and, 433–34;
Japanese horror films and, 409;
language differences and, 58;
Latin American media and, 456, 463–64, 466, 468;
media celebrity and, 199–201;
Mexico and, 491, 492, 493;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 495, 495–96, 496–97, 497–98;
textual analysis and, 269–71. See also film distribution
Internet, the: 24 and, 311–12;
Asian film and, 414–15, 418, 419;
computationalism and, 522;
computer and video games and, 238–39;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 148, 149–50;
India and, 424;
intellectual property rights and, 17;
Latin American media and, 449;
“liveness,” and, 313–14;
media celebrity and, 189, 213;
media conglomeration and, 351,352–53;
pirated films and, 420, 456–57;
television viewing and, 308–9;
textbooks and, 554
Interpretive flexibility, television and, 297–300
Intertextuality, 327
In the Land of Tutankhamun (Bayoumi), 494
In the Mood for Love (Wong), 367
In the Pit (Rulfo), 478
Intimacy, sense of, 45–46
Intimate Stories (Sorin), 471–72
Introduction to Documentary (Nichols), 102
Invention, of television, 288, 289–91, 293–94
(p. 614) IPod downloads, 352
Iraq, 497
Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle, 387
Iraq War, 174–75, 178–79
Israel, 496
Italian cinema, 199
Italian neorealism, 9, 96–97, 98
It Conquered the World (Corman), 566
Ivens, Joris, 116, 121, 125–28, 129, 154n24
Iwai, Shunji, 418
Jack Bauer (character), 312, 315–16, 317–18, 320, 322, 323
Jackson, Janet, 346
Jackson, Peter, 23
Jackson v. Warner Bros., Inc. (1997), 568
Jacobs, Lewis, 194
Jacobson, Michael, 551, 554
Jameson, Fredric, 15, 366, 380, 381, 508
Jang Sun-Woo, 418
Japan, 269, 385–86, 393, 459
Japanese horror films: Audition, 400–404;
genre studies and, 408–9;
Ju-On, 404–8;
Ringu, 397–400;
women in, 391–97
Japón (Reygadas), 473
Jaszi, Peter, 18
Jaws (Spielberg), 11
Jenkins, Charles Francis, 292
Jenkins, Henry, 243
Jet Li, 369
J-horror. See Japanese horror films
Jia Zhangke, 421
Jing Ke, 386
Jing Wong, 380
Jin Yong: authorship and, 376–77;
epics and counterepics, 373–74;
heroes and, 386;
nationalism and, 377–78;
race and ethnicity and, 379, 380–81;
wu xia novels and, 367, 372–73
Jobs, Steve, 345
Johnson, Mariana, 12–13, 18
Joint-ventures, 449, 462–63. See also international coproductions
Jones, Pete, 353, 354
Jones, Tommy Lee, 447
Jonze, Spike, 106
Jordán, Guillermo Arriaga, 447, 460
Jordan, Neil, 545
Journals, film theory and, 62
Joyrich, Lynne, 310, 311
Juan, I Forgot I Don t Remember (Rulfo), 470
Ju-On (Shimizu), 396, 404–8
Juran, Nathan, 566
Jurassic Park films, 24
Kapoor, Kareena, 424
Karnad, Girish, 440
Kawaii style: backlash against, 396;
infantile capitalism and, 394–95, 397;
Japanese horror films and, 392, 403, 408–9
Kayako (character), 404, 405, 406, 407–8
Kefauver, Estes, 6–7
Kentridge, William, 177–78
Kern, Stephen, 292, 294, 295
Kershenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara, 120
Kershner, Irvin, 371
Khakee (Santoshi), 417
Khan, Shah Rukh, 419
Kiarostami, Abbas, 106–7
Kilgore, Harley, M., 6–7
Kill Bill (Tarantino), 366, 370, 371
Killer apps, 324n6
Kimberly, Allison, 548, 554
Kinder, Marsha, 157n76
Kinetic poetry, 29–30
King, Barry, 204
King, Rodney, 156n62
King, Scott Benjamin, 317
King Hu, 369, 370
Kingpin, 336
Kinocast, 462
Kino-Eye, the, 51, 122
Kino-Eye (Vertov), 51
Kinsella, Sharon, 392, 395, 396
Kittler, Friedrich, 247
Kluge, Alexander, 117, 129, 130, 135–42
Klute (Pakula), 100, 132
Kolker, Robert, 324n12, 527, 547, 551–53
Kracauer, Siegfried: cinematic realism and, 59, 60–61;
the committed documentary and, 119;
contemporary scholarship and, 103;
digital media and, 70;
early cinema and, 91–93;
media studies and, 13;
photography and, 160–61;
realism and, 85, 86, 88, 89–90, 96, 105;
terminology, differences in, 101;
Walter Benjamin and, 87
Kragh-Jacobsen, Soren, 106
Kramer, Stanley, 210
Kühle Wampe (Dudow, Brecht), 130
Kuleshov, Lev, 53–54, 96
Kuleshov effect, 53–54
Kulkarni, Ashish, 437
Kung fu. See martial arts
Kung Fu Hustle (Chow), 384
Kwan, Stanley, 418
L. A. Confidential (Hanson), 545
Labor: 24 and, 316–17, 323;
computationalism and, 521;
externalizing risk and, 339–40;
film and media studies and, 13;
globalization and, 486, 488;
images and, 143;
Indian cinema and, 424, 433, 436–37;
Japan and, 395;
masculinity and, 318;
media conglomeration and, 332–33, 334;
Mexico and, 492;
political documentary and, 151;
textual analysis and, 267, 268;
the work of stardom and, 202–5
(p. 615) Labor unions, 203
Labyrinth Project, 157n76
Lacan, Jacques, 39, 64
Lacanian psychoanalysis, 530
Lady from Shanghai, The (Welles), 277
Laemmle, Carl, 198
Land, political documentary and, 126, 127
Land of the Pharaohs, The (Hawks), 495
Lange, David, 569
Language: Alexandre Astruc and, 71–72;
apparatus theory and, 64;
European radicalism and, 134;
film genre theory and, 227;
genre and, 253. See also linguistics
Languages: Indian cinema and, 425;
international film circulation and, 58;
Latin American media and, 490–91
Lan Yu (Kwan), 418
Laocoon; or, the Limits of Painting and Poetry (Lessing), 42
Lara Croft (character), 240–41, 242
Large-screen televisions, 301
Larkins, Brian, 271
Laspina, James, 553
Latin American media: box office returns and, 460;
cable and satellite television, 457–58;
computer editing and, 450–52;
digital media and, 447–48, 479–80;
digital production and, 453–55;
film distribution and exhibition, 456–57, 461–63;
film industry and, 463–67;
genres and, 474–79;
globalization and, 484–85, 490–94, 499–500;
postproduction facilities, 455–56;
stylistic practices and, 468–74;
technological advances and, 448–50;
television and, 458–60
Latina S. A., 462
Latman, Alan, 560, 569
Lau, Andrew, 376, 419
Lau Kar-leung, 369–70, 387
Law and public policy, 268, 320. See also copyright
Lawrence, Florence, 198
Lazarfeld, Paul, 8
Learning styles, textbooks and, 549
Leavis, F. R., 528
Lebanon, 498
“Lecture on Realism, A” (Williams), 101
Lee, Ang, 366
Lee, Bruce, 366, 369, 383
Legacy affiliations, 342, 345
Legacy data, 517
Legend of Condor Heroes, The (Jin), 373, 374, 375
Legend of the Zu Warriors, The (Tsui), 368
Léger, Fernand, 50
Leila (Bayoumi), 494
Lens technologies, realism and, 87–88, 89–90
Leone, Sergio, 241
Lesser, Wendy, 317
Lessig, Lawrence, 568–69
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 42
Letter to Jane (Godard, Gorin), 131–32, 133, 152
Leung, Tony, 376
Leviathan (Hobbes), 512–13, 520
Levring, Kristen, 106
Lewis, Jon, 6
Lewis, Juliette, 188
Lewis, Lisa, 207
Liang Qichao, 385
Liang Yusheng, 378
Liberalism, computationalism and, 514
Libidinal economy, 62–63
License fees, fair use and, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 572
Life and Nothing More (Kiarostami), 106
Life the Movie (Gabler), 107
Lim, Bliss Cua, 404
Limbaugh, Rush, 324n12
Limitations, of photography, 171
Lin, Brigitte, 374
Lindsay, Vachel, 4, 44, 45–47, 262
Linearity, textbooks and, 547–48, 550, 551, 552, 554
Linear strings, 537, 538
Linguistics, 65, 375
Lists, textbooks and, 537, 538
Literature: Chinese action images and, 367–68;
classical film theory and, 44, 47;
copyright and fair use, 559;
film genre theory and, 224, 226, 227, 241–42, 245;
hypertext systems and, 29–30;
imperialism and, 373;
realism and, 99–100;
social classes and, 120;
transparent immediacy and, 31;
wu xia novels, 371–72, 372–73
Live-action: film and, 296;
television and, 288, 291, 299
“Liveness”: 24 and, 309, 310–15, 313–14;
television and, 288, 290, 291, 295, 296–97, 301, 302, 304n22
Loayza, Marcos, 453
Location, filming on: copyright and fair use, 559–60, 575–76;
Egyptian film industry and, 498;
Mexico and, 491, 493;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 495
Location, textual analysis and, 275–76
Long shot techniques, 125, 127
Looking, Harun Farocki and, 142
Loose diversification, 330, 331
Lorentz, Pare, 128, 129
Los Angeles News Service, 566–67
Los Angeles News Service v. KCAL-TV (1998), 567
Los Angeles News Service v. Reuters Television International (1998), 567
Los muertos (Alonso), 473
Love by Mistake (Chijona), 475
Low, Tad, 358n4
Lowe, David, 295
Lubin, Sigmund, “Pop,” 558, 577n1
Lucas, George, 174, 371, 415, 420
Lucia, Lucia (Serrano), 471
Lukács, György, 115, 126
Luke, Carmen, 534
(p. 616) Lumière brothers, 26, 44, 91, 92, 93, 291–92
Lund, Kátia, 447
Lupino, Ida, 211
Lusted, David, 527
“Luster of Capital, The,” 316
Lutze, Peter, 140
Lynch, David, 493
Lyotard, Jean-François, 104–5, 366
MacCabe, Colin, 99–100, 100–101
MacDonald, Dwight, 7–8
MacFarlane Report, the, 535–36
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 514
Macondo Cine Video, 462
Madden NFL, 238
Madison, Michael, 570
Magic lanterns, 289, 291
Magnification, film theory and, 50, 51
Major Film Theories, The (Andrew), 91
Mak, Peter, 417
Make Room for Television (Spigel), 302
Makeup, Gilda (Vidor) and, 278
Making Meaning: Inference and Rhetoric in the Interpretation of Cinema (Bordwell), 39
Mala leche (Errázuriz), 471, 472
Malcolm X (Lee), 269
Management structures: computationalism and, 511, 518–19;
legacy affiliations and, 345;
media corporations and, 334
Manet, Edouard, 167
Man from U.N.C.L.E., The, 277
Manga, 410n22
Manipulation of images, 142–43, 147, 176–77
Mankekar, Purnima, 377
Manovich, Lev, 509, 523n3
Map of Sex and Love, The (Chan), 418
Marchetti, Gina, 18
Marcuse, Herbert, 193
Marey, Etienne-Jules, 93–94, 96, 295
Margulies, Ivone, 108
Marketing: brand identities and, 349–50;
genres and, 234–35;
Indian cinema and, 427–28;
information economy and, 316–17;
international film circulation and, 269–70;
Japan and, 394–95;
media conglomeration and, 331, 332;
studio system and, 333;
television and, 234. See also advertising
Marquand, Richard, 371
Marshall, Meryl, 339
Marshall, P. David, 195–96
Martel, Lucrecia, 473
Martial arts: Asian film and, 416;
Chinese action images and, 366–68;
political imaginary and, 382;
wu xia films and, 369–70, 372, 385
Martial arts culture, nostalgia and, 365–68
Martial arts novels. See wu xia novels
Marxism: documentary films and, 115, 119, 132–33;
European radicalism and, 121;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 531;
Harun Farocki and, 141;
images and, 145;
political documentary and, 122–23, 126. See also capitalism
Masala film, 434–36, 442
Masculinity, television and, 309, 311, 315–21, 322
MASH (Altman), 11, 12
Mashment, Margaret, 104
Massacre des dominicains d'Arcueil (Appert), 172
Masscult, 7–8
Mass culture: Alexander Kluge and, 137, 140–41;
capitalism and, 134;
classical film theory and, 45;
cultural criticism and, 236–37;
film genre theory and, 227, 233;
photography and, 159–60;
spectators and, 150–51
Massive multiplayer (MMP) games, 232, 237, 238
Mass marketing. See marketing
Mass media, 129, 135. See also news media
Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays, The (Kracauer), 88
Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World (Weir), 269–70
Masterman, Len, 531
Masuda, Toship, 11
Matrixes, textbooks and, 537, 538
Matrix Online, 240
Matrix Reloaded (Wachowski and Wachowski), 434
The Matrix: Revolutions (Wachowski and Wachowski), 240
The Matrix (Wachowski and Wachowski), 24–25, 35, 105, 366, 371, 416
Matthews, Peter, 85–86, 92
Mature capitalism, 393
May, Lary, 206
Mayakovsky, Vladimir, 44
Mayer, J. P., 263
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne, 182n16
McG, 370
McLean, Adrienne, 204
McLuhan, Marshall, 4, 8, 9
McMahan, Alison, 554
McPherson, Tara, 19
McTiernan, John, 235, 315
Meaning, photography and, 159
Mecha-anime, 410n22, 417
“Mechanists,” 514
Media anthropology. See anthropological studies Media capabilities, adaptations of, 243–44
Media capital, 272
Media celebrity: celebrity studies, 188–96, 201–2, 212–14;
cultural influence of film and, 22;
documentary films and, 131–32;
global star systems, 199–201;
identity politics, 209–12;
origins of the star system, 196–99;
star texts, 205–9;
the work of stardom, 202–5
Media conglomeration: business practices and, 356;
examples of, 360–61n28;
externalizing risk and, 334–40;
industrial reflexivity and critical self-representation, 352–58;
Japan and, 393–94;
Latin American media and, 457;
media culture and, 12;
post-Fordist flexibility and, 332–34;
programming difference and multicultural tiering, (p. 617) 348–52;
“public service” persona and, 347–48;
reflexivity and, 327–32;
“responsive” persona and, 340–47
Media convergence, 289
Media corporations: future of filmic narrative and, 22;
Indian cinema and, 425–26, 427;
media conglomeration and, 327–28
Media culture: academic study and, 4–5;
aura and, 34;
politics of, 5–8
Media genealogies, television and, 286–87, 294
Media reform, 264, 266
Media studies, 12–13, 13–15, 16. See also film and media studies
Media Worlds: Anthropology on New Terrain, 268–69
Medicine, photography and, 164
Medium of the Video Game, The (Wolf), 231
Medium specificity: apparatus theory and, 63;
cinematic realism and, 59, 61;
concept of, 42–43;
digital media and, 70–71, 73;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 540;
history of film theory and, 38–79;
media celebrity and, 191;
montage and, 55;
realism and, 89;
Sergei Eisenstein and, 56;
Siegfried Kracauer and, 88;
silent films and, 95;
television and, 313–14
Meirelles, Fernando, 447
Méliès, Georges, 29, 91, 93
Melodrama: 24 and, 309, 310–15;
French cinema and, 9;
Indian cinema and, 435;
Japanese horror films and, 402–3;
Latin American media and, 475, 476;
masculinity and, 315–21;
photogénie and, 51–52, 53;
“quality television” and, 321
Memento (Nolan), 34
Merchandising, cross-promotion and, 337
Metacognition, 536
Metalanguage, 99–100
Metatexts, 332
Metrosexuality, 318, 319
Metz, Christian: apparatus theory and, 62, 62–64, 65, 66;
feminist film theory and, 67;
film theory and, 73
Mexico: digital media and, 448;
film industry and, 460, 465, 466, 470, 471–72, 479;
globalization and, 490–94, 500;
Latin American media and, 454;
postproduction facilities and, 455;
television and, 458, 459–60
Meyerhold, Vsevelod, 44
Miami Beach Enterprise Zone, 272
Miami Vice, 317
Michaux, Oscar, 210
Michelson, Annette, 51, 122–23
Microcinemas, 461–62
Microsoft Corp., 521
Midcult, 8
Middle Eastern film industry, 484–85, 494–98, 499–500
Midway Arcade Treasures, 251–52
Miike, Takashi, 403
Military, the, computationalism and, 515, 518
Military-industrial thinking, 511
Military uses, television and, 298
Miller, Arthur C., 577n1
Miller, Frank, 246
Miller, Jacques-Alain, 65
Miller, Sam, 232, 233, 237
Miller, Toby, 12–13, 18, 339
Mills, C. Wright, 511
Milosevic, Slobodan, 147, 148
Mind, the, classical film theory and, 48
Minghella, Anthony, 542
Minimalism, 471–74
Miniseries, wu xia films and, 375
Minnelli, Vincente, 246
Minority Report (Spielberg), 269
Minority viewpoints: Asian film and, 415–16, 417–18, 420–21;
Indian cinema and, 440;
Latin American media and, 449, 451–52;
media conglomeration and, 351, 360n27
Minter, Mary Miles, 192
Miracle Fighters (Yuen), 368
“The Miracle” (Rossellini), 10
Miramax studios, 353, 354
Mirror stage, the, 64
Mise-en-scène, 9, 312–13
Misogyny, Japanese horror films and, 403
Miss Universo, 461
Mitchell, W.J.T., 145
Miyazaki, Hayao, 417
Mob-casts, media conglomeration and, 352
Modernism: the committed documentary and, 119–20;
European radicalism and, 117, 121–22;
Joris Ivens and, 126;
medium specificity and, 43, 76n53;
sound techniques and, 57, 58
Moeran, Brian, 394
Monaco, James, 527, 535, 538, 540–41, 546, 547, 553
Moncada, Mercedes, 477, 478
Mongolia, Chinese action images and, 378
Monopolies, media conglomeration and, 330
Monsieur Kalergis (Disdéri), 163
Monster Communications v. Turner Broadcasting System (1996), 563–664
Montage: documentary films and, 132;
film theory and, 53–56;
political documentary and, 124;
realism and, 84–85, 95, 96
“Montage of Attractions, The, 55
Morality: film theory and, 75n20;
media culture and, 5, 6–7, 8
Moral reality, political documentary and, 124–25
Moral relativity, 263, 320
Morin, Edgar, 77n69, 193, 214
Morse, Samuel, 291
Motherhood: cultural anxieties and, 398, 399–400;
Japanese horror films and, 407, 408, 411n31, 411n34;
kawaii style and, 393, 396
Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), 456, 573
Motion Picture Producers and Distributers of America (MPPDA), 489, 490
Motion pictures. See films
(p. 618) Motion Picture Story Magazine, 198
Motion studies, photography and, 173
Moulin Rouge!, 269
Movie theaters. See cinemas
“Moving pictures,” photography and, 172–73
Moving Picture World, The, 197
Mug shots, 166
Multicultural tiering. See programming difference and multicultural tiering Multidisciplinary scholarship: celebrity studies and, 189, 201–2;
textual analysis and, 260–61
Multimedia experiences: entertainment and, 267, 314–15;
textbooks and, 548, 549, 550, 552, 553
Multimedia platforming, 332, 352, 362n42
Multiplexes, 431, 461, 465
Multipurposing, of film programming, 332, 336–37, 352–53
Multitasking, industrial reflexivity and critical self-representation, 352
Mulvey, Laura, 39, 67–69, 71, 207
Mumbai International Film Festival, 440
Müsterberg, Hugo, 48–49, 96, 237
Murayama, Masao, 393
Murdoch, Rupert, 3, 12
Murga, Celina, 473
Murray, Janet, 24, 35n5
Murukami, Ryu, 400
Mushtaq, Aarshid, 438
Music, racism and, 5–6
Musicals, 60–61, 228, 435–36
Music videos, aura and, 34
Musser, Charles, 194, 245
Muybridge, Eadweard, 173, 291, 295
M. Vitet, pétroleur (Appert), 172
MVS Multivisión, 457
“Myth of Total Cinema, The” (Bazin), 96
NAFTA, 464, 465
Nakata, Hideo, 391, 392, 397
Names, The (DeLillo), 108
Napier, Susan, 395, 396
Narboni, Jean, 61
Naremore, James, 205
Narrative: 24 and, 310;
Alexander Kluge and, 137, 139;
classical, 69–70;
computer and video games, 231, 241, 243, 254n18;
digital media and, 29–30;
epics and counterepics, 373;
film genre theory and, 237;
interactivity and, 31;
Latin American media and, 468–74;
media celebrity and, 207;
new media genres and, 239;
political documentary and, 126–27, 128;
realism and, 93;
star texts, 205–9;
technological advances and, 244;
wu xia films and, 377. See also filmic narrative
Narrative formulas, 329, 404–5
Narrative television, 308
Narrowcasting. See niche markets
Nasser, Gamal Abd el-, 497, 498
National Alliance for Media Arts and Culture, 572
National cinemas: film theory and, 49;
globalization and, 12, 486, 489–90;
Latin American media and, 447–57, 460–80;
media celebrity and, 199–201;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 494;
sound techniques and, 58
National Film Development Corporation (India), 426
Nationalism: 24 and, 309;
Chinese action images and, 377–81;
globalization and, 319, 324n11;
media conglomeration and, 345, 346–47;
television and, 292, 293;
textual analysis and, 273
National Salvation Front, 146
Natural Born Killers (Stone), 28, 188–89, 214
Navigation, electronic textbooks and, 549–50, 551–52, 552–53
Nazism, 116, 275–76, 298
Neale, Stephen, 225, 231
Negotiation: media conglomeration and, 341–42;
outsourcing of, 334
Negroponte, Nicholas, 517–18, 522, 524n30
Nelson, Cary, 15
Neo-Bazians, 100
Neoformalist tradition, 64
Neorealism, 9, 10, 96–97, 98, 106–7
Network television, 331, 337–38, 347, 360n26, 361n29. See also television
New Argentine Cinema, 467
Newell, Mike, 23
New Left Review (NLR), 530
New media: cultural studies and, 508–9;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 149–50;
film genre theory and, 224–53;
Indian cinema and, 423–25, 442–43;
media celebrity and, 213, 214;
political documentary and, 151–52;
public events and, 174;
Rodney King beating and, 156n62. See also computer and video games; digital media
New Queer Cinema, 419
News Corporation/Fox, 12, 327;
contingent affiliations and, 346–47;
Latin American media and, 457;
legacy affiliations and, 345;
media conglomeration and, 341–43, 344
News from Afar (Benet), 470–71
News media: 24 and, 312, 313;
authenticity and, 169, 170;
copyright and fair use, 566–67, 573;
cross-promotion and, 336;
entertainment news shows, 336;
India and, 423–24;
media celebrity and, 196–97, 197–98, 199;
media conglomeration and, 363n46;
photography and, 166, 167, 168, 174–75, 175–76;
television and, 299
Newsreel footage, 126, 127
New Wave cinema, 10, 47, 71, 97–100, 129, 497
New York Times, The, 40
Nicaragua, 451
Niche markets: Asian film and, 415–16;
cross-promotion and, 337;
cultural diversity and, 348–49;
Indian cinema and, 437–38;
media conglomeration and, 331–32, 341, 351–52
Nichols, Bill, 102, 107, 126, 127
Nicholson-Smith, Donald, 129
Nigerian film industry, 271
(p. 619) Nightmail (Watt and Wright), 125
Night of the Living Dead (Romero), 228
Nihilism, digital media and, 70
1920s And 1930s, documentary films and, 116–17, 121–28
Nipkow, Paul, 291, 292, 297
Nollywood, 271
Non-auratic cinema, 32–33
Nondiscrete objects, 3–4
Nonfiction. See documentary films
Nonrival quality, of film, 488
Nonverbal signification. See gesture
Normalization of conglomeration, by media corporations, 340–48
North by Northwest, 318
Not One Less (Zhang), 545
Novaro, Maria, 462
Novels. See literature
Novy lef filmmaking, 126
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, 530
Nursery schools, progressive education and, 533
Objectivity, photography and, 168
Occasionality, textual analysis and, 261, 273
October 18, 1977 (Richter), 177
Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs, 491
Ohmae, Kenichi, 485
Ojo de Agua Communicatión, 449, 452
Once Upon a Time In China (Tsui), 383
One Dimensional Man (Marcuse), 193
One Laptop per Child (OLPC), 522
One Real a Week (Balshofer and Miller), 577n1
Online communities, 510
On-screen metatexts, 332
On-screen reflexivity. See reflexivity Ontological authority, 159, 160, 177, 296
“Ontology of the Photographic Image, The (Bazin), 59, 89
OpenNet.org, 148
Open systems, 523n23
Opera, Chinese, 369
Orange Revolution. See Ukraine
Organizing principles, textbooks and, 535, 540, 542, 545, 554
Orgeron, Marsha, 18
Origins: of genres, 230;
of television, 287
Oshii, Mamoru, 417
O Sullivan, Timothy, 170
Oudart, Jean-Pierre, 65
Our Lady of the Assassins (Schroeder), 468
“Outer form,” 227, 236, 254n8
Output boundaries, 333, 334
Outsourcing, 339–40, 437, 521
“Package system,” 338
Pac-Man, 254n18
Padilha, Jose, 476
Padley, Marcus, 457
Pagnol, Marcel, 56, 57
Painting: art criticism and, 74n12;
aura and, 14;
film theory and, 50;
medium specificity and, 42, 43;
photography and, 76n57, 162, 166–67, 177–78;
political documentary and, 124;
realism and, 59, 89;
social classes and, 120
Pakula, Alan, 100, 132
Palahniuk, Chuck, 106
Palavecino, Santiago, 453, 455
Palm power, 367–68
Palm Springs International Film Festival, 479
Panavison cameras, 335
Paper Swordsmen (Hamm), 380–81
Paramount Consent Decrees, 330, 348, 487
Paramount Corporation, 300
Parapalos (Poliak), 469–70, 473
Parents Television Council, 7
Paris Commune, photography and, 165–66, 171–73
Parodies, 328, 570
Passion of Joan of Arc, The (Dreyer), 132
Patents, 291–92, 293–94
Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use (Madison), 570
Patwardhan, Anand, 439–40
Pavlovian reflexology, 55
Payne Fund, 262
Pay-per-view, 301
Pearl Harbor (Bay), 269
Peckinpah, Sam, 247
Pelayo, Alejandro, 465
Pencil of Nature, The (Talbot), 161
Pendakur, Manjunath, 18
Penley, Constance, 67
Pepsi Co., 343, 344
Perceptual immersion, 28–29
Perceptual realism, 103
Performative realism, 108
Performing identity, 348
Permissions, a Survival Guide: Blunt Talk About Art as Intellectual Property (Bielstein), 573
Permissive behavior, media celebrity and, 213–14
Perón, Eva, 276
Perón, Juan, 276
Personal computers, 516
Personal empowerment, cultural studies and, 508
Personal experience, film and media studies pedagogy and, 540, 541, 545, 546
Peru, 455, 461–62
Peso, devaluation of, 491, 492, 493
Phantascopes, 292
Phillips, William, 535, 542–47
Philosophical aesthetics, 42
Philosophy, film theory and, 39, 40, 72
Photogénie, 50–52
Photographic index, the, 86–90
(p. 620) Photography: cinematic realism and, 60;
digital media and, 158–80;
realism and, 59, 87, 88, 89–90;
television and, 295–96
“Photography” (Kracauer), 88, 89
Photomontages, 171–72, 172–73
Physicality, textbooks and, 551, 553
Physiognomic chords, 52–53
Piaget, Jean, 536
Pickford, Mary, 190–91
Picture Personalities: The Emergence of the Star System in America (deCordova), 195
Picture-Play (fan magazine), 192
Pinch, Trevor, 293
Pineyron, Marcelo, 476
Piracy, film industry and, 270, 414, 420, 456
Piscator, Erwin, 116
Pixar, 345
Pixote (Babenco), 468
Pizza, birra, faso (Caetano and Stagnaro), 467, 469
Playfulness, Latin American media and, 451
Playing Swede (Torres), 475
PlayStation 2 (PS2), 230. See also game decks
Pleasure, from cinema, 174;
apparatus theory and, 62–63, 67–68;
Hollywood films and, 150–51;
political documentary and, 137
Plots, 241, 397;
computer and video games, 241
Poetic realism, 124–25
Polgovsky, Eugenio, 476
Poliak, Ana, 469–70, 473
Policework, photography and, 164, 165–66, 176
Political agendas: apparatus theory and, 61–62, 62–63;
cinematic realism and, 61;
documentary films and, 118–21;
European documentary films and, 114–52;
fiction and, 136;
film theory and, 51–52;
montage and, 54–55, 55–56
Political discourse: computational politics and, 511–12;
Egyptian film industry and, 497–98;
film and media studies and, 13, 19;
film theory and, 40–41;
media culture and, 5–8, 11–12;
Middle Eastern film industry and, 496
Political economy, textual analysis and, 261, 267, 275
Political imaginary, 381, 382–87
Political parties, 343, 344
Political power: computationalism and, 510, 519;
Gilda (Vidor) and, 276;
media celebrity and, 190–91, 201
Political sources, globalization and, 486–87
The pope's bathroom (Chalone), 479
“Popular and the Realistic, The” (Brecht), 98–99
Popular Arts, The (Hall and Whannel), 529
Popular culture: copyright and fair use, 574–75;
genre deconstruction and, 328–29;
Indian cinema and, 436;
Japanese horror films and, 392–93;
kawaii style and, 394–96, 409;
media studies and, 14;
progressive media education and, 528–29;
psychology and, 262–63
Population growth, 429
Pop-Up Video, 328, 329
Pornography, 162, 430
Portillo, López, 493
Portraiture, 162
Post-Fordism, 316, 317
Post-Fordist flexibility, 332–34, 341
Postmodernism, realism and, 103–8
Postmodernity, Chinese action images and: bardic wu xia films, 375–77;
epics and counterepics, 373–75;
martial arts culture and, 365–68;
pristine nationhood and, 377–81;
“refining” the action image, 368–71;
wu xia films and, 371–73;
wu xia films political imaginary, 382–87
Postproduction: costs of, 453;
externalizing risk and, 335;
Latin American media and, 450–51, 455–56
Post Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Bordwell and Carroll), 38–39, 39–40
Post-World War II era, 6, 58–73, 117, 129–44;
film studies and, 9
Powdermaker, Hortense, 263
Power: computers and, 509;
cultural studies and, 508, 510;
media celebrity and, 190–91, 202–3;
media culture and, 11, 12;
political imaginary and, 382–83;
textual analysis and, 275. See also political power
Power elites, 511–12, 520, 522
“Powerless Elite, The” (Alberoni), 190
Powerpuff Girls, 337
Practical-intermedial approaches, to game genres, 239
Prado, Marcos, 476, 477
Pravda, 154n39
Preer, Evelyn, 210
Price, Brian, 18;
film studies and, 10–11
Price dumping, 488
Prieto, Rodrigo, 479
Prime Time Justice, 567
Primitivism, 368, 375–76
Prince, Stephen, 66, 103–4
Princess Mononoke (Miyazaki), 417
Print works, 191
Prisoner of the iron bars (Sacramento), 451, 452, 476–77
Prisons, documentary films and, 451
Pristine nationhood, 377–81
Private lives, of actors, 198
Privileged relationships, realism and, 84–86
Priya Village Roadshow (PVR) cinemas, 431, 435
Procedural knowledge, 535
Production costs, 337, 355
Production infrastructure, 449
Production quality, 451, 492
Production techniques, 328, 369, 381
Product placements, 264
Profitability: box office returns, 460, 463, 463–64, 488;
computationalism and, 521;
Latin American media and, 460
Programming: media conglomeration and, 355;
“public service” persona and, 350;
television and, 308–9, 331
Programming difference and multicultural tiering, 332, 348–52
(p. 621) Progress: copyright and fair use, 560;
illusion of, 294;
photography and, 160
Progressive media education. See traditional and progressive media education
Project Greenlight/Stolen Summer, 353–54
Projecting Illusion (Allen), 66–67
Promise, The (Kaige), 387
Promotion. See advertising; publicity
Propaganda: photography and, 169, 170, 171–72;
television and, 298, 299;
World War II and, 491
Protectionism, 486
Przyblyski, Jeannene M., 18
Pseudo-events, 199
Pseudo-stars, 193
Psychoanalysis: apparatus theory and, 62–63, 64;
classical film theory and, 46;
cognitive film theory and, 66;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 530;
media celebrity and, 207;
realism and, 94, 100
Psychology: classical film theory and, 48–49;
computationalism and, 515–16;
film and media studies pedagogy and, 536;
montage and, 54;
popular culture and, 262–63
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), 573
Public discourse, textual analysis and, 263–66, 267, 273
Public events: contingent affiliations and, 346–47;
documentation of, 120–21, 135;
media celebrity and, 193;
media conglomeration and, 341–43;
new media and, 151–52, 174;
photography and, 166–67;
television and, 290, 298
Public goods, films as, 488
Publicity: media celebrity and, 197, 205–6, 213;
political documentary and, 127–28;
star texts and, 205
Public policy. See law and public policy
“Public service persona, media conglomeration and, 347–48
Public television, 265–66, 268, 297, 423
Public trustees, media corporations as, 341
Pudovkin, Vsevelod, 54, 57, 96
Pyramid-Saimira Group, 433
“Quality television,” 309, 311, 321–23
QubeMaster format, 431, 432
Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, 318, 322
“Queer Feeling When I Look at You, A” (Weiss), 211
Queers. See homosexuality
Quint, David, 373, 382, 385
Race and ethnicity: China and, 388n16;
Gilda (Vidor) and, 277;
Indian cinema and, 427–28;
media celebrity and, 210;
Mexico and, 490;
textual analysis and, 275;
the work of stardom and, 204;
wu xia films and, 377–79, 380, 380–81
Racism, 5–6, 532–33
Radical aesthetic, 121–28, 151–52
Radio: film and, 4–5;
India and, 423–24;
origins of television and, 287, 294;
television and, 298, 298–99, 299–300
Radio Act (1934), 360n27
Radio B92, 147–48
Raiders of the Lost Ark (Spielberg), 240
Raimi, Sam, 434
Rain (Ivens), 126
Rain Network, 462–63
Ramani, R. V., 440
Ramayan (miniseries), 377
Ramoji Film City, 425
Rank, J. Arthur, 489
Rationalism, 514–16, 514–16
Ray, Nicholas, 98
Readability, textbooks and, 542, 550
Reading About Film, 550
Reading About New Media, 550
Reading Capital (Althusser), 129
Reading Television (Fiske and Hartley), 375
Real Image Media Technologies, 431, 432
Realism: André Bazin and, 76n54;
classical film theory and, 46, 58, 94–97;
close-up shots and, 76n62;
documentary films and, 122;
early cinema and, 91–94;
European radicalism and, 121;
film theory and, 10, 84–86;
Joris Ivens and, 126;
Latin American media and, 469;
“new wave” films and, 97–100;
the photographic index and, 86–90;
plots and, 83;
post-World War II era film theory and, 58–59;
theoretical directions and, 100–109
Realism and Popular Cinema (Hallam and Mashment), 104
Realism and the Cinema: A Reader (Williams), 101
“Realism and the Cinema: Notes on some Brechtian Theses” (MacCabe), 99, 100–101
“Realist tendency,” 91, 92
Reality: cinematic realism and, 107–8;
digital media and, 179;
documentary films and, 120–21;
Eastern and Central European revolution and, 146, 148;
Harun Farocki and, 142;
photography and, 160, 165, 168, 169, 170, 170–73;
political documentary and, 124–25, 126
“Reality Effect,” 108
Reality Effect: Film Culture and the Graphic Imperative, The (Black), 107–8
Reality television, 244, 318–19, 321–22, 351
Real-time images, 288
Rebella, Juan Pablo, 469
Reception studies, 150–51
Recession, Japanese, 395–96
Red Channels, 6
Red Dead Revolver, 240, 241, 242–43
Rede Globo, 457, 458, 459
Redes (Muriel and Zinnemann), 470
Red River (Hawks), 228
Redstone, Sumner, 357, 358
Reference points, changing, 245–46, 261, 274–79
“Refining” the action image, 368–71
Reflectionism, textual analysis and, 261
(p. 622) Reflexivity: classical narrative and, 69–70;
externalizing risk and, 334–40;
industrial reflexivity and critical self-representation, 352–58;
media conglomeration and, 327–32;
post-Fordist flexibility and, 332–34;
programming difference and multicultural tiering, 348–52;
“public service” persona and, 347–48;
“responsive” persona and, 340–47
Regional theater, 57
Reiko Asakawa (character), 397–99
Relativism, 533
Relevance, of textual analysis, 273
Religious right, media culture and, 7
Remediation strategies, 23–26, 239, 244
Remittance restrictions, 495, 496
Renov, Michael, 102
Representational practices, borrowing. See remediation strategies
Representations, photography and, 179–80
Representing Reality (Nichols), 102
Repurposing, of existing materials, 23, 24, 558
Research projects, film theory and, 39
Resident Evil: Apocalypse (Witt), 24
Responsive persona, 340–47
Resurrection of the Little Match Girl (Jang), 418
Return of the Condor Heroes, The (Jin), 374, 376, 381
Reunion Especializade de Autoridades Conematograficas y Audiovisuales de Mercosur (RECAM), 454
Reuters, 175
Revenues, Egyptian film industry and, 497
Reverse motion, 51
Revolutionary movements, documentary films and, 115
Reygadas, Carlos, 473–74
Reynaud, Emile, 291
Rhythm and Hues, 437
Ricagno, Alejandro, 475–76
Richter, Gerhard, 177
Riefenstahl, Leni, 116
Rika (character), 405–6, 407
Ring, The (Suzuki), 397
Ring, The (Verbinski), 409
Ringgold v. Black Entertainment TV, Inc. (1997), 568
Ringu 2 (Nataka), 411n31
Ringu (Miike), 391, 396, 397–400, 407, 408, 409
Rio Bravo (Hawks), 229
Riofilme, 465
Ripstein, Arturo, 470, 475
Risk: globalization and, 488, 499;
media conglomeration and, 334–40, 344, 355
Rites of Realism: Essays on Corporeal Cinema (Margulies), 108
Rivette, Jacques, 47
Road movies, 474–75
Roberts, Julia, 213
Robeson, Paul, 211
Robida, Albert, 290, 291, 297
Rockefeller, Nelson, 491
Rodents (Cordero), 471
Rodgrigo D: no futuro (Gavira), 468
Rodriquez, Robert, 246
Roger Thornhill (character), 318
Rohdie, Sam, 530
Rohmer, Eric, 9, 47, 101
Romance conventions, 376, 380, 381, 438
Romania, 118, 145, 146–47
Romanticism, 106
Romero, George A., 228
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 128
Rosemont Enters, Inc. v. Random House (1966), 569
Rose Seller, The (Gavira), 468
Ross, Murray, 202
Rossellini, Roberto, 9, 10
Rosten, Leo, 194
Rotten Tomatoes Web site, 414
Rulfo, Juan Carlos, 470, 478
Rumsfeld, Donald, 324n12
Runaway production, 339–40, 339–40, 360n23
Run Lola Run (Tykwer), 545
Ruttman, Walter, 153n20
Ryuji (character), 397, 398, 399
Sacramento, Paulo, 451, 452
Sadako (character), 392, 398, 399
Sadat, Anwar, 498
Sailor Moon, 395
Salles, Walter, 447, 474
Salmi, Mark, 358n10
Samant, V. G., 437
Samson and Delilah, 496
Samuel, Raphael, 529
Samurai movies, 371
Sanchez, Jorge, 462
Sandoval v. New Line Cinema Corp. (1998), 568
Sangre (Escalante), 473–74
Santaolalla, Gustavo, 479
Santoshi, Raj Kumar, 417
Sarris, Andrew, 532
Sartori, Giovanni, 485
Satellite communication systems, 432
Satellite film distribution, 462–63
Satellite images, 174–75, 178
Satellite television. See cable and satellite television
Sathyam Cinemas, 431
Saudi Arabia, 494
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 227
Schatz, Thomas, 227, 233, 236
Schatz, Tom, 337–38
Schaub, Joseph, 18
Scheduling, television and, 234, 308
Schickel, Richard, 202
Schleyer, Hanns-Martin, 138, 139
School of Film and Television (Cuba), 479
Schroeder, Barbet, 453, 468
Science fiction, 44, 254n11, 290, 371
Scientific research, photography and, 161
(p. 623) Scopophilia, 68
Scott, Ridley, 278, 417
Scott, Tony, 336
Scream, The (Craven), 409
Screen Actors Guild, 203
Screen density, 429
Screen Education, 531
Screening Culture, Viewing Politics (Mankekar), 377
Screen (journal), 91–92, 530–31
Screen languages, 313
Screen production, definition of, 267
Screens, signification and, 366
Screen texts, 334–40, 341, 352–58
Screwball comedies, 229
Scriptwriters, 56
Sculpture, classical film theory and, 46, 47
Second-shift programming, 350, 351, 352–53
Section 107, Title 17 of U.S. Code, 561, 569
“Seeing Stars” (Staiger), 194–95
Seiko, Matsuda, 395
Sekula, Allan, 165
Seldes, Gilbert, 4–5, 13
Self-esteem movement, 533
Self-reflection, media conglomeration and. See industrial reflexivity and critical self-representation
Semantic criticism, film genre theory and, 228, 233
Semantics, computer and video games and, 250
“Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre, A” (Altman), 226
“Semantic/syntactic/pragmatic genre theory, 229–30, 233, 238, 245
Semel, Terry, 345
Semiotics, 256n32
Sensory overload, 134–35
September 11 attacks, 175–76, 341–42, 343, 345
Sequential texts, 537, 538
Serbia, 118
Serial form, 310–15, 322
Serrano, Antonio, 471
Sexism, film and media studies pedagogy and, 532–33
Sexual identity: Asian film and, 418;
film and media studies and, 266;
Gilda (Vidor) and, 274–75;
Indian cinema and, 438;
media celebrity and, 211;
wu xia films and, 374. See also feminism; homosexuality
Shao Lin Soccer (Chow), 372
Shao Lin Temple (Zhang), 366–67
Shapiro, Meyer, 43
Sharif, Omar, 494
Sharits, Paul, 76n53
Sharma, Rakesh, 439, 440, 441
Shaw, Run Run, 417
Shawshank Redemption, The (Darabont), 277–78
Shetty, Manmohan, 432–33
Shibata (character), 402
Shichuan Zhang, 368
Shimizu, Takashi, 405, 407, 409
Schindler's List (Spielberg), 545
Shinjinrui (Generation X), 394, 401
Shôjo (young Japanese females), 392, 408;
Audition (Miike) and, 400–401;
Ju-On (Shimizu) and, 406–7;
kawaii style and, 394, 395, 396, 397;
Ringu (Miike) and, 397–400
Short films, 418
Shot/reverse-shot structure, 65, 66
Shot techniques, 50–53
Showrunners, 359n18
Shub, Esfir, 116, 126
Shyamalan, M. Night, 11
Signification, screens and, 366
Signifiers, apparatus theory and, 63
Signs and Meaning in the Cinema (Wollen), 530
Silent films, 56, 95
Silent Hill, 241
Silverman, Kaja, 65
Sima Qian, 386
Simpson, Gary, 302
Simulacra and Simulation (Baudrillard), 105
Simulations, film genre theory and, 237, 238
Simultaneity, television and, 290, 291, 292–93, 299
Sin City (Rodriquez), 246–47
Singapore film industry, 415
Singer, Bryan, 367, 383
Single-take tracking shots, 132, 296
Sissoko, Cheick Oumar, 545
Situationists International, 129, 133–34
Siu-Tung Ching, 380
16-millimeter Film, 69
Sixth Generation filmmakers, 417–18, 421
The Sixth Sense (Shyamalan), 11
Skov, Lise, 394
Slavery, photography and, 165
Slide, Anthony, 194
Sliver (Noyce), 269
Smoking, in films, 264
Snyder, Timothy, 151
Soap operas. See melodrama
Social classes: documentary films and, 120, 123,