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date: 05 March 2021



(1.) Evan Schofer and John W. Meyer, “The Worldwide Expansion of Higher Education in the Twentieth Century,” American Sociological Review 70:6 (2005): 898–920.

(2.) Marshall C. Eakin, “Latin American History in the United States: From Gentlemen Scholars to Academic Specialists,” The History Teacher 31:4 (1998): 539.

(3.) IESALC (Instituto Internacional de la UNESCO para la Educatión Superior en América Latina y el Caribe), Conferencia Regional de Educatión Superior (Cartagena, 2008). In some countries, as Barbara Weinstein notes in her chapter on Brazil in this volume, the expansion of higher education had actually begun during military dictatorships.

(4.) Hans de Wit et al., eds., Higher Education in Latin America: The International Dimension (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, 2005), 39.

(5.) UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, Global Education Digest, 2007 (Montreal, 2007), 140–41.