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date: 02 December 2020

(p. 691) Index

(p. 691) Index

Page numbers in bold indicate figures, those in italics indicate tables.

the A theory of time
big bang theory, 605
definition of, 596, 597
final judgment, 611
God and time, 600
McTaggart's paradox, 598
nature of, 611n1
physical eschatology, 608–609
Abel, 636
abortion, 270
Abraham, 252, 429
Acherusia, 92
Achilles, 479
The Act of Marriage: The Beauty of Sexual Love, 272
Acts of the Apostles, 66, 283. See also New Testament
Adam
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 637, 638
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 635, 636
harrowing of hell, 634
Jehovah's Witness beliefs, 142, 197, 209–210n20
vicegerent of earth, 141
Adams, Marilyn McCord, 458n1, 525–528, 532n21
Adso, 371
Advaita school, 182–183
adventus, 572
adverbialism, 610–611
Advita Vedanta Hinduism, 386
Aelia Capitolina, 125
Afghanistan, 165–166n4, 187n3
After Our Likeness, 363n52
afterlife. See also Heaven; Hell; Purgatory
Biblical teachings, 216–217
Book of the Dead, 483–484
choice model of punishment, 423
Christian doctrines, 413–414
Death and Eternal Life, 594n17
and dualism, 536–537
Eastern Orthodox beliefs, 233–234, 243
Egyptian beliefs, 484
Gilgamesh Epic, 479
Hans Küng teachings, 227
Hindu eschatology, 173–174, 186
isthmus (barzakh),140–141
Life after Life, 626n1
and limbo, 419
and materialism, 542–543
Muslim eschatology, 133–134, 138–140, 147
near-death experiences (NDEs),614, 616–617
open theism, 530
personal identity, 392–393, 534–535, 544
positivism, 583–584
primal religions, 548
Protestantism, 649
Puranas epics, 180–181
religion and death, 478–482
Roman Catholicism, 649
Second Vatican Council, 216–217
Stoicism, 481, 488–489n13
suicide missions, 146
and theodicy, 525, 531
theories of, 385–387
twentieth century art, 649
Vatican II, 218
Against the Heresies, 95, 370
Agamas, 171
agape, 347
Agni, 173, 176, 180
agnosticism, 473
Ahura Mazda, 330, 484
A.J. Ayer: A Life, 624
Akkadian texts, 30, 37n41, 329
Alaric, 370
Al-Asfār al-arba‘a, 135
Albanese, Catherine, 659
Albury Park, 378
Alexandria, 92, 96–98
Alfeyev, Hilarion, 245
Algar, Hamid, 143
al-Ghazālī, 132, 140, 142
All Good Things (TV show),668n13
Allison, D. C., 85
Alston, William, 520, 622
America
American Providence, 509
and democracy, 508–509
evangelical politics, 514
fundamentalism and, 514
messianic character of, 677, 680
millennial beliefs, 506
When Time Shall Be No More, 656
Witness, 511
and World War II, 501
American Civil Liberties Union, 270
American Humanist Association, 270
American Providence, 509
American Society for Psychical Research, 304
American Studies Association, 656
amillennialism
beliefs today, 379
Calvinism, 374
definition, 368–369
dispensationalism and, 13
realized eschatology, 502–503
Amitābha, 160, 164
Amos, 27–28, 30
amphiarchate, 333
Anabaptists, 373–374, 434
Ānanda, 156–157
(p. 692) anastasis, 635
Anat, 340n2
ancestor worship, 179, 184–186
Ancient of Days, 75
Andrew of Caesarea, 104
Angel of Death, 133
Angley, Earl, 273
Anglicanism
Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC),356
fundamentalist eschatology critique, 14
kingdom of God, 81
and the Plymouth Brethren, 378
Purgatory, 433–434, 443n17
and the Puritans, 374
Angra Mainyu, 330
Animal Apocalypse, 44
anisotropy, 607–608
Annihilationism
Arnobius of Sicca, 474n15
choice model of punishment, 419–421
conditional immortality, 416–417
conditionalists, 18n38
definition, 462
eternal damnation, 15, 469–472
and Hell, 472–473
life after death beliefs, 464, 473n9
minority report, 467–468
and predestination, 194
and science, 473n9
scriptural foundations, 464–465
annus mundi (AM),370
Anselm, 471, 522, 531
anthropocentrism, 234, 402
Antichrist. See also Satan
Book of Revelation, 646
Branch Davidian beliefs, 207
Commodian prediction, 103
dispensationalism, 9, 284, 378
dualistic beliefs, 205
and ecumenism, 354
End of Days, 664
fundamentalist eschatology, 264
General Burgoyne, 658
George III, 658
identification of, 12
Justin Martyr, 369
The Late Great Planet Earth, 268
Left Behind series, 274, 666
Letter on the Origin and Life of Antichrist, 371
Oliver Cromwell, 506
Omega Code, 665
as pope in millennialism, 366, 372–373
premillenarian beliefs, 367
and the Puritans, 374–375, 658
Rapture Index, 657
Second Coming, 95
666, 273
Sulpicius Severus, 103
anti-millennialism, 370
Antiochenes, 102
Antiochus Epiphanes, 483
anti-Semitism, 204
Antoninus (saint),635, 652n19
Apara Brahman, 171
Aphrahat, 101
apocalypse. See also apocalyptic literature; Book of Revelation
Apocalypse and the Millennium, 208
Apocalypse Code, 268
Apocalypse Now and Then: A Feminist Guide to the End of the World, 336, 680
Apocalypse of Abraham, 40, 46
Apocalypse of Baruch, 365
Apocalypse of Isaiah, 46
Apocalypse of John, 465
Apocalypse of Paul, 104
Apocalypse of Peter, 92, 105n3, 464
Apocalypse of Thomas, 103–104
Apocalypse woodcuts, 658
definition, 12, 32, 73–74
and ecumenism, 353, 359
eschatological hopes, 67
Exposition on the Apocalypse, 371–372
The Four Horseman, 646
and future history, 63–65
in Jewish texts, 23–24
liberation theology, 322
millenarian beliefs, 192
Society of Biblical Literature, 46
apocalyptic literature. See also apocalypticism; wisdom literature
ancient Near East, 32–34
Apocalypse Code, 268
Arguing the Apocalypse, 656
Augustine of Hippo, 100–101, 332–333, 370–371
Book of Chronicles, 38n59
Dead Sea Scrolls, 48–50
definition, 45–46
and dispensationalism, 228–229
dualism, 336
early Christianity, 91–105
and Friedrich Lücke, 40
The Great Controversy, 333–334
Greco-Oriental tradition, 328, 331
Jewish messianism, 125
liberal theology, 333
and millennial beliefs, 365
1 Enoch, 45–48
Pentecostalism, 284–285
postmodernism, 51
Roman Catholic theology, 221
Society of Biblical Literature, 46
Zoroastrianism, 330
apocalypticism. See also apocalyptic literature
Book of Daniel, 12–13
Dead Sea Scrolls, 45, 50
early Christians, 103–104
and eschatology, 228, 502
Evanston Assembly, 351
The Great Controversy, 333–334
Jewish eschatology, 125
and Moltmann, 500
Muslim eschatology, 148n2
nation-states and, 510
new religious movements, 191–192
Old Testament eschatology, 31–34
origin of, 41–45
Pentecostalism, 282, 287
political activism and, 501–502
premillennialism, 503
Roman Catholic theology, 221
Society of Biblical Literature, 46
and violence, 201–204
Apocrypha, 630
apokatastasis (universal restoration)
Council of Constantinople, 216
Eastern Orthodox teachings, 241–242
(p. 693)
Gregory of Nyssa, 101–102
Hell and, 224
Jesus descent into Hell, 225
Protestant eschatology, 252
seven theses on eschatology, 222
universal salvation, 244–246
apostasy, 354, 367, 373, 646
Apostles’ Creed, 216, 219–220, 634
Apostolic Faith Mission, 280
Apostolic Faith newspaper, 284, 286, 289
Apringius of Beja, 104
Aquinas, Thomas
Aquinas on the Twofold Good, 546n12
art history and, 630
beatific vision, 402–403
The Church Militant, the Church Triumphant, Via Veritatis, 647, 648
God and time, 601
immortality of the soul, 468
Jesus’ descent into Hell, 634, 638–639, 651n11
nature of Hell, 463
resurrection of the dead, 387
theodicy, 522
Aramaic fragments, 77
Aranyakas, 170, 177, 182
Aretino, Pietro, 645
Arguing the Apocalypse, 656
arhatship, 156, 164
Arians, 448–449
Aristotle, 411n10, 429
Arjuna, 179, 186, 481
Armageddon. See also Book of Revelation
apocalypticism and violence, 201
Armageddon (book),284
Armageddon (film),660
Armageddon Books (publishers),273
and Aum Shinrikyo, 203–204
Branch Davidians, 207
dispensationalism, 378
fundamentalist eschatology, 264
Jehovah's Witnesses beliefs, 195–197
The Late Great Planet Earth, 268
Left Behind series, 666
Megiddo, 664
millenarian beliefs, 192–193
Nostradamus predictions, 202
popular culture and, 659
premillenarian beliefs, 367
Arminians, 458n4
Arnaldez, Kalam R., 148n2
Arnobius of Sicca, 467, 474n15
Arnold, E. Vernon, 488–489n13
artificial intelligence, 678, 685n24
As I Lay Dying, 625
Asahara, Shoko, 201–204
Ascension of Isaiah, 40
Ascension of Jesus, 57
asceticism
apocalyptic literature, 103
Aum Shinrikyo beliefs, 204
Buddhist, 550
Hinduism, 182
Muslim, 550
Ash'arism, 136
Asia Minor, 96
Assumption of Moses, 365
Assumption of the Virgin, 644
Assurbanipal, 31
Assyria, 79, 329
asterisms (nakshatras),188–189n17
asuras (jealous gods),161
Atari games, 662
Atharva Veda, 172–174, 176, 184, 187n3
atheism
and the afterlife, 413
Ayer's near-death experience, 624
and Buddhism, 552
and cosmology, 582
theodicy, 520
universal salvation, 245
Athenagoras, 94
Atkinson, Basil, 467
atman (true self),173, 179, 549
atomic weapons. See nuclear holocaust
atonement, 448
Aṭṭhakavagga, 166n5
Attridge, Harold, 10
Augsburg Confession, 252, 374
Augustine of Hippo
apocalyptic literature, 100–101, 332, 370–371
dialectical theology, 349–350, 352
eternal damnation, 472
immortality of the soul, 468
millennial beliefs, 69
nature of Hell, 463
and open theism, 529
Purgatory, 441n3
and salvation, 449, 458n4
theodicy, 520, 522
and Tyconius, 99
Aum Shinrikyo, 191, 201–204, 206, 208
Australia, 165–166n4
Averroes (Ibn Rushd),132, 148n2
Avesta, 42, 171–172
Avicenna, 135, 140–141, 144, 148
Avignon schism, 647
Awake!, 196
Ayer, A. J., 583, 623–624
Aztecs, 481–482
the B theory of time
big bang theory, 605
definition of, 597
eternalism, 608–611
and evil, 609–610
God and, 601
indiscernibility of identicals, 610–611
McTaggart's paradox, 598
physical eschatology, 608
Baal, 340n2
Babel, 353
Babylon, 268
Branch Davidian beliefs, 207
conquest of Israel, 329
day of Yhwh, 27
dualistic beliefs, 205
eschatology, 30, 329
fall of, 29
First Temple destruction, 115
Israelite exile, 43
Near East and apocalyptic literature, 42
polytheism, 120
Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex (BMAC),187n3
Badarayana, 182
Baha'i's Under the Provision of the Covenant, 197
Bahman Yasht, 41–42
Bainbridge, William, 206
(p. 694) Baker, Lynne Rudder, 540–541, 543
Bakhtin, Mikhail M., 325n23
baptism
in blood, 348
early Christianity, 432, 442n8
Pentecostalism, 281
recapitulation, 363n57
Baptist, 333
bar Kokhba, Simeon, 125
Barbarossa, Frederick, 371
Barbour, Ian, 568, 570
Barbour, Nelson, 195
Barkun, Michael, 656
Barnabus, 467
Barrow, John, 568, 572, 579n50
Barth, Karl
divine revelation and, 590
and ecumenism, 350, 360n16, 363n59
eschatology, decline of, 7, 216, 594n3
ethical eschatology, 556
existential eschatology, 221, 564, 585
and Moltmann, 82
nature of Hell, 468
radical eschatology, 255–256, 497–498
universal salvation, 245
Baruch, 40
barzakh (isthmus),140–141, 143, 145
Basil of Caesarea, 101
Basil the Great (saint),235
Basil the Younger, 240
Battle Hymn of the Republic, 658
Bauckham, Richard, 686n29
Be Thou Prepared, for Jesus Is Coming Soon, 273
beatific vision. See also Heaven
Benedictus Deus, 216
and cosmology, 569–570
Davis, Stephen T., 397n18
gratuitous evil and, 527
kingdom of God, 581
Neuhaus near-death experience, 625
resurrection of the dead, 394–396
St. Thomas Aquinas, 402–403
Sweet and Blessed Country: The Christian Hope for Heaven, 411n8
Beatitudes, 59, 554
Beatrice, 647
Bede (saint),620
Begbie, Jeremy, 683
The Beginning of the End, 269, 284
beginningless. See saṁsāra
Being as Communion, 363–364n63
Bellamy, Joseph, 376
Bellarmine, Robert, 634
Ben Sira, 44–45, 50
Ben Zoma, 121–122
Benedict XII, 216, 223, 442n7
Benedictus Deus, 216, 223, 442n7
Bengel, Johann Albrecht, 375
Berdyaev, Nicolas, 237–238
Berger, Peter, 518
Bernard of Clairvaux (saint),373
Bethlehem, 339
Between Cross and Resurrection: A Theology of Holy Saturday, 653n32
Bhabha, Homi, 317
Bhagavad Gita
Bhakti, 181
Hindu eschatology, 179, 186, 481
Hindu funeral rituals, 184
Puranas epics, 180
Ramanuja, 183
Bhakti, 181
Bible. See also New Testament; Old Testament
Bible and Mission: Christian Witness in a Postmodern World, 686n29
Bible reading, 269, 270
Biblical teachings, 263–264
eschatology and world history, 254
popular culture and, 667
providential history, 509
and Universalism, 459n6
big bang theory
asymmetry of time, 608
cosmic eschatological theory, 592
and cosmology, 565–566
and eschatology, 229, 566–567, 574, 602
manifestation/nonmanifestation, 154–155
process theology, 578n33
resurrection of the dead, 394
spacetime, 597
and time, 607, 612n10
white holes, 604–605
big crunch theory
asymmetry of time, 608
cosmic eschatological theory, 592
and eschatology, 229
faith and eschatology, 6
process theology, 578n33
resurrection of the dead, 394
spacetime, 597
theories of relativity, 603
and time, 607, 612n10
Biola, 275
Black Death, 647, 653n47
black holes, 602, 604
“the Black One.” See Satan
Blackmore, Susan, 624
Blaising, Craig, 380–381n6, 513
Bloch, Ernst, 82
Bloesch, Donald G., 411n14
Blood Moon: A New World, 273
Blumhardt, Johann and Christoph, 288, 350
Bob Jones University, 266
Boccaccini, Gabriele, 49
Boccaccio, 647
Bock, Darrell, 513
bodhisattvas
Mahāyāna (Great Vehicle),162–164
and nirvana, 550
personal eschatology, 154
Tibetan eschatology, 620–621
women, 168n43
bodily criterion, 392
Boff, Leonardo, 82, 318, 326n36
Bokelson, Jan, 374
Bonaventure (saint),630, 634
Bonda, Jan, 459n6
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 81–82, 321
Book of Chronicles, 38n59
Book of Common Prayer, 433
Book of Daniel
apocalypticism, 12–13
Dead Sea Scrolls, 49
eschatology, 34, 74
history and eschatology, 252
kingdom of God, 75, 81, 86
and millennial beliefs, 365
1 Enoch, 45
(p. 695)
Persia and apocalyptic literature, 42
prophecy and apocalyptic literature, 43
superheroes and pop culture, 659
wisdom literature, 44–45
Book of Enoch, 40, 44–45, 49
Book of Hebrews, 5
Book of Joel, 43
Book of Judges, 75–76
Book of Kings, 26
Book of Life, 330, 551
Book of Mormon, 377
Book of Revelation. See also apocalyptic literature; Armageddon
Apocalypse Now and Then: A Feminist Guide to the End of the World, 336, 680
Apocalypse of Thomas, 104
in art history, 630, 646
Augustine of Hippo, 371
and Aum Shinrikyo, 202, 204
beatific vision, 395
Branch Davidians, 207
Clavis Apocalyptica, 375
early Christianity, 58, 103
Engels comments, 68
ethical eschatology, 559
and future history, 64–65
and futurism, 366
Greek apologists, 104
and Heaven, 401
history and eschatology, 252
Jesus return, 3
LaHaye writings, 269–270
millennial beliefs, 69, 192, 365–366, 502
nature of Hell, 465–466
new religious movements, 208
Newton commentaries, 195
Pentecostalism, 11
premillenarian beliefs, 367
Richard commentary, 321
superheroes and pop culture, 659
Tyconius commentary, 99–100
Victorinus commentary, 99
Book of the Dead, 483–484
Book of the Watchers, 46
Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem, 604
Borg, Marcus, 84
Bornkamm, Günther, 81
Boros, Ladislaus, 226
Bousset, Wilhelm, 41, 79–80
Bowling Green State University, 655–656
Boyce, Mary, 42
Boyd, Richard, 540
Boyer, Paul, 10, 12, 656, 667
Braden, Marcia, 199–200
Bradley, Denis, 546n12
Bradshaw, David, 411n10
Brahma, 180
Brahma Sutras, 182
Brahman (oversoul),173, 183, 386, 549
Brahmana, 170, 176–177, 182
Branch Davidians
and apocalypticism, 191
Book of Revelation, 208
failed prophecy, 206–207
millennial beliefs, 380
violence and eschatology, 205–207
brane cosmologies, 566
Bratslaver Hasidim, 128
Braude, Ann, 334
Braun, Herbert, 81
The Bride of the Lamb, 234, 363–364n63
Bridge of Retribution, 484
Brihadaranyaka, 177
British Council of Churches, 360n16
British Journal of Psychology, 617
Brodd, Sven-Erik, 361n37
Bronzino, 636, 637, 638, 652n24
Brooks, David, 11
Brown, David, 443n17
Brown, Peter, 442n9
Brown, Raymond, 564
Bruce, James, 40
Bruner, Dale, 282
Bucer, Martin, 493
Buddha. See also Buddhism
biography of, 165–166n4
Buddha nature, 164–165
Buddhahood, 164
Mahāyāna (Great Vehicle),162–164
meaning of, 156
near-death experiences (NDEs),624
nirvana, 167n37
saṁsāra, 151–152
Buddha Akṣobhya, 160
Buddhaghosa, 158
Buddhism. See also Buddha
arhatship, 156
atheism, 552
and Aum Shinrikyo, 202
beginningless (saṁsāra),160, 167n35
and Christian eschatology, 229, 552
conditioned things (saṁskṛta-dharmas),155–156, 166n18
disappearance of, 156–158, 167n24
and eschatology, 4, 151–152, 549
Mahāyāna (Great Vehicle),154, 162–164, 166n15
Maitreya, 159
no-thing-ness, 549–550
pho-wa, 203
spread of, 165–166n4
tantric Buddhism, 164–165
women and, 156–157, 167n2, 168n43
Bulgakov, Sergius, 234, 237–239, 363–364n63
Bultmann, Rudolf
ethical eschatology, 556
existential eschatology, 221, 564, 585
form criticism, 80–81
Gifford Lectures, 313
millennial beliefs, 379
theology of history, 256–257
Bundahishn, 42, 340n5
Bundy, Ted, 449–450
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, 207
Burgoyne, John, 658
Burma, 164
Bush, George W., 273
Caird, G. B., 81, 84, 585
Calhoun, Robert, 351
Calov, Abraham, 248
Calvin, John, 374, 651–652n12
Calvinism, 404, 434, 463, 529
Cambridge University, 304, 375
Campus Crusade, 267
Canaanite thought, 329, 340n2
Canclini, Néstor García, 317
cannibalism case, 390
capital punishment, 417
(p. 696) capitalism
and democracy, 508, 676
kingdom of God, 505–506
nation-states and, 510
overthrow of, 385, 557
Cappadocians, 101–102
cargo cults of Oceania, 191
Carlson, Carole C., 267, 664
Carpenter, Miles Burkholder, 649
Carter, Warren, 82–83
Casaldáliga, Pedro, 318
catastrophism. See apocalypticism
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC),219–220
celibacy, 332
Center for Process Studies, 309n48
The Central Position of the Reign of God in Liberation Theology, 340n17
Cerinthus, 59, 71n13
Cerrato, J.A., 106n22
Chabad community, 128
Chafer, Lewis Sperry, 275
Chaldean, 75
Chalmers, D. J., 538
Chambers, Whittaker, 510–512, 514
Chandogya, 177–178
chaos theory, 229, 573
Chardin, Teilhard de, 229, 353, 568, 571
Charles, R. H., 40
Charles II, 374–375
Charon, 623, 645
chiliasm, 252
China
Buddha nature, 164
Buddhist eschatology, 158
Cultural Revolution, 552
The Late Great Planet Earth, 268
Lotus Sūtra, 164
Chisholm, Roderick, 532n21
Choi, Hyung Sup, 568
choice model of punishment, 419–423
chōra, 319–320
Christ. See also Jesus of Nazareth
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 636, 637, 638
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 635, 636
The Christian Faith, 349, 359n8, 360n12
Christian Reformed church, 276n4
Christianity. See also fundamentalism; individual denominations; Jesus of Nazareth
and the afterlife, 413–414
annihilationism, 416–417
apocalypse definition, 46
and biblical eschatology, 74, 581
and Buddhist eschatology, 552
Christian Right, 269–273, 378–380, 485
and colonialism, 316
The Coming of God: Christian Eschatology, 672
conversion of Constantine, 370
Crusades, 371
democracy and, 508–509
Diocletian persecution, 99
divine eternity, 599, 600
doctrines of punishment and reward, 420–421
early church apocalyptic literature, 91–105
early Church eschatology, 56–70, 331–332
early millennial beliefs, 369–371
and Easter, 486–487
eschatological imagination, 680–682, 687n50
eschatological theories, 385, 493, 563–564
essence of Christianity, 255
ethical eschatology, 551–555, 561
feminist theology, 328
and global democracy, 306–307
Heaven as a concept, 401–403
and Hegel, 313
and immortality, 468–469
imperialistic ideology, 679–680
Jesus as second Adam, 5
and Jewish eschatology, 127, 250, 330–331
kingdom of God, 558–559
liberation theology and Marxism, 502
life after death beliefs, 10–11
and martyrdom, 353
metanarratives of, 673–676, 678–679
millennialism, 503–504
minims (early Christians),129n31
physical eschatology, 603
postmodernism, 675–676, 685n19
premillennialism, 512
and Purgatory, 428, 430–437
resurrection of the dead, 387–389, 469
Roman persecution, 366, 369–371
schism with Judaism, 119
Schleiermacher apologist, 126
secularization of eschatology, 496–497
Spiral Jetty, 650
theism and happiness, 399
and theodicy, 530–531
theology and eschatology, 255–256
totalitarian regimes and, 507
traditions of eschatology, 328
Universalism, 416–418, 446, 458–459n5
and Whittaker Chambers, 511–512
and Zoroastrianism, 485
Christianity Today, 273
Christology, 222
Christus Victor, 639
Chronicler, 38n59
Church Dogmatics, 256
The Church Militant, the Church Triumphant, Via Veritatis, 647, 648, 653n45
Church of Scotland, 374
Church Universal and Triumphant, 197–198
The Church's Mystagogy, 235
Cimabue, 647
The City of God, 340n7, 370–371. See also Augustine of Hippo
civil millennialism, 272
civil religion, 656, 658–659, 661
Civil War, 377–378, 658
Claremont School of Theology, 335
Clarke, Adam, 195
Clavis Apocalyptica, 375
Clayton, Philip, 568, 571
Clément, Oliver, 245
Clement of Alexandria, 92, 96–97, 105n3
Clement of Rome, 467
Clement VI, 647
Clement VII de Medici, 644
closed model, 572, 579n50
Cobb, John, 298, 305–306, 570
cognitive dissonance, 197–201, 207, 592
cognitive limitations, 521, 525–526
Cohn, Norman, 42, 503
Cold War, 266, 501
Collins, John J., 32
Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory, 324n16
colonialism, 315–316, 324n16
Columbanus, 442n9
(p. 697) Columbus, Christopher, 316
The Coming Crisis, 284
The Coming of God: Christian Eschatology, 502–504, 506, 672
Commentary on Daniel, 370
Commodian, 103, 108–109n77
Communio, 353
Communism, 269, 504, 510–512, 556
Community Rule, 48
Comte, Auguste, 494
The Concept of Our Great Power, 103
conception, 173
conditional immortality, 416–417, 462, 468–469
conditionalists, 18n38
conditioned entities, 162
conditioned things (saṁskṛta-dharmas),155–156, 166n18
Condorcet, Marquis de, 494
Cone, James, 671–672
confessional martyrs, 361n37
Confucianism, 549, 551
Congar, Yves, 228
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 219, 226
consciousness
and afterlife, 550
B theory of time, 609
Consciousness and the Mind of God, 540
consciousness raising, 323
and death, 226, 297, 478
and evolution, 302
Gnostic theology, 94
Hindu eschatology, 173, 182
Islamic theology, 144
and materialism, 536–538
near-death experiences, 617
self-consciousness, 314
Tibetan Buddhism, 203
and time, 597
conservatism, 512
Conservative Judaism, 130n56
Constantine, 99, 370, 503
consumerism, 501–502
contingent universalism, 418, 421
conversion, 121
convert reassurance, 199
Conzelmann, Hans, 81
Cook, Stephen, 43
Cooper, John W., 468
Copernicus, Nicolaus, 316
Corbin, Henry, 140
Corinthians, 62–63
cosmic eschatological theory, 384–386, 592–593
cosmogony, 606
cosmological constant, 603
cosmology
and eschatology, 563, 566–573, 602
feminist theology, 337
Hope and the Future of Man, 578n33
models of the universe, 579n50
positivism and, 582
Protestantism, 249–250
resurrection of the dead, 393–394
and time, 607
in the Twentieth Century, 565–566
cosmos
and the afterlife, 544
Atman, the world soul, 179
Buddhist eschatology, 151, 166n6
cosmic law, 183
doctrine of divine conservation, 415–416
Great Cosmic Time, 182
Hindu eschatology, 174–175, 188–189n17
manifestation/nonmanifestation, 153–154
Muslim eschatology, 141
Puranas epics, 180–181
Samhitas, 177
Council of Constance, 372
Council of Constantinople, 216
Council of Ferrara-Florence, 442n10
Council of Florence, 216, 633
Council of Lyons, 216
Council of Nicaea, 75
Council of Trent
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 645
Purgatory, 216, 437, 443n20, 634
Counter-Reformation, 215
covenantal theology
and Christianity, 554
dispensationalism, 283, 513
God and creations, 252
Judaism, 553
progressive dispensationalism, 275
progressive millennialism, 513–514
Cox-Rearick, Janet, 652n24
Craig, William Lane, 453–454, 564
Cranach, Lucas, the Younger, 632–633
creatio ex nihilo, 509, 564, 572, 578
Creation
big bang theory, 578n33
Brahma, Hindu eschatology, 180
creatio continua, 509, 571
creatio ex nihilo, 509, 564, 572, 578
Demiurgos, 331
and eschatology, 581
ex vetere, 572–574
in Gnostic literature, 94
Muslim eschatology, 138–141
Pentecostal theology, 288
physical eschatology, 605
cremation, 184, 186, 187n3
Cromwell, Oliver, 374–375, 506
Cross Gospel, 83
Crossan, John Dominic, 83
Crucifixion. See also Jesus of Nazareth
Crucifixion, Weimar altarpiece, 632–633
penitent thief, 638, 651n11
quest for Jesus, 80
as sacrifice, 485–486
symbol of domination and repression, 338
Crusades, 371
Cullmann, Oscar
and ecumenism, 350
and Moltmann, 82
progressive dispensationalism, 275
resurrection of the dead, 388–389
Second Coming, 81, 319
Cultural Identity and Social Liberation in Latin America, 324n16
Cultural Revolution, 552
Cybernetic Immortality versus Christian Resurrection, 685n24
Cyprian (saint),217
da Firenze, Andrea, 647, 648
da Volterra, Daniele, 645
daily prayers (Ṣalāt),138
daivam (fate),185
(p. 698) Dallas Theological Seminary, 267, 275
Damascus, 61
Dante, Alighieri, 417, 429, 438–441, 569
Daochuo, 158
Darby, John Nelson, 195, 252–253, 283, 378
Dark Era, 602
dark matter, 394
Darwinism
evolution, 8, 593
God after Darwin, 578n34
millennial beliefs, 377
and progress, 674
David King of Israel
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 637, 638
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 636
covenantal theology, 252
Deuteronomistic history (DtrH),26
and the Messiah, 124
Davis, Elizabeth Gould, 334
Davis, Stephen T., 397n18
Day of Atonement, 458, 482
Day of Doom, 658
day of Yhwh
kingdom of God, 27–29, 74
prophecy, 44
timing of, 25, 81
Dayton, Donald W., 281, 283
de Lubac, Henri, 350, 353, 360n15
De Novissimis (On the Last Things),216, 248
De Petter, Domenicus, 226
De quibusdam questionibus actualibus circa eschatologiam, 219
Dead Sea Scrolls
apocalyptic literature, 33, 41, 48–50
discovered, 45
Jewish eschatology, 67
Persia and apocalyptic literature, 42
death. See also near-death experiences (NDEs)
beatific vision, 216
Death and Eternal Life, 397n11, 594n17
Death and Immortality, 594n10
death-ends-all theory, 385–386
death-of-God theology, 82
Endentscheidungshypothese, 226
ethical eschatology, 559
final judgment, 555
four last things, 630
and Hell, 466
Hindu eschatology, 179
Hindu funeral rituals, 171
and immortality, 253
memento mori, 476
as murder, 477
Muslim eschatology, 143, 145
novissima tua, 248–249
pancosmicity of the soul, 223
and religion, 478–482
resurrection of the dead, 464
sacrifices, 480–482
Samhitas, 172
as unnatural, 477–478
Victorian spiritualism, 674
The Debate over the Patristic Texts on Purgatory, 442n10
Declaration of Independence, 270
Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis Redintegratio),351–352, 360–361n21, 361n22
deification, 403
deism, 193
delok, 619–620
demagoguery, 507
DeMar, Gary, 276n4
Demiurgos, 331
democracy
capitalism and, 508, 676
and Christianity, 306–307
and eschatology, 507
nation-states, 505–506
and postmillennialism, 376
realized eschatology, 496
demons
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 635, 636
demonocracy, 338
Eastern Orthodox funeral rituals, 240
Egyptian afterlife, 484
Heaven's Gate, 206
Last Judgment, Giselbertus, 642
Last Judgment or Death, Judgment, Hell and Heaven, 631, 632
liberation theology, 322–323
postmillennial beliefs, 368
Dempster, Murray W., 287–288
Dennett, Daniel, 303
dependency theory, 324n16
depersonalization, 619
DeRose, Keith, 458n1
Derrida, Jacques, 679
Descartes, René, 143, 301, 538–539, 673
Determined Hope: A Phenomenology of Christian Expectation, 685n19
determinism, 303, 453, 528, 574
Deuteronomistic history (DtrH),26
Deuteronomy, 115, 553–554
Devi Mahatmya, 178, 181, 186
Devourer, 483
dharma. See also Buddhism
Buddhist teachings, 156
definitions of, 167n39
Dharma Shastras, 171, 184
Dharma Sutras, 179
Puranas epics, 180
regional variations of, 158
dharmatā, 152
di Cione, Nardo, 644
di Lapo Guidalotti, Buonamico, 647
Di Mambro, Joseph, 207
dialectical theology
Barth, Karl, 497
definition, 256
and ecumenism, 358, 363n60
historical Jesus, 80–81
process theology, 335–336
The Dialogic Imagination, 325n23
Dialogue with Trypho, 369
Dialogues, 243
Diaspora, 125, 356
Dibelius, Martin, 80
dice (aksha),175, 180
Didache, 234, 467
diggers, 375
Dinocrates, 430–431
Diocletian, 99
Diodore of Tarsus, 245
Discourse on the Two Spirits, 48–50
Dismas, 637, 638
dispensationalism
and apocalypticism, 228–229
Book of Revelation and, 13
(p. 699)
Christian Right, 269–270, 380
critique of, 14
definition, 513
emergence of, 9, 283, 378
and fundamentalism, 264–267, 269
In God's Time, 656
history and eschatology, 252
The Late Great Planet Earth, 10, 267
Left Behind series, 664
and Pentecostalism, 285
popular culture, 663–666
progressive dispensationalism, 275–276
prophecy and eschatology, 12
Rapture Index, 657
reconstructed dispensationalism, 513
rejection of, 276n4
Disputation, 71n13
A Distant Thunder, 663
divine conservation, 415–416
divine goodness, 525–528
divine healing, 285–288, 290
The Divine Institutes, 370
divine judgment, 610
Divine Providence, 532n21
divine revelation, 587–593, 594–595n20
diviners, 45
d'Medici, Cosimo, 635
The Doctrine of Redemption, 256
Dodd, Charles Harold
and Borg, 84
kingdom of God, 81
realized eschatology, 221, 379, 556
Dōgen, 164
dogma
eschatological concept, 256, 355, 594n3
History of Dogma, 80
Marian dogmas, 356–357, 363n62, 363n68, 428, 644
Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium),217–218, 351–355, 361–362n42, 564
Dogmatics, 248
Dominicans, 641, 647, 648, 653n47
dominion, 311
Donatist, 99–100
Dostoevsky, Fyodor, 350, 523
Doughten, Russell, Jr., 663–664
Dow Jones industrial average (DJIA),657
Dr. Jerry Falwell Teaches Bible Prophecy, 269
Dream of Gerontius, 625
Drees, Willem B., 568
Drew University School of Theology, 336
Drey, Johann Sebastian, 497
drug abuse, 270, 288
Drummond, Henry, 195
Drythelm, 620, 621
dualism
apocalyptic literature, 336
Aum Shinrikyo beliefs, 204
Book of Revelation, 64
Christian eschatology, 680
Christian theology, 673
Dead Sea Scrolls, 45, 49
definition, 536
divine revelation and, 592
early Christian apocalypticism, 105
and eschatology, 510, 545
Hindu classical texts, 182
intermediate state, 435–436, 536–537
Left Behind series, 274
and materialism, 301–302, 536–538, 540–541, 546n12
millenarian beliefs, 205–206
mind-body problem, 541–542, 544–545
Muslim creation of Adam, 142
objective immortality, 578n34
out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs),539, 545n7
Persian, 34, 42
personal identity, 538–539
Ramanuja, 183
and reincarnation, 543–544
and science, 541, 546n11
spiritual resurrection, 390
Vedanta, 182
Zoroastrianism, 484–485
Dulles, Avery Cardinal, 362n44
Dumezil, Georges, 188n16
duplication objection, 392
Dürer, Albrecht, 646, 658
Durga, 181
Dussel, Enrique, 321
Dutch Jehovah's Witnesses, 200–201
dutiful son parable, 115–117
Dvaita school, 182–183
Dyson, Freeman, 568, 579n50, 602
dysteleological, 522, 567–568, 576n13
Eadie, Betty, 618
East Asia, 158, 160, 165
East Carolina University, 616
Easter. See also Jesus of Nazareth
Commedia, 439
creation ex vetere, 573–574
end times, 314
and eschatology, 564
and final judgment, 485–488
Mysterium Paschale: The Mystery of Easter, 441n2
resurrection of the dead, 258, 387
Eastern Orthodox
Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom, 411n10
eschatology, 233–236
and the Eucharist, 355, 362n47
final judgment, 236–239
Heaven as a concept, 402–403, 411n10
individual eschatology, 239–241
Jesus’ descent into Hell, 635
Purgatory, 442n10
Eastwood, Clint, 660
ecclesia contra mundum, 203, 205
Ecclesia de Eucharistia, 362–363n51
Ecclesiastes, 248
Ecclesiastical History of the English People of Drythelm, 620
ecofeminism, 328, 337–338, 564
Ecumenical Department of Investigations (DEI),326n47
ecumenism. See also Ut Unum Sint
Decree on Ecumenism, 351, 360–361n21, 361n22
dialectical theology, 358, 363n60
ethical eschatology, 551, 557
Evanston Assembly, 350–351
history of, 349–354
obstacles to, 357
papal infallibility, 358–359, 364n64
and Pentecostalism, 290
ressourcement, 353
in the Twenty First Century, 684
World Council of Churches, 347–348
(p. 700) education of mankind, 494–495
Edwards, Denis, 571–572
Edwards, Jonathan, 376, 463, 658
Efraim, 191
egalitarianism, 50
Egerton fragment, 83
Egypt
afterlife, 483–484
Apocalypse of Peter, 92
apocalyptic literature, 42
defeat of by Israel, 27
and Israel, 31
Einstein-de Sitter cosmology, 574
Eisai, 158
Eleventh Council of Toledo, 216
Elijah, 373, 428
Eliot, George, 76
Eliot, T. S., 477
Elisha ben Abuyah, 117
Elizabeth I, 374
Ellis, George, 568
El-Saleh, Soubhi, 148n2
Embraced by the Light, 618
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 79
End of Days, 664
The End of Evil, 308n22, 335
The End of History, 676
end times
dispensationalism, 513
and eschatology, 320–321
futurism, 366
liberation theology, 314–315
literature, 284
and Pentecostalism, 282, 285
postcolonialism, 317
Endentscheidungshypothese, 226
endurantism, 610
Endzeit, 31
Engel, Mary Potter, 339
Engels, Friedrich, 68
engendering command (takwīnī),136–138, 146
Enlightenment
critique of, 676–678
eschatological theories, 563–564
eschatology, decline of, 7–8
and fundamentalism, 147
and imperialism, 675
Kantian ethics, 324–325n17
kingdom of grace, 494
as metanarrative, 673–676
millennial beliefs, 379
postmillennialism and, 503
and science, 677
and Strauss, 77
world history and eschatology, 253
Enoch, 428
Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks, 46, 365
Enochic Judaism, 49
entropy
big bang theory, 603, 605
and eschatology, 575
resurrection of the dead, 394
and time, 608
environmental movements, 191, 501, 504, 677
Ephesians, 66, 67–68
Ephrem, 101
Epicurus, 385
epiklesis, 362n47
epiphenomenalism, 300
epistemology, 581–582, 586–589, 606, 622
Epistle of Barnabas, 369–370
Epistle of the Apostles, 92, 106n5
Epistle to Diognetus, 467
Equal Rights Amendment, 272
Esarhaddon, 31
eschatology. See also eschaton; ethical eschatology
and apocalypticism, 31–34, 47, 502
bodily resurrection, 389
Book of Chronicles, 38n59
and Buddhism, 151–152
Christian metanarrative, 679
and cosmology, 337, 563, 566–573
creatio continua, 571
day of Yhwh, 27–29
De quibusdam questionibus actualibus circa eschatologiam, 219
decline of, 7–8
definition, 4, 24, 32, 56, 73–74, 215, 564, 581, 601–602, 629
and democracy, 507
Deuteronomistic history (DtrH),26
divine revelation and, 587–592
doctrine of the last things, 248
and dogma, 256
and dualism, 545
early Christians, 104–105
and ecumenism, 347–348, 354–355
education of mankind, 495
and entropy, 575
and epistemology, 581–582
eschatological dualism, 510
eschatological imagination, 680–682, 687n50
eschatological millennialism, 504
Eschatology without a Future, 576n13
and ethics, 548
existentialism, 80
and faith, 5–6, 256–257
and God, 498
humanum, 226
and idolatry, 322, 326n47
of Jesus, 78
Jewish texts, 67–68
in Judaism, 113–114
Letter on Certain Questions concerning Eschatology, 363n62
liberation theology, 323
and liminality, 312–313
modern Jewish, 126–128
Muslim eschatology, 137–138
new religious movements, 208
in New Testament Gospels, 58–61
in the Old Testament, 23, 30, 35n3, 35n5
and Otherness, 321
and the Pauline letters, 61–63
physical eschatology, 567–568
and politics, 500–502, 514
Pope Gregory the Great, 104
process theology, 307, 570
progressive dispensationalism, 275–276
progressive eschatology, 513
prophecy and apocalyptic literature, 43
prophets of the Old Testament, 26–29
in Protestantism, 250–255
and Purgatory, 428
radical eschatology, 255–257
resurrection of the dead, 386–387
revitalization of, 257–258
Roman Catholic ressourcement, 220
(p. 701)
Roman Catholic teaching, 215
and salvation, 3
and science, 574–575
Second Coming, 65–66
and social ethics, 349, 359n10
and theodicy, 518
in the twentieth century, 9–11
Vatican II, 216–217, 219–220
and violence, 205–207
and world history, 253
eschaton. See also eschatology
A theory of time, 609–610
asymmetry of time, 608
choice model of punishment, 423
Church as, 353
definition, 248, 320
doctrine of the last things, 249
economic trinity, 256
Eucharist celebration, 356
gratuitous evil and, 523
the kingdom of God, 384
and open theism, 530
politics and, 500
realized eschatology, 564
resurrection of the dead, 387–389
Roman Catholicism, 363n52
ta eschata, 322–323
and theodicy, 531
eschatos, 258–259
Essenes, 48–49
Estonia, 373
Et in Arcadia Ego, 650
eternal damnation. See also Hell
annihilationism, 15
Augustine of Hippo, 332
Calvinism, 404
Dead Sea Scrolls, 48
personal eschatology, 14
eternal life, 61
eternalism, 597–598, 608–611
eternity, 598–599, 606, 683
ethical eschatology. See also eschatology
Christianity, 551–555, 561
Eastern religions, 549–550
Enlightenment philosophy, 552
Judaism, 553
liberation theology, 557
modern developments, 555–558
and religion, 550–552
ethics, 548
Eucharist
celebration of, 3
Eastern Orthodox teachings, 362n47
and ecumenism, 352, 355
as eschatology, 234–236, 259
resurrection of the dead, 96
sacrifice of unity, 359n5
transubstantiation, 356, 362–363n51
Eurocentrism, 315, 321–322
Eusebius of Caesarea, 105n3, 370
Evangelical Alliance, 463–464
Evangelical Theological Society (ETS),275
evangelicalism
definition, 263
ethical eschatology, 557
history of, 263–264
and the Internet, 657
millennial beliefs, 380
political involvement of, 513–514
postmillennialism, 514
premillennialism, 283, 514
Purgatory, 443n17
rise of, 376
Evans, Mary Anne. See Eliot, George
Evanston Assembly, 9, 350–351, 360n18, 360n19
Eve, 637, 638, 652n23
evidentialism, 590
evil. See also theodicy
Annihilationism and, 472
and apocalypticism, 47–48, 201
Arguing the Apocalypse, 656
Aum Shinrikyo, 202
the B theory of time, 609–610
cosmic eschatological theory, 592–593
divine goodness and, 525–528
dualistic beliefs, 205
ecofeminism, 337
empire of Communism, 511
The End of Evil, 308n22
and eschatology, 328
gratuitous, 520–521
Holocaust and, 115
Jewish eschatology, 330
Old Testament eschatology, 35n3
open theism, 529
perpetual perishing, 570
postmillennial beliefs, 368
and science, 677
and the Second Coming, 60
superheroes and pop culture, 661
and theodicy, 532n21
universal salvation, 245
Zoroastrianism, 484–485
evolution, 302, 593. See also Darwinism
ex eventu prophecies, 42
exegesis, 82
existential eschatology, 221
existentialism, 80–81, 531
Existenzzeit, 437
Exodus, 82, 121–122, 395
Exposition on the Apocalypse, 371–372
Ezekiel
eschatology, 28
fall of Jerusalem, 27
hierocrats, 43
and millennial beliefs, 365
resurrection of the dead, 123–124
Ezra, 68, 365
The Face of the Deep: A Theology of Becoming, 337
faith, 5–6
Falwell, Jerry, 266, 269–272
fanaticism, 588
Far Side cartoons, 14
Farrer, Austin, 296
fascism, 556
fatalism, 609, 611–612n2
fate (daivam),185
Faupel, David William, 282
Feinberg, Charles, 269
feminism. See also feminist theology
and the Christian Right, 270
ecofeminism, 337–338
liberation theology, 557, 564
millennial beliefs, 333–334
process theology, 336
(p. 702) feminist theology. See also feminism
Apocalypse Now and Then: A Feminist Guide to the End of the World, 336, 680
ecofeminism, 337–338
fundamentalism, 336–337
and millennialism, 328
and postmodernism, 334–335, 340n16
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 228, 338–339
Vatican II, 218
Fenn, Richard K., 441n3
Festinger, Leon, 197–199
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 399–400
Ficino, 652n19
Fiddes, Paul, 682–683
Fifth Monarchy men, 375
final dharma (mofa),158
final judgment. See also resurrection of the dead
A theory of time, 611
Book of Revelation, 330
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 638
Christian eschatology, 493
Council of Florence, 633
doctrine of the last things, 248
Eastern Orthodox beliefs, 236–239, 241–242
Egyptian beliefs, 483–484
four last things, 630
and Hell, 418
history of art and, 639
Last Judgment, Giotto, 641
Last Judgment, Giselbertus, 642
Letter on the Origin and Life of Antichrist, 371
perdurantism, 610–611
and religion, 482–485
Tibetan beliefs, 620
Trinity, Masaccio, 640, 653n36
Zoroastrianism, 484–485
final things, 248
Finding of Moses, 644
Finney, Charles Grandison, 270, 376–377
Finster, Howard, 649
First Letter of Clement, 92
The First Sex, 334
First Temple, 115
First Things, 625
Fischer, John Martin, 406
Flew, Antony, 583
Florovsky, Georges, 9, 347–348, 355, 361n41
Flusser, David, 42
flying saucers, 198
Ford, Lewis, 578n33
form criticism, 80–81
Form-giver, 141
The Four Horseman, 646
four last things, 630
Four Views on Hell, 422
4 QInstruction, 50
Fourth Lateran Council, 216
Fox, George, 494
Foxe, John, 658
Fra Angelico, 635, 636, 652n23
Fra Dolcino of Novara, 372
France, 220, 494
Franciscans, 555
Francke, 494
Frankfurt school, 226, 423–424
Frederick, John, 632
freedom, 496
Freemasons, 204, 666
free-will theists
afterlife, 535
and Annihilationism, 470
open theism, 528–529
salvation and, 522–523
and Universalism, 449–454
Freire, Paulo, 323
Freud, Sigmund, 400, 478–480, 619
Freund, Kurt, 198
Friedlieb, Philipp Heinrich, 248
From a Broken Web: Separation, Sexism and the Self, 336
From Eschatology to Ecology: The Ends of History and Nature, 649
Frye, Northrop, 683
Frykholm, Amy Johnson, 656
Fukuyama, Francis, 317, 324n12, 677
full gospel, 281
Fuller, Charles E., 266
fundamentalism. See also Christianity
Book of Revelation, 680
definition, 263
emergence of, 9, 283
feminist theology, 336–337
The Fundamentals, 265
in the global South, 11
and Heaven, 403
history of, 264–266
Muslim, 10, 147, 403
political involvement of, 514
funeral rituals
Apara Brahman, 171
Eastern Orthodox, 239–241
Funk, Robert, 84
future eschatology, 13–14
futurism
dispensationalism, 378
and ecumenism, 351
millennial beliefs, 366
post-humanity, 677–678
premillenarian beliefs, 367
futurology, 679
futurum, 572
Gabriel (angel),138
Gaddi, Taddeo, 647
Gage, Matilda Joslyn, 333
Gaines, David, 360n18
Galatians, 61
Gallup Organization, 660–661, 667–668n9, 668n16
Ganges River, 184
Garuda Purana, 184
Gates of Prayer, 130n56
Gathas, 42
Gaudentius of Brescia, 103
Gaudium et Spes, 218, 351–354, 361n37
Gauri, 181, 185
Gauriloka, 181
Gayomard, 330
Geach, Peter, 542
Gebara, Ivone, 328, 337–338
Gehenna, 474n12
gender, 328
general resurrection, 390–393, 396. See also resurrection of the dead
Genesis, 25, 75, 554
Gentiles, 119–120, 264, 646
George III, 658
(p. 703) Gerhard, Johann, 248
German pietism, 252, 288
Germany, 220, 500–501
Gerstner, John, 463
Geulincx, Arnold, 301
Gibbon, Edward, 209–210n20
Gibson, William, 656
Gifford Lectures, 313
Gignoux, Philippe, 42
Gilgamesh Epic, 479
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 409
Giotto, 641, 647
Giselbertus, 642
Glaubenslehre, 316
globalization, 229, 676
Gnilka, Joachim, 85
Gnosticism
apocalyptic literature, 94–96, 106n9
and Chardin, 353
definition, 46
Epistle of the Apostles, 92
Gospel of Thomas, 83
Nag Hammadi literature, 103–104
God. See also theology
aim of theology (finis theologiae),249
beatific vision, 394–396
and belief in heaven, 399–400
covenantal theology, 252
death-of-God theology, 82
Demiurgos, 331
education of mankind, 495
and eternity, 598, 611–612n2
Form-giver, 141
and free will, 455
future of, 497–498
God, Christ, Church, 335
God after Darwin, 578n34
God the World's Future: Systematic Theology for a Postmodern Era, 686n29
gratuitous evil, 520–521
Hinduism, 183
holy mystery, 224
hypertime, 599
Muslim eschatology, 141–142
nature of, 98
omega point theory, 568
in Pentecostal theology, 288
physical eschatology, 602
in process theology, 297, 336, 570
promise and eschatology, 259
punishment and reward thesis, 420–421
and salvation, 448–449, 458n4
three principles of faith in Islamic theology, 135
and time, 607, 612n10
transcendence of, 138–139
Godavari River, 185
goddess worship, 334
golden rule, 78, 306–307
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 658
Gospel of John. See also New Testament
beatific vision, 395
final judgment, 241–242
Jesus as messiah, 57–58
kingdom of God, 81
nature of, 77
Second Coming, 61, 66
time traveler, 268–269
Gospel of Luke. See also New Testament
dating of, 83
eschatological kingdom, 59
millennial beliefs, 365
Second Coming, 60, 66
Sermon on the Mount, 554
Gospel of Mark. See also New Testament
dating of, 77, 83–84
Jesus first words, 58–59
millennial beliefs, 365
Second Coming, 60
Gospel of Matthew. See also New Testament
dating of, 77, 83
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 644
millennial beliefs, 365
nature of Hell, 465
Second Coming, 65–66
Sermon on the Mount, 554
Gospels. See also individual Gospels
destruction of the cosmos, 76
Gospel of Nicodemus, 634, 638
Gospel of Peter, 83
Gospel of the Hebrews, 83
The Gospel of the Kingdom, 284
Gospel of Thomas, 83
The Gospel Reloaded: Exploring Spirituality and Faith in the Matrix, 663
Q source, 77–78
Göttingen lectures, 79–80, 256
goyim, 119
grace
ethical eschatology, 555, 559
perdurantism, 611
and salvation, 448, 450, 457, 585–586
Grace Theological Seminary, 275
Graham, Billy, 266
Gramsci, Antonio, 311
grand narratives, 334–335, 340n16
gratuitous evil, 520–521, 529–531
gravity, 603
Great Awakening, 376
The Great Controversy, 333–334
Great Cosmic Time, 182
The Great Divorce, 615
great eon (mahākalpa), 153
great parenthesis, 264
Greco-Oriental tradition, 328, 331
Greco-Roman tradition, 46, 551
Greece, 329, 332, 389, 479
Green, Michael, 467
Gregory of Nazianzus, 101
Gregory of Nyssa (saint)
and the afterlife, 535–536
apocalyptic literature, 101
and final judgment, 488
The Life of Moses, 545n1
sexism, 331–332
universal salvation, 245
Gregory the Great (saint),242–243
Greshake, Gisbert, 226
Gressmann, Hugo, 30
Greyson, Bruce, 617–618
Griffin, David Ray, 570
Grihya Sutras, 179, 184
Guasconi, Zanobi, 647
Guillebaud, H. E., 467
Gulf War I, 661
Gullar, Ferreira, 312
Gunkel, Hermann, 30, 41, 79
Gutenberg, Johannes, 316
Guth, Alan, 565
(p. 704) Gutierrez, Gustavo
demons, 322–323
liberation theology, 82, 227–228, 323–324n2, 672
marginalized cultures and religion, 320
The Power of the Poor in History, 321
progressive theology, 315
gymnos kokkos, 436
Habermas, Jürgen, 316
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, 132, 149n8
Hades, 474n12, 479, 551. See also Hell
Hadhoyos, 330
Hadrian, 125
Haggai, 29, 43
Hall, John, 203, 205
Hallberg, Fred W., 568
Hallett, Garth L., 407
Hanson, Paul, 33, 43, 46
Hardyck, Jane, 199–200
Hare, Peter, 520
Harkhuf, 484
Harnack, Adolf von, 78, 80
harrowing of Hell. See also Hell; limbo
Apostles’ Creed, 634
in Christian doctrine, 414
doctrinal disputes over, 652n19
The Harrowing of Hell, 651n6
Holy Saturday descent of Jesus, 441n2
Medieval Era, 633
patristic limbo, 634, 651n6
Renaissance Era, 633
Roman Catholicism, 638–639
Hart, David Bentley, 6, 400
Hart, Trevor, 681
Hartshorne, Charles
compound individuals, 304
objective immortality, 297–298, 307n9
and process theology, 295
subjective immediacy, 308n22
subjective immortality, 309n48
haruspices, 30
Harvey, Peter, 165–166n4
Harvey, Van A., 594n2
Hasidim, 128
Hasker, William, 528, 532n21
Hauerwas, Stanley, 508–509, 556
Haught, John F., 570–571, 577n27, 578n34
Heaven. See also afterlife; beatific vision; Paradise
Apocalypse of Paul, 104
availability of, 404–405
beatific vision, 216, 224, 394–396
and belief in God, 399–400
Buddhist eschatology, 153–154, 551
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC),220
Christian concepts, 401–403
Christian eschatology, 551
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 219
four last things, 630
and free will, 535
fundamentalist eschatology, 264
Heaven: The Logic of Eternal Joy, 411n13, 412n33
and Hell, 406, 420–422
Hindu eschatology, 174–175, 186
The Last Things: Resurrection, Judgment, Glory, 411n14
as moral source, 408–410
Muslim eschatology, 140, 551
population of, 403–405
Puranas epics, 180–181
Purgatory as antechamber, 427–429, 441
Ritchie's journey, 615
Roman Catholicism, 648
and self-sacrifice, 410, 412n33
and theodicy, 525
Tuṣita heaven, 159
Vatican II, 218
world to come, 114–122, 128–129n17
Heaven's Gate, 205–206, 208, 380
Hebrew Bible, 74, 114, 479. See also Judaism
Hebrew scriptures. See also Judaism
immortality, 329
Mishnah, 50, 116, 123
Talmud, 50, 114, 116–117
time concepts in, 24–25, 34–35n2
Torah, 49, 62, 121, 123
Hebrews, 66–67
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
absolute mind, 552
destiny of human nature, 498–499n11
heliotrope paradigm, 313
immortality of the soul, 498n10
Jewish eschatology, 126
Marxism, 127
religious philosophy of, 252
universal history, 317
hegemony, 311–313, 315
Heidegger, Martin, 80, 478
Heilsgeschichte (Redemptive History),25
heliotrope paradigm, 313–315
Hell. See also harrowing of Hell
and Annihilationism, 463, 472–473
Apocalypse of Paul, 104
apokatastasis (universal restoration),224
and boredom, 405–407
Buddhist eschatology, 161, 551
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC),220
Christian eschatology, 551
conditional immortality, 468–469
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 219
Council of Constantinople, 216
Ecclesiastical History of the English People of Drythelm, 620
four last things, 630
Four Views on Hell, 422
and free will, 535
fundamentalist eschatology, 264
The Great Divorce, 615
and Heaven, 406, 420–422
Hell, Nardo di Cione, 644
Hell: A Hard Look at a Hard Question, 474n12
Hindu eschatology, 175, 186
Holy Saturday visit from Jesus, 225, 441n2, 653n32
images of, 649
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 645
Last Judgment or Death, Judgment, Hell and Heaven, 630, 631
modern comments on, 14
monotheistic traditions, 413
Muslim eschatology, 134, 148n6, 551
nature of, 464, 474n12
punishment thesis, 414–416, 419–420, 425
Puranas epics, 180–181
Roman Catholicism, 649
she'ol, 119, 329
Tibetan, 620
in traditional theology, 463
universal salvation, 245
(p. 705)
and Universalism, 422–423, 458–459n5
Vajrayana Buddhism, 203
Vatican II, 218
Hellenistic Era, 42–43, 45
Hellman, John, 661
Helm, Paul, 529, 532n21
Hengel, Martin, 45
Henry VII, 442–443n13
hepatoscopy, 30
Herald of the Morning, 195
Herder, Johann Gottfried, 317
heresies, 95, 316, 370
Hermes, 479
Hermetic, 99
Herod, 638
Herrlichkeit, Theodramatik, and Theologik, 225
Herzfeld, Noreen, 685n24
Herzog, Frederick, 504
Hesiod, 42
heteroglossia, 317, 325n23
Hezbollah, 14
Hick, John
divine revelation and, 594n17
positivism and, 583
resurrection of the dead, 397n11
soul-making theodicy, 521–522
Universalism, 446, 458n1
hierocrats, 43
Hill, Craig C., 5, 656, 667
Hill, Joe, 324n7
Himalayas, 202
Hinduism. See also reincarnation
Advita Vedanta, 386
afterlife, 186, 549
and Aum Shinrikyo, 202
and Christian eschatology, 229
contemporary, 184–186
definition, 170–171
ethical eschatology, 551
ethics of, 549
funeral rituals, 171, 173–174, 176–177, 184–185
nature of death, 172
nature of the cosmos, 151
philosophical schools, 182–183
Shankara, 182–183
Upanishads, 177–178
Hippolytus
annus mundi (AM),370
apocalyptic literature, 96, 106n22
Dead Sea Scrolls, 49
millennial beliefs, 68–69
Hirscher, Johann Baptist, 497
Hiss, Alger, 511
historical millenarianism, 503
historicism
amillennial beliefs, 368
Clavis Apocalyptica, 375
millennial beliefs, 366
postmillennial beliefs, 368
premillenarian beliefs, 367
radical eschatology, 255–256
History of Dogma, 89
History of Religions School, 30, 40–42, 79
Hitler, Adolf, 204, 506, 658
Hobbes, Thomas, 443n14
Hoedemaker, Bert, 360n18
Hoffman, Melchior, 373
Holden, Andrew, 209n8
Holiness movement, 281
holistic thinking, 686n29
Hollenweger, Walter J., 281–282
Holocaust, 115, 350
Holtzmann, H. J., 78
Holy Land tours, 267
holy mystery, 224
Holy Saturday, 225, 441n2, 653n32
Holy Spirit. See also Pentecost
amillennialism, 13
divine revelation and, 590
Eucharist celebration, 362n47
and final judgment, 487
in fundamentalism, 263
kenosis (self-emptying),237–238
and messianism, 57
pneumatology, 336–337
postmillennial beliefs, 367–368
and prophecy, 58
resurrection of the dead, 95
Second Coming, 225
spiritual resurrection, 390–391
Vatican II, 217
Home Pong, 661
home schooling, 270
homilist, 101, 117–118
homosexuality, 270, 273
Hōnen, 158
hope. See also Moltmann, Jürgen
Determined Hope: A Phenomenology of Christian Expectation, 685n19
eschatological imagination and, 681–682, 687n50
eschatological millennialism, 504
feminist theology, 337, 339
Hope against Hope: Christian Eschatology in Contemporary Context, 681
Hope and the Future of Man, 578n33
Jewish eschatology, 113–114
kingdom of God, 509–510
life after death beliefs, 589
Marxist-Christian dialogue, 82
nation-states and, 506–507
politics and eschatology, 500–502
Progressive movement, 674–675
social justice and, 514n1
and theodicy, 530–531
Hopkins, Samuel, 376
Hornik, Heidi J., 651n6
Horsley, R. A., 82–83
Howe, Julia Ward, 658
Howell, Vernon, 207
Hoyt, Herman, 269
Hudson, Winthrop S., 658
Hughes, Kevin L., 687n50
Hughes, P. E., 467
Hughes, Robert, 629, 649
humanism, 270, 272
humanum, 226
Hume, David, 7–8, 544, 582–583, 623–624
Hundred Paths, 176
Huss, Jan, 372
Hussein, Saddam, 658
Hutchins, J. W., 284
hybridization, 317
hypertime, 599
hypoxia, 619
Ibn ‘Arabī
death, 145
divine mercy, 148n6
(p. 706)
human soul, 143
Islamic theology, 148
isthmus (barzakh),141
Ibn Rushd (Averroes),132, 148n2
idealism, 366–367
Ideas for a General History, 495
identism, 300–301
idolatry
divine revelation and, 590
Ecumenical Department of Investigations (DEI),314, 326n47
and eschatology, 322
gentiles, 120
Ignatius of Antioch, 467, 634, 651n8
II Baruch, 46, 48
Iliad, 479
Image of the Beast, 663
imagination (khayāl),140–141
immaculate conception, 356. See also Virgin Mary
immediate resurrection, 388. See also resurrection of the dead
immortality. See also life after death beliefs; resurrection of the dead
ancient Near East eschatology, 329–331
and Annihilationism, 462, 468–469
Arnobius of Sicca, 467
Augustine of Hippo, 332
conditional immortality, 416–417, 462, 468–469
cosmology and eschatology, 570
Death and Immortality, 594n10
dualism and, 673
education of mankind, 494–495
feminist theology, 328, 335, 339
Gilgamesh Epic, 479–480
and goodness, 545n1
Greco-Roman tradition, 583
and Hell, 463
individual eschatology, 494
John Martin Fischer, 406
Muslim eschatology, 135
objective immortality, 296–298, 570, 578n34, 589
omega point theory, 568
personal identity, 393
in process theology, 296–298, 335, 570
of the soul, 227, 386, 389, 494, 498n10
spiritualist movement, 334
subjective immortality, 298–300, 309n48, 570
imperialism, 306, 310n57, 675, 679–680
in between realm, 140, 142
In God's Time, 656
inaugurated eschatology, 513
incalculable eons, 153
incarnation, 585
inclusivism, 404, 411n13
indeterminate eons, 153
indeterminism, 453–454, 456–457
India, 159, 163–164
indiscernibility of identicals, 610–611
individual eschatology, 384–386, 494
Indra, 175
indulgences, 434, 438, 442–443n13
Inferno, 638, 644
inflationary model, 565–566, 604
Inquisition, 463
Institute for Creation Research, 272
Institute for Religion and Public Life, 625
integralism, 323
intercessory prayer, 430–433, 438, 441n4
intermediate state
Benedict XII, 216
Benedictus Deus, 442n7
Crucifixion, Weimar altarpiece, 632
dualism, 435–436
Eastern Orthodox funeral rituals, 240
nature of Hell, 474n12
Pauline text, 443n16
and personal identity, 534
predestination, 435
Purgatory, 430–431, 633
Ratzinger, Joseph, 226–227
resurrection of the dead, 223–224
International Association for Near-Death Studies (IANDS),617
International Theological Commission (ITC),219
Iran, 74
Iraq, 74
Irenaeus of Lyons
anti-Gnosticism, 95–96
and Augustine of Hippo, 100
and ecumenism, 354
Eucharist celebration, 356
kingdom of heaven, 59, 71n14
millennial beliefs, 68–69, 369–370
nature of Hell, 467
theodicy, 521–522
Irving, Edward, 195, 378
Isaac the Syrian (saint),245
Isaiah
apocalyptic literature, 44, 502
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 637, 638
world to come, 118, 128–129n17
Ishvarakrishna, 182
Islam. See also Koran; Sufism
afterlife in paradise, 549–550
asceticism, 550
and Christian eschatology, 229
daily prayers (Ṣalāt),138
invasion of India, 167n24
and Jesus of Nazareth, 552
Muslim eschatology, 132–134, 138, 143, 149n10
Muslim fundamentalism, 10, 147, 403
Muslims in Hindu eschatology, 186
rise of, 120–121, 371
three principles of faith, 135
and Zoroastrianism, 485
Israel. See also Jerusalem; Judaism
Babylonian exile, 43
and the Christian Right, 379
church/state separation, 74
conquest of, 329
dispensationalism and, 14, 252–253, 283–284, 380, 513
Evanston Assembly, 351
founding and fundamentalist beliefs, 266
and the kingdom of God, 510
The Late Great Planet Earth, 267–268
prayers for, 127, 130n60
premillennialism and, 513
progressive dispensationalism, 275
siege of Bethlehem, 339
Six Day War, 270
supersessionism, 368–369, 380–381n6
Yom Kippur conflict, 270
Isrāfīl, 133
isthmus (barzakh),140–141, 143, 145
IV Ezra, 46
(p. 707) Jackson County, Missouri, 377
Jainism, 151
James, William, 301, 304
James I, 374
Jansenists, 448
Japan, 158, 164, 201–204
Jedi Knights, 661
Jehovah's Witnesses
and apocalypticism, 191, 333
Book of Revelation, 208
failed prophecy, 194–197, 206
rise of, 377
Jenkins, Jerry, 10, 273–274, 555
Jenkins, Philip, 11
Jenni, Ernst, 30–31
Jeremiah, 27
Jeremias, Joachim, 81
Jerome, 98, 99, 103
Jerusalem. See also Israel
Aelia Capitolina, 125
Book of Revelation, 331
Deuteronomistic history (DtrH),26
dualistic beliefs, 205
fall of, 27, 85, 89n58, 483, 585
Jesus entry into, 59
Montanism, 369
Muslim capture of, 371
restoration community, 38n59
Jesuits, 366
Jesus of Nazareth. See also Christianity; resurrection of Jesus
amillennial beliefs, 368
anti-imperialist, 306
and Armageddon, 195
in art history, 629–630
Book of Revelation, 3, 502
Christus Victor, 639
conversion of Paul, 61–62
cosmic eschatological theory, 605
Crucifixion, Weimar altarpiece, 633
destiny of human nature, 496, 498–499n11
as divine healer, 285–286
divinity of, 80
dualistic beliefs, 205
eschatological pronouncements, 58–59
as eschaton, 229, 387, 554, 585
eschatos, 258–259
and final judgment, 486–488
and George Ritchie, 615
as goal of human history, 352
harrowing of hell, 414, 441n2, 633–635, 638–639
Jerusalem, entrance into, 59, 70
Jesus Seminar, 84, 564
Kantian ethics, 8
kenosis, 400–401
as kerygma, 257
kingdom of God, 493, 496
Last Judgment, Giotto, 641
Last Judgment, Giselbertus, 642
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 643, 644–645
latter rain of the Spirit, 289
Left Behind series, 666
as messiah, 3, 57–58
nature of Hell, 464, 466
parable of the banquet, 321
Pentecost sermon, 3–4
and Pentecostalism, 280
quest for, 76–85
The Quest of the Historical Jesus, 9, 79
as Rambo, 10
and Roman Catholicism, 215, 362n44
as savior, 404, 447
as second Adam, 5, 102, 555
Son of Man, 75
spiritual resurrection, 389–390
and the Torah, 62
transubstantiation, 356
and the Trinity, 256
Trinity, Masaccio, 640
and Universalism, 446
jinn, 140–141
jiva, 386
Joachim of Fiore, 371–372, 555
John Chrysostom (saint),102, 237
John Damascene (saint),235–236, 242
John of Patmos, 59
John Paul II
and ecumenism, 347, 351, 354, 364n66
Eucharist celebration, 362–363n51
Marian dogmas, 363n58
John the Baptist (saint)
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 637, 638
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 635, 636
Crucifixion, Weimar altarpiece, 633
harrowing of hell, 634
kingdom of God, 555
Last Judgment or Death, Judgment, Hell and Heaven, 630, 631, 632
nature of Hell, 465
John the Deacon, 104
John XXIII, 217
Jones, Jim, 207
Jorgenson, James, 442n10
Joseph (saint), 631
Joseph of Arimathea, 605
Josephus, 49, 58
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 617, 619
Journal of Popular Culture, 656
Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, 656
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 275
Journet, Charles Cardinal, 363n60
Judaism. See also Israel; Second Temple period
apocalypse definition, 46
apocalyptic literature, 23–24, 40–41, 48, 69, 365
apocalypticism, 33
and Augustine of Hippo, 332
Book of the Watchers, 46
Chabad community, 128
and chiliasm, 252
and Christian eschatology, 229, 250
conversion of Paul, 61–62
Crusades, 371
Dead Sea Scrolls, 50, 67
eschatological traditions, 328
ethical eschatology, 553
final judgment, 482–483
Heaven and, 409–410
intercessory prayer, 442n6
Kaddish prayer, 84, 442n6
life after death beliefs, 11
messianic banquet, 59
and messianism, 3
minims (early Christians),129n31
patristic limbo, 429, 634
prayers for Israel, 127, 130n60
Reform Judaism, 126–128, 130n56
Roman Catholic theology, 221
schism with Christianity, 119
(p. 708)
Second Coming and, 646
Sim Shalom, 130n56
supersessionism, 368–369
Zionism, 126–128
and Zoroastrianism, 329–330, 485
Judas Maccabee, 44
Jude, 465
Julius II della Rovere, 644
justice, 471
Justin Martyr, 68–69, 93, 369
Kabbalah, 119
Kaddish prayer, 84, 442n6
kairos, 256
Kālacakratantra, 167n24
Kalam (dogmatic theology),134–136, 147, 148n2
Kali Yuga, 181, 185–186
Kane, Robert, 456
Kanishka, 159
Kansas Bible school, 280
Kant, Immanuel
divine education of mankind, 495
ecumenism, 349
and the Enlightenment, 324–325n17
immortality of the soul, 386
kingdom of God, 78–79
perpetual peace, 552
religion and morality, 7–8
universal history, 317
Kantzer, Kenneth, 450
Karamazov, Ivan, 531
karma (action)
Aum Shinrikyo beliefs, 203
Buddhist eschatology, 152
and death, 172
and fate (daivam),185
and free will, 535
Hindu classical texts, 182
Hindu eschatology, 171, 177
and rebirth, 161, 165
reincarnation, 386
Shatapatha, 176
Tibetan eschatology, 621
Käsemann, Ernst, 81, 282
Kasper, Walter, 351, 360–361n21
katastasis, 102
Katha Upanishad, 178–179
Kaveri River, 185
Keckermann, Bartholomäus, 249
Keech, Marian, 198–199
Keller, Catherine, 328, 336–337, 680
kenosis (self-emptying),237, 400–401
Kermode, Frank, 683
kerygma, 257
Khomiakov, A. S., 239
Kierkegaard, Søren, 350, 353
Kim, Jaegwon, 302–303
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 556
kingdom of God. See also apocalyptic literature
adventus, 572
amillennial beliefs, 368
apocalypticism, 502
arrival of, 79, 585
beatific vision, 581
Book of Daniel, 75, 81, 86
Book of Judges, 75–76
Christian eschatology, 554
and Christian hope, 671
The Church Militant, the Church Triumphant, Via Veritatis, 647
and democracy, 496
destruction of the cosmos, 76
eschatological imagination and, 681
eschatological pronouncements, 74
and the eschaton, 384
ethical eschatology, 555, 557–559
and hope, 509–510
Kantian ethics, 78–79, 495
and liberation theology, 318–320
Lord's Prayer, 84
Lumen Gentium, 564
modernism, 493
and nation-states, 505–506
progressive millennialism, 514
providential history, 509
Ratzinger and eschatology, 505
Roman Catholicism, 319, 325n34
Social Gospel, 378
Wolfhart Pannenberg, 82, 221, 508
kingdom of grace, 493, 498n2
kingdom of heaven, 59, 69
Kirban, Salem, 273
Koch, Klaus, 46
Kojève, Alexandre, 317
kollyva (cake),239
Koran. See also Islam
afterlife, 133–134, 138, 550
creation of Man, 142
Muslim eschatology, 132–133
names of God, 141–142
prophecy, 136–137
revealed to Muhammad, 138
Koresh, David, 207–208
Kovacs, Judith, 208
Krishna
and Arjuna, 179, 481
Bhakti, 181
Hindu eschatology, 178, 186
Ramanuja, 183
Kronen, John D., 458n1
Kübler-Ross, Elisabeth, 614
Kümmel, W. G., 81
Küng, Hans, 227, 363n60, 471
Kurma, 180
Kurukshetra, 186
Kutter, Hermann, 497
Kvanvig, Jon, 42
La Mentalité primitive, 477
labor unions, 270
Lactantius, 69, 99, 370
Ladd, G.E., 466
Lagrange, M.J., 81
LaHaye, Beverly, 272
LaHaye, Tim, 11, 14, 269–273. See also Left Behind series
Lakshmi, 183
Lambert, W. G., 42
Lamy, Philip, 656
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 273
Lancet, 617
Land, Steven J., 282
Landes, Richard, 192
Lang, Bernhard, 402
Larbi, E. Kingsley, 290
last days
dispensationalism, 378
(p. 709)
Dr. Jerry Falwell Teaches Bible Prophecy, 269
fundamentalist eschatology, 264
latter rain of the Spirit, 289
novels, 273
progressive dispensationalism, 275
last judgment. See also final judgment
Last Judgment, Giotto, 641
Last Judgment, Giselbertus, 642
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 642, 643, 644–645
Last Judgment or Death, Giotto, 644
Last Judgment or Death, Judgment, Hell and Heaven, 630, 631, 632
Last Supper, 59, 234
last things
and ecumenism, 348
and eschatology, 248–251, 254–255
ethical eschatology, 555
Jesus as eschatos, 258–259
The Last Things: Resurrection, Judgment, Glory, 411n14
liberation theology, 312, 319
radical eschatology, 257
Zoroastrianism, 330
The Late Great Planet Earth
Christian Right, 379
critique of, 14
and Hal Lindsey, 267–268
popular culture, 10, 664
published, 10
Latin America
dependency theory, 324n16
liberation theology, 312, 323–324n2, 340n17
and Pentecostalism, 288, 293n45
latitudinal eschatology, 318–319
latter rain of the Spirit, 282, 288–291
Latter-day Saints. See Mormons
LaVelle, Kristenea M., 663
Layton, Bentley, 106n9
Lazarus, 390
Lazarus and Dives, 417
League of Nations, 349
Lee, Mother Ann, 376
Left Behind series. See also LaHaye, Tim
Christian Right, 379
critique of, 14
In God's Time, 656
plot summations, 665–666
popular culture and, 663–664
popularity of, 275
promotional blurbs, 278n30
publication of, 10
rapture, 554–555
sales, 274
web site, 278n34
Leibniz, G. W., 494, 498n2, 518–521
Leibowitz, Yeshayahu, 127–128
Lenin, 552
Lenzi family, 639, 640, 653n36
Leo the Martyr, 356
Leo XIII, 351
Lessing, G. E., 349, 494–495
Letter of Barnabas, 92–93
Letter on Certain Questions concerning Eschatology, 363n62
Letter on the Origin and Life of Antichrist, 371
Letter to Rheginus, 94–95
levelers, 375
Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 477
Lewis, Alan E., 653n32
Lewis, C. S.
The Great Divorce, 615
Hell and free will, 451
nature of Hell, 467–468
Purgatory, 443n17
and theodicy, 531
Lewis, David, 540
lex orandi, lex credendi, 219
liberation theology
The Central Position of the Reign of God in Liberation Theology, 340n17
consciousness raising, 323
definition, 311–312, 318
dependency theory, 324n16
and ecofeminism, 337–338, 564
emergence of, 323–324n2, 324n4
ethical eschatology, 557
and Eurocentrism, 321–322
feminist theology, 328
Gutierrez, Gustavo, 227–228
Heaven, 405
kingdom of God, 82, 671–672
latitudinal eschatology, 318–319
Marxism and Christianity, 502
neo-orthodox movement, 305
and Pentecostalism, 287
utopianism, 335
Vatican II, 218
libertarian free will
the B theory of time, 609
divine goodness and, 528
God and time, 611–612n2
and theodicy, 523–524
and Universalism, 450, 452–455
libertarians, 423–424
Liberty Bible Commentary, 270
liberty of opposites, 609
Library of Congress, 660
life after death beliefs. See also immortality
American beliefs, 10–11
Annihilationism, 464, 473n9
divine revelation and, 594–595n20
fundamentalism, 15
materialism, 300–302, 308n28
scriptures and, 18n39
secularism and, 583–584
verification of, 588
Life after Life, 545n7, 614, 617, 626n1
The Life of Moses, 545n1
limbo. See also harrowing of Hell
and the afterlife, 419
in art history, 633–634
children in artistic works, 638, 652n28
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 635, 636
definition, 651n6
Jesus’ descent into, 651n6
Last Judgment or Death, Judgment, Hell and Heaven, 630, 631
nature of, 429
liminality, 312–313
Linde, Andrei, 604
Lindsey, Hal
biography of, 267, 276–277n5
Blood Moon: A New World, 273
Christian Right, 379
fundamentalist eschatology, 268–269
The Late Great Planet Earth, 10, 664
Omega Code, 664
popularity of, 275
prophecy entrepreneur, 657
(p. 710) literature. See also apocalyptic literature; Left Behind series
and apocalypticism, 47
eschatology and the arts, 682–683
Gnostic, 103–104
Persian, 42
postmodernism, 104
small literature, 324n4
Loci Theologici, 248
Locke, John, 467, 496
Lockwood, Michael, 536–538
Logien-Quelle, 77–78, 83–84
Lohfink, Gerhard, 226–227
Loisy, Alfred, 319
Lone Ranger, 660
Lord's Prayer
Book of Revelation, 64
Eastern Orthodox liturgy, 235
and eschatology, 59
and Heaven, 401
millennial beliefs, 69
origination of, 84
Lotus Sūtra, 158, 164
Lotus Village Plan, 202
love, 514n1, 530
Löwith, Karl, 494
Lubavitch movement, 191
Lücke, Friedrich, 40
Lüdemann, Gerd, 6–7
Luther, Martin. See also Lutheranism
Crucifixion, Weimar altarpiece, 633
divinity of Jesus, 80
millennial beliefs, 373
nature of Hell, 463
and Purgatory, 434, 651–652n12
Lutheranism. See also Luther, Martin
Augsburg Confession, 252, 374
doctrine of the last things, 248
and eschatology, 357
Missouri Synod Lutherans, 276n4
Luxenberg, Christoph, 146, 149n10
Lyotard, Jean-Jacques, 317, 340n16, 678
ma‘ād (eschatology),137–138
Ma'at, 483
Maccabean revolution, 330
Maccabeus, Judas, 430, 483
Mackie, J. L., 519–520
MacMillan, James, 683
Macquarrie, John, 567
Madden, Edward, 520
Madell, Geoffrey, 302
Madhva, 183
The Magic of Myth, 660
magisterium, 215, 219, 228, 357
Magyar invasion, 371
Mahabharata, 171, 179, 180, 186
Mahakali, 180
mahākalpa (great eon),153
Mahāvibhāṣā, 157
Mahāyāna (Great Vehicle),154, 162–164, 166n15
Maier, Harry, 680
Maimonides, Moses, 119
Maitreya, 159
Malachi, 465
Malebranche, Nicolas, 301
mandorla, 631, 632, 642
Manichaeanism, 274, 661–662
manifestation/nonmanifestation, 151–155
Mannerism, 652n24
mantic wisdom, 44
Marcionite, 84, 96
Marguerat, Daniel, 85
Mari texts, 30–31
Marian dogmas. See also Virgin Mary
assumption of Mary, 363n62, 428
Assumption of the Virgin, 644
Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ, 356–357
Ut Unum Sint, 363n58
Marian spiritualities, 191
marja', 138
Mark VI Productions, 663
Marshall, Chris, 465, 472
Marshall, I. Howard, 449
Martin, Dorothy, 198
Martin of Tours, 103
Marty, Martin, 14
martyrdom
confessional martyrs, 361n37
and ecumenism, 260–261n21, 349, 351–352, 361n22
as essence of Christianity, 353
Jewish, 117, 125, 483
Muslim, 10, 403
Perpetua, 430–431
as political act, 350
sacrifice of unity, 359n5
Second Coming, 63
suicide missions, 146
Ut Unum Sint, 348
Marx, Karl, 8, 384–385, 478–480, 496. See also Marxism
Marxism. See also Marx, Karl
classless society, 552
collapse of, 674
Evanston Assembly, 351
and liberation theology, 502
Marxist-Christian dialogue, 82
postmillennial beliefs, 504
and utopianism, 127
Vatican II, 218
Mary: Grace and Hope in Christ, 356
Masaccio, 639, 640, 653n36
Mason, C. H., 289
materialism
Consciousness and the Mind of God, 540
life after death beliefs, 308n28
mind-body problem, 300–303
resurrection of the dead, 542–543
temporary nonexistence, 388
matriarchates, 334
Matrix trilogy, 662–663
Matsumoto Chizuo, 201
Matsya, 180
Matthys, Jan, 374
Mavrodes, George, 543
Maximus of Turin, 103
Maximus the Confessor (saint),235, 242, 245
maya (transformation),175, 178
Mazdaism, 485
McDannell, Colleen, 402
McGee, Gary B., 290
McGinn, Colin, 302
McGrath, Alister, 401–402
McTaggart, J. M. E., 300–301, 596–598
Meaning in History, 494
(p. 711) Mede, Joseph, 375
Medical College of Georgia, 616
medicines of penance, 432, 442n9
Medieval Era, 632–633, 644
meditation, 165, 182, 204
Meditations on the Life of Christ, 634, 635
Meeks, Douglas, 82
Megiddo, 664–666, 669n32
Meier, Fritz, 132, 148n2
Meier, J. P., 85
Meiss, Millard, 653n47
memento mori, 476
memory criterion, 392–393
mental causation, 302–303
Merz, Annette, 85
Mesopotamia
afterlife, 479
day of Yhwh, 25
diviners, 45
and Israel, 31, 482
messianism
in America, 677
Book of Revelation, 330
Branch Davidian beliefs, 207
Buddhist eschatology, 159
and Christianity, 3, 557
Corinthians, 63
David Koresh, 207
early Christians, 57
feminist theology, 336–337
Hebrew scriptures, 114
and Israel, 26
Jesus as eschatos, 258–259
Jewish eschatology, 124–126, 128, 254, 494
and Judaism, 3
millenarian beliefs, 205, 506
Muslim eschatology, 148n2
political nature of, 126
Shoko Asahara, 202
world to come, 121–122
metanarratives, 673–676, 678–680, 683, 686n29
metaphysical time, 607
Methodism, 434
Methodius of Olympus, 92, 98–99
Metsubo no Hi (Day of Destruction),202
Metz, Johann Baptist
eschatological millennialism, 504
and Eurocentrism, 321
kingdom of God, 82, 86, 671
political theology, 227
Michael (archangel),196, 371, 634
Michelangelo, 642, 643, 644–645
Middle Ages
eternal damnation, 471
millennialism, 371–372, 503
near-death experiences (NDEs),619–620
penance practices, 432–433
Middle East, 510
millenarianism
apocalyptic literature, 43
and Aum Shinrikyo, 202
definition, 192
egalitarianism, 50
failure of prophecy, 193–197
Irenaeus of Lyons, 95
new religious movements, 192
revival of in third century, 108–109n77
millennialism. See also Second Coming
ancient beliefs, 68–69
beliefs today, 379–380
and the Christian Right, 272
Civil War, 658
critique of, 656
definition, 192, 365
early Christianity, 369–371
feminism, 334
feminist theology, 328
in the Middle Ages, 371–372
Millennium Falcon, 660
models of, 367–369
modern period, 375–379
and Moltmann, 502–504
progressive millennialism, 513–514
Reformation, 373–375
supersessionism, 368–369
and video games, 661–663, 668n21
When Time Shall Be No More, 656
millennium, 252
Millerites
and apocalypticism, 191
Book of Revelation, 208
failure of, 193–194, 198
millennial beliefs, 376
(p. 712) Millions Now Living Will Never Die, 196
Milton, John, 448, 464, 467, 551
mind-body problem
and dualism, 541–542, 544–545
immortality of the soul, 389
life after death beliefs, 301–305
personal identity, 390
mindsight, 622
minims (early Christians),129n31
Minkowski, Hermann, 565
miracles, 9, 286
mirifica commutatio, 356
Mishnah, 50, 116, 123
misogyny, 680
Missile Command, 662
missionary works
and colonialism, 316
and evangelical history, 376
fundamentalist eschatology, 263
Pentecostalism, 281, 290
Missouri Synod Lutherans, 276n4. See also Lutheranism
modal argument, 539
modern theory of resurrection, 392
modernism
emergence of, 316
and final judgment, 493
and fundamentalism, 264–265
kingdom of God, 497
metanarratives and, 678
myth of progress, 676–678
mofa (final dharma),158
Möhler, J.A., 360n15
moksha (nirvana),171, 178, 183, 549
Moltmann, Jürgen
apocalypticism, 510
The Coming of God: Christian Eschatology, 672
creation and eschatology, 571–572, 575, 582
critique of, 514n1
and divine healing, 286
influence on Christian eschatology, 671
kingdom of God, 86, 221, 287, 497, 564
millennial beliefs, 502–504, 680
models of the universe, 579n50
nation-state reforms, 507
philosophy of eschatology, 9, 258, 282, 321
politics and eschatology, 500–502, 557
Purgatory, 443n17
redemption, holistic vision of, 673
resurrection of Jesus, 681
and theodicy, 531
Theology of Hope, 82, 379
and Universalism, 459n6
Monet, Claude, 683
Mongolia, 158, 165–166n4
monism, 303–304
monotheism, 28–29, 120, 413
Montanism, 369
Moody, Raymond A., Jr.
biography of, 616, 626n4
Life after Life, 545n7, 614, 626n1
Moody Bible Institute, 275
near-death experiences (NDEs),614–615
Moon, Sun Myung, 658
Moore, G. E., 532n21
Moore, Russell D., 513–514
moral freedom, 455–457
Moral Majority, 273
moral source, 408–410
Mormons
and apocalypticism, 191
eschatology of, 207
millennialism, 192, 377
postmillennial beliefs, 504
Morris, Henry, 272
Mortal Kombat series, 662
Mortalium Animos, 349, 360n12
Moses
assumption of, 365
beatific vision, 395
Christ in Limbo, Bronzino, 637, 638
Christ in Limbo, Fra Angelico, 636
Finding of Moses, 644
The Life of Moses, 545n1
transfiguration, 76
moshi (final age),158
Mount of Olives, 29
Mouw, Richard J., 510
Mt. Ararat, 272
Mt. Jehoshaphat, 666
Mt. Kailasa, 181
Muhammad, 136, 138. See also Islam
Mulgrew, Kate, 660
Mullā Ṣadrā, 135, 145–146, 149n8
Müller, Hans-Peter, 44–45
multiverse, 566, 604
mundus imaginalis (spiritual world),140, 143–145
Munkar, 133
Muntzer, Thomas, 373–374
Murphy, George, 575
music, 683
Muslim fundamentalism, 10, 147, 403. See also Islam
Mussolini, 658
mysterium fidei, 362–363n51
Mysterium Paschale: The Mystery of Easter, 441n2
Mystical Body of Christ, 356, 362n44, 362n45
Mystici Corporis, 355
myth, 76–77
Nachiketas, 179
Nag Hammadi, 83, 94–95, 103–104, 106n10
Nagel, Thomas, 547n16
Nahmanides, Moses, 119
Najm al-Dīn Rāzī, 143
Nakīr, 133
nakshatras (asterisms),188–189n17
naraka loka, 175, 181
Nasik, 185
Nation of Islam, 191
National Association of Evangelicals (NAE),266
National Education Association, 270
National Film Registry, 660
National Museum of Air and Space, 660
National Organization for Women, 270
nationalism, 500–501
nation-states, 505–506, 508, 510
Nativity, 644
naturalism, 305
Nauvoo, Illinois, 377
Nazism, 675
Near East, 30–31, 36n36, 42–43
near-death experiences (NDEs). See also death
A. J. Ayer, 623–624
critique of, 619
On Death and Dying, 614
and Hell, 621–622
Middle Ages, 619–620
phrase coined, 616
Richard John Neuhaus, 625
skepticism about, 622–623
study of, 617–618
Tibetan, 620–621
Nebuchadnezzar, 115
necessary universalism, 452
Nemesius of Emesa, 242
neo-Assyrian, 31, 37n41
neo-evangelicals, 265–266
neo-orthodox movement, 305
Neuhaus, Richard John, 507, 625
New Age, 191, 618, 621, 661
New England Confederation, 270
new Jerusalem
in art history, 630, 646–648
ethical eschatology, 557, 560
and Heaven, 401–402
and salvation, 554
New Model Army, 374
New Testament. See also individual Gospels
and eschatology, 56, 69–70, 216, 554
eschaton and apocalypse, 321
Gospels and eschatology, 58–61
and Hal Lindsey, 267
and Heaven, 401
immediate resurrection, 388
and messianism, 57–58
nature of Hell, 464–465
necessary universalism, 452
resurrection of the dead, 387
Spirit baptism, 281
New York Times, 664
New Zealand, 165–166n4
Newbigin, Lesslie, 360n19
Newman, J. H., 360n15
Newport, Kenneth, 208
newspapers, 314, 324n12
Newsweek, 149n10
Newton, Isaac, 195, 375, 493, 503
Newtonian science, 565, 607
Nicene Creed, 233
(p. 713) Nichiren, 158
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 305, 556
Nielsen, Kai, 583–584
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 8, 314, 409
Night of Power (laylat al-qadr),138
Night of the Journey (laylat al-isrā),138
nihilism, 481
nirvana
bodhisattvas, 550
and Buddha, 167n37
Buddhist eschatology, 166n6, 549
Buddhist heaven, 154, 166n13
Christian eschatology, 552
definition, 156, 161
Hindu eschatology, 171, 177–178, 183–185
unconditioned entity, 162
Noah, 252, 272
no-escape thesis, 414
nondualistic interactionism, 304
Nostradamus, 202, 204
no-thing-ness, 549–550, 559
Nouvelle Théologie, 220
novissima tua, 248–249
Noyes, John Humphrey, 377
nuclear holocaust
and apocalypticism, 228
atomic weapons, 266, 657
eschatological millennialism, 504
The Late Great Planet Earth, 268
and political radicalism, 501
popular culture and, 667
True Word, 199–200
nudus granus, 436
numerical thesis, 301–302
The Object of Our Lord's Return, 194–195
objective immortality, 296–298, 570, 578n34, 589
occasions of experience, 296
O'Collins, Gerald, 564
O'Donovan, Oliver, 508, 556
Odyssey, 479
Oecumenius, 104
Ogden, Schubert, 298
Oilar, Forrest Loman, 273
Old Fashioned Revival Hour, 266
Old Testament. See also Hebrew Bible
apocalyptic literature, 33
and eschatology, 23–24, 35n3, 35n5
justice, 471
millennial beliefs, 365
nature of Hell, 464–465
Septuagint, 441n4
supersessionism, 368–369
O'Leary, Stephen, 656
Omega Code, 663–665
omega point theory, 568, 572
Omega: The Journal of Death and Dying, 617
On Death and Dying, 614
On Divine Wisdom and Godmanhood, 234
On First Principles, 98, 244–245, 369
On the Last Things (De Novissimis),216, 248
On the Origin of the World, 103
On the Soul and the Resurrection, 245
1 Enoch, 48
1000: A Novel, 273
Oneida, New York, 377
Onesiphorus, 441n4
ontological thesis, 301–302
open theism, 528–530
open universe, 568, 579n50
oral traditions, 170
Orcagna frescos, 644
Ordre du Temple Solaire, 191, 205–207
Orientius of Auch, 103
Origen
apocalyptic literature, 97–98
and the Cappadocian Fathers, 101–102
death of, 108–109n77
and eschatology, 74, 104
eternal damnation, 241–242
and Eusebius, 370
millennialism, 369
and Rabbi Yohanan, 128–129n17
resurrection of the dead, 243–244
universal salvation, 244–246
original sin, 48, 363n57, 429, 649
Orr, James, 265
Orthodox Church, 216
Osiris, 483–484
Otherness
and colonialism, 315, 324n16
The Dialogic Imagination, 325n23
dualistic beliefs, 205
and eschatology, 321
and last things, 312, 314–315
liberation theology, 322
poststructuralism, 317
out-of-the-body experiences (OBEs),539, 545n7, 619
Oxford University, 372
Pacianus of Barcelona, 103
Packer, J. I., 458–459n5
Pahlavi literature, 42
Paine, Thomas, 376
Palestine, 14, 339
Pāli canon, 166n5
pancosmicity of the soul, 223
panexperientialism, 304
panikhida, 239
Pannenberg, Wolfhart
cosmology and eschatology, 567, 569, 579n50
and ecumenism, 350
and eschatology, 564
kingdom of God, 82, 221, 508, 671
papal infallibility, 364n64
philosophy of eschatology, 9, 258, 582
prolepsis, 572
Revelation as History, 497
panpsychism, 304
papal infallibility, 227, 242, 358–359, 364n64
Papias, 59, 69, 71n14, 369
Paradise. See also Heaven
banishment from, 554
Ecclesiastical History of the English People of Drythelm, 620
kingdom of God, 559–560
Left Behind series, 666
Muslim eschatology, 139
paranormal, 617
parapsychology, 304, 622
Parousia. See Second Coming
Parpola, Simo, 37n41
Parsons, Mikeal C., 651n6
Party of Truth, 202
Parvati, 181
Pascal, Blaise, 16
Passavanti, Jacopo, 647
Passion of Perpetua and Felicity, 430–431, 442n5
(p. 714) The Passion of the Christ, 3
Pastor Aeternus, 364n65
Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes),218, 351, 354, 361n37
The Path of God's Bondsmen from Origin to Return, 143
Patmos, John, 511
patristic eschatology, 332–333, 336
patristic limbo, 429, 634
Paul (disciple)
conversion of, 61–63
grace and salvation, 457, 498
intermediate state, 436, 443n16
kingdom of God, 554
Last Judgment, Michelangelo, 645
mission to the Gentiles, 67, 70
nature of Hell, 465
and Origen, 98
Pauline letters, 61–63, 66
Purgatory, 443n14
on resurrection of Jesus, 5
resurrection of the dead, 244, 387–388, 469
on salvation, 384
spiritual resurrection, 390
and Universalism, 446, 459n6
wages of sin, 464
Paul III Farnese, 644
Paulinus of Nola, 103
Peace Process, 657
Peacocke, Arthur, 567, 569–570
Peasant Revolt, 373
Pelagian, 76, 356
penitence, 647, 653n47
penitent thief, 638, 651n11
Pentecost. See also Pentecostalism
amillennialism, 13
and apocalypticism, 287–288
Eastern Orthodox liturgy, 245
feminist theology, 334
kenosis (self-emptying),237
Pentecost sermon, 3–4
Pentecost, J. Dwight, 269
Pentecostalism
and dispensationalism, 284–285
divine healing, 285–286
eschatology and, 281–283, 291
ethical eschatology, 557
in the global South, 11
history of, 280
in Latin America, 288, 293n45
latter rain of the Spirit, 288–291
Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom, 282
and Universalism, 448
Penton, M.J., 200–201
People's Crusade, 371
Peoples Temple, 191, 205–207
perdurantism, 610–611
perfection
Buddhist eschatology, 152
consummation of the soul, 359n8
doctrine of the last things, 249
and ecumenism, 358
and theodicy, 523
periodization, 75
Perkins, Phem, 564
Perpetua, 442n5
perpetual perishing, 570
Perrin, Norman, 83
Persia. See also Zoroastrianism
apocalypse definition, 46
conquest of Israel, 329
dualism, 34
influence on Jewish eschatology, 115
and Israel, 29
Muslim eschatology, 149n8
Pahlavi literature, 42
The Path of God's Bondsmen from Origin to Return, 143
polytheism, 120
Suhrawardī, 132
The Persistence of Purgatory, 441n3
personal eschatology
bodhisattvas, 154
Buddhism, 160–161
cognitive dissonance, 592
and damnation, 14
definition, 4
early Christian theology, 332
Eastern Orthodox teachings, 239–241
pre-Vatican II eschatology, 216
personal identity
and the afterlife, 544
Ayer's near-death experience, 624
and dualism, 538–539
resurrection of the dead, 390–393, 534
Perugino, 644
Peter (disciple),3–4, 465, 631, 632
Peter Martyr (saint),653n45
Peters, Ted
cosmology and eschatology, 567
eschatology, 564
postmodernism, 686n29
prolepsis, 572
resurrection of the dead, 394
Petrarch, 647
Phaedo, 616
Pharisees, 483
Philadelphia Biblical University, 275
Phillips, D. Z., 594n10
philosophy, 581–582, 586–587, 594n2. See also individual philosophers
pho-wa, 203
physical eschatology, 602–603, 605–608
Pico della Mirandola, 652n19
pie-in-the-sky, 313, 324n7
pietists, 555
Pilgrims, 270
Pinnock, Clark H., 528, 530
Pitripaksha, 184
Pius XI, 349–350
Planck time, 565–566
Plantinga, Alvin, 520
Platonism
afterlife, 479
and Christian theology, 216
dualism, 335, 673
immortality of the soul, 386, 389, 467–469
individual eschatology, 384
near-death experiences (NDEs),616
and Origen, 98, 244
Timaeus, 331
Plöger, Otto, 33–34, 38n59, 43
pluralism, 507, 561, 676–678
pluralistic monism, 303–304
Plymouth Brethren, 195, 252–253, 283, 378
pneumatology, 336–337, 358
Poland, 506
(p. 715) political theology, 218, 227, 305
Polkinghorne, John, 6–7, 568, 572–574, 589
polygamous marriage, 374
polytheism, 120
Pommaret, Françoise, 621
Pope Gregory the Great, 104
popular culture
and the Bible, 658–659
definition, 655
Gallup poll, 667–668n9
Judeo-Christianity and, 667
Popular Culture Association, 655–656
pornography, 270
positivism, 582–584, 594n10, 606
postbaptismal sin, 432–433
postcolonialism, 315–318, 322, 325n23
post-humanity, 677–678, 685n24
postmillennialism
and the Christian Right, 269–270
definition, 367–368
dispensationalism and, 13
emergence of, 193, 333, 375–376, 677
evangelicals and, 514
and fundamentalism, 264
Matrix trilogy, 663
political activism and, 503
reconstructed dispensationalism, 513
Star Wars series, 660–661
superheroes and pop culture, 659
postmodernism
apocalyptic literature, 51
Bible and Mission: Christian Witness in a Postmodern World, 686n29
and Christianity, 675–676, 685n19
critique of, 676–678
divine revelation and, 589–590
ethical eschatology, 557
and feminist theology, 334–335, 340n16
holistic thinking, 686n29
and literature, 683
metanarratives, 678–680
The Post-Modern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, 340n16
poststructuralism, 317
quest for Jesus, 86
poststructuralism, 317
post-Vatican II, 219–220
Poussin, 650
poverty, 288, 315, 318, 338
The Power of the Poor in History, 321
Powys, David, 474n12
pragmatism, 622
Prajapati, 176
pralaya, 180, 185–186
prana (breath),173
pranayama (breath control),182
pratyekabuddhas, 156
predestination, 194, 435–436
premillennialism
and apocalypticism, 503
and the Christian Right, 269
definition, 367
dispensationalism and, 13, 264–265
early Christianity, 369–370
emergence of, 193, 333
evangelicals and, 283, 514
and Israel, 513
Jehovah's Witnesses, 195
The Late Great Planet Earth, 267
and Pentecostalism, 282–283
politics of, 510, 512–514
popular culture, 663–666
reconstructed dispensationalism, 513
rise of, 377
Second Coming, 503
Presbyterianism, 374
prescriptive command (taklīfī),136–138, 142
presentism, 597–598
preta (spirit of the deceased),184–185
preterism, 366, 368
primal religions, 548
Primasius of Hadrumetum, 104
Prince Setna, 484
process theology
Catherine Keller, 336–337
Center for Process Studies, 309n48
cosmology and eschatology, 578n33
definition, 295
dialectical theology, 335–336
and immortality, 570
imperialism, 306, 310n57
kingdom of God, 306
objective immortality, 296–298, 570, 578n34, 589
panexperientialism, 304
resurrection of the soul, 305
procreation, 332
Prodigal Planet, rapture, 663
progressive dispensationalism, 275–276
progressive eschatology, 513
progressive millennialism, 193, 513–514
Progressive movement, 378, 674–675
progressive theology, 321–322, 335
prohibitionism, 264–265
prolepsis, 572
prolixitas mortis, 226
promiscuity, millenarian beliefs, 205
The Promise of Nature: Ecology and Cosmic Purpose, 578n34
The Promised End, 682
prophecy
in the ancient Near East, 30–31, 36n36
apocalyptic literature and, 41, 43–44, 64, 229
and cognitive dissonance, 197–201
Dead Sea Scrolls, 49
Dr. Jerry Falwell Teaches Bible Prophecy, 269
and eschatology, 12, 26–29, 287
ex eventu prophecies, 42
failure of millenarian beliefs, 193–197
feminist apocalyptic literature, 333
Hadith and, 132
Hebrew scriptures, 329
and historicism, 366
and the Holy Spirity, 58
Montanism, 369
Muslim eschatology, 134
neo-Assyrian, 31, 37n41
prophecy conferences, 283
Rapture Index, 657
Taborites, 372
three principles of faith in Islamic theology, 135–137
When Prophecy Fails, 198
When Time Shall Be No More, 656
Prophet, Elizabeth Clare, 198–199
(p. 716) Protestantism. See also individual denominations; Reformation
afterlife, 649
Biblical authoritative texts, 441n4
and ecumenism, 350
eschatology decline, 7
essence of Christianity, 255
and evangelicalism, 376
Evanston Assembly, 9, 350–351, 360n18, 360n19
Jesus’ descent into Hell, 653n32
Kantian ethics, 79
last things, 248–251
Marian dogmas, 357
postmillennial beliefs, 368
and Purgatory, 433–434, 443n17, 634
Proverbs, 44–45, 50
Prudentius, 103
Psalms, 26, 396, 464–465
psychological continuity, 393
Psychopompos, 479
Puech, Emile, 49
punishment thesis, 414–420, 422–425
Puranas epics, 171, 179–181, 188n16
Purgatory. See also Hell
The Debate over the Patristic Texts on Purgatory, 442n10
as antechamber to Heaven, 427–429, 441
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC),220
Christian affirmation, 430–433
Christian rejection of, 433–437
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 219
Dante's Commedia, 438–441, 443–444n23
Eastern Orthodox teachings, 242–243
Ecclesiastical History of the English People of Drythelm, 620
and free will, 535
indulgences, 434, 438, 442–443n13
intercessory prayer, 430–431, 438
intermediate state, 633
Jesus’ descent into, 634
Neuhaus near-death experience, 625
Pauline text, 443n14
and penance, 432–433
The Persistence of Purgatory, 441n3
predestination, 435–436
pre-Vatican II eschatology, 216
Roman Catholicism, 326n36, 648
Sheol, 101
Vatican II, 218
word origin, 427
Puritans
eschatology, 252
millennial beliefs, 374–375, 506, 555, 658
postmillennialism, 376
Purusha, 173–174, 176, 181,