Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 21 May 2019

(p. 573) General Index

(p. 573) General Index

Acusilaus of Argos, 58
Aëtius, 12, 139
Diels reconstruction of, 135
doxai of, 35–36
on pyrhogenous theory, 144
pyridia as understood by, 144–45
reconstructed work of, 30, 36
sun/moon in work of, 136–37
zoogonical stages attested by, 260
air
Anaximenes on, 113–14, 116–17, 439
as basis for animate/inanimate properties and processes, 120–21
as common principle, 362 n24
differentiation of, 119–20
Diogenes of Apollonia on, 495
Diogenes of Apollonia's theory based on, 7–8
as god, 487
light in, 130 n93
Plato on, 118
priority of, 129 n86
Simplicius on, 115
in theory of change, 116
vapors v., 118–19
Alcaeus, 135
Alcmaeon of Croton, 33, 388, 390
on divine/mortals distinction, 469–70
as Pythagorean, 295, 302 n20
on souls, 443
alphabetic writing, 75 n5
as easy to learn, 58
Greek adoption of, 57
success of, 57
in Syria, 63–64
anatomy, Hippocratic writings on, 402–3
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, 7, 38, 71
background assumptions about, 231–33
cosmic intelligence doctrine of, 495–96
cosmogony of, 444
Diogenes of Apollonia v., 355–57, 358
Eleatic credentials of view of, 232
Eleatic principles and, 234
on generation/corruption, 234
on human perception, 235
ingredients/natural artifacts and, 233–38
as intelligence as motive force, 494–95
on marvelous phenomena, 391
medical tradition and, 231, 244 n2
metaphysical analysis of, 233
metatheoretical influence on, 231
Milesians influence on, 231
on mind, 236–39, 425–26, 441, 444
on mind's character/powers, 242
on mixture changes producing world, 233–34
multiple worlds v. world-within-worlds view and, 240–41
on original mixture, 235–37, 245 n16
original works of, 31
in Phaedo, 544, 550 n10
physics of, 441, 446
on plants, 238
on plurality/diversity, 418–19
principle of everything-in-everything of, 232–33
principle of homoiometeity in work of, 244 n6
principle of unlimited largeness and smallness of, 232–33
on range of real things, 234–35
rejection of reality of what-is-not by, 233
on rotation of mixture, 234
scientific theorizing of, 239–40
seeds as referenced by, 238, 246 n23
on separation mixture, 237–38
on soul, 237
theory of everything by, 230–43
on world as is, 356–57
on worlds here/elsewhere, 239–41
Anaximander, 43, 65, 520
Anaximenes v., 112–13
on apeiron, 486–87
astronomical calendar compiled by, 96
astronomy and, 103–12
atomic cosmogony's roots in, 421
basic principle of, 416–17
cosmogony of, 107–11
cosmology of, 112
on cosmos, 105–7
cosmos model postulated by, 111
on cosmos’ physical structure, 90, 103
on cycles of time for change throughout cosmos, 112–13
demythologization by, 486
determinate boundaries for terrestrial/celestial realms proposed by, 103
(p. 574)
dimensions of space and, 102–12
on earth's position, 104–5, 111
on eternal motion, 442
figures for rings of, 107–8, 108 t
on generation of things, 438
gnomon erected by, 96, 125 n28
on heavenly bodies’ sizes/distances, 105–7, 106 t
on limitless thing, 415
on material principle, 438–39
on order of time, 102–3
original works of, 31
on principle of sufficient reason, 425, 431 n40, 445–46
on principle of things, 486
on radius of rings, 108–9, 108 t
reports on, 111–12
on rings in astronomy, 103–4, 107–9, 127 n55, 127 n57
sequence of rings of, 110–11
summary exposition on Thales by, 90
surviving writings of, 112
three heavens in work of, 71
on unlimited nature of world, 103
on visible surfaces, 107–8
wisdom literature and, 66
Anaximenes, 520
account of change by, 113
on air as god, 487
on air's differentiation, 119–20
Anaximander v., 112–13
Aristotle on, 113
on atmospheric/geological phenomena as material processes’ effects, 120–21
basic element of, 439
on conception of matter, 114
cosmogony of, 116, 421–22
on eternal motive principle, 442
implications of monism of, 354
on marvelous phenomena, 391
on material bodies’ transformations, 90
material monism and, 114, 157
measures of change and, 112–22
Plato on, 117–18
rarefaction-condensation theory and, 143
on seasons, 125 n24
on stars, 72
theory of change by, 114
universal principle of, 421
Xenophanes v., 157–58
animal dissection, 399
anthropic principle, 427–28, 432 n73
Antiphon the Sophist, 47, 369, 371
biography invented by, 368
life of, 368
as Sophist, 366
Antiquity, 14
Apollodorus of Athens, 12, 40
Apollodorus of Cyzike, 38
Archilochus, wisdom of Odysseus and, 67
Archytas, 33, 294
Aristarchus
Eudemus studied by, 100
on sun/moon, 109–10
Aristophanes, 354
Aristotelis Metaphysica (Bonitz), 509
Aristotle, 104, 144
as advocating specific notion of wisdom, 508–10
on Anaximenes, 113
on ancient theologians, 519–20
attitude toward Presocratics of, 530
on being, 538–38
on causes, 504–5
on causes recognized by Plato, 291
commentaries on, 42–43
on cosmic matter, 415–16
crafts/arts hierarchy constructed by, 508–9
on Democritus, 310–12, 328 n16, 342
on diaireton, 317
dialectical science and, 34
on dichotomy paradox, 306–10
doxa method of, 36–37
on dreams, 393
on dynamical principles, 442
earlier thought's history accounted by, 7
on formal principles of Presocratic philosophy, 450–52
on Heraclitus, 490, 548–49
historical v. analytical points made by, 289, 302 n8
history of early philosophical interest by, 34, 522
on infinite division, 317–18
on Leucippus’ atomism, 334
on love, 545–46
on material principles, 520–21
on mathematics, 527–28
on Melissus, 542
on Milesians, 17
on natural change, 536–37
notion of matter of, 505
on origins of philosophy, 501–29
on Parmenides, 542
peripatos and, 33–34
on physical theory types, 435–36
place as defined by, 316
on Plato following Presocratics, 288–89, 301 n5
on Plato influenced by Pythagoreanism, 286–87
Platonic forms and, 522
Plato v., 546–47
on practical philosophy, 513–14
on Presocratic philosophers’ shortcomings, 448–49
as Presocratic philosophers’ transmission strand, 33–34
(p. 575)
Presocratics as viewed by, 8–9, 10–11
Presocratics influence on, 549
on Presocratics’ principles/causes as employed, 287
on principles of natural change, 537–38, 540
Pythagoreanism in fifth-century accounted by, 284–91
on Pythagoreans, 287–89
research methods of, 34
on science/philosophy development, 34
scientific studies v. theories of, 13–14
on search for origins/principles, 435–37
on substances, 515
on Thales, 97–98, 437, 516–20
translations of, 13
on types of philosophy, 527
on water, 531–32
on wisdom, 508–13, 514–15
Aristotle's Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy (Cherniss), 33
Aristoxenus, 297–98
astrology
Greek, 65
mathematical, 102
nautical, 102
Plato's description of, 102
Pleiades, 95
practical, 65
principle of equilibrium in, 104
zodiac in, 65
astronomy
Anaximander and, 96, 103–12
annual cycles measured by horizontal, 97
Babylonian, 64–66
Democritus on, 338–39
Greek, 64–66
horizontal, 91, 94–98
Leucippus on, 337–39
in Mesopotamia, 64
rings in, 103–4, 107–11, 108 t, 127 n55, 127 n57
Thales and, 91–92
astrophysics
sun-cloud in, 143–45
of Xenophanes, 141–50
Xenophanes’ cloud, 5, 134–59, 148–49
atomism
character of early, 309
conclusion of neo-Democritean argument on, 320
cone paradox and, 325
defense of, 312
Democritean, 309–10, 312–16
Democritus’ defense of, 321–22
development of, 7
Eleatic, 344–48
Eleatic One and, 321–22
as Eleatic pluralism for Leucippus, 346
Eleatic roots of, 305–25
of Leucippus, 333–48
Leucippus contribution to, 344
magnitude and, 314–15
motivation of, 310
neo-Democritean argument on, 317–20, 330 n37
ou mallon argument for, 345, 446
Parmenides and, 322–23
as physicalized dualism of being/not-being, 305–6
physical v. theoretical division in, 318
pre-Melissean, 342–44
Presocratic, 7
Schofield on, 345
thesis of, 311
of Xenocrates, 308
Zeno's influence on, 306–10, 320–21
atomists
on chance/necessity, 449
as Presocratics, 419
atoms
Democritean, 320–23
movement through space of, 419–20
rebounding of, 445
theories of, 347–48
attitude
of Aristotle toward Presocratics, 530
towards Diels, 43–44
Sophists united by, 367
Augustine, 3
aurora borealis, 152, 165 n78
Avesta
Ahura Mazda as distinct from heaven in, 74
specialists on, 62
as survived by direct tradition, 62
Bailey, Cyril, on Leucippus, 336
Barnes, Jonathan, 20, 266
being
Aristotle on, 538–38
atomism as physicalized dualism of not-being and, 305–6
as differentiated, 305
Gorgias on, 533
Parmenides on, 305–6
as plural without respect to perception, 542–43
as single/immutable, 541–42
Bernal, Martin, 61–62
Bernays, Jacob, 14
Bible
cosmogony in, 68
as survived by direct translation, 62
Bicknell, P. J., on Xenophanes’ cloud-astrophysics, 148–49
biography
Hellenistic development of genre, 11–12
as transmission strand for Presocratic philosophers, 38–40
(p. 576) Black Athena (Bernal), 61–62
body, soul relationship with, 394, 403–5
Bonitz, Bonitz, 509
books
Greek poetry, 57
by Thales, 90
tradition of, 57
Burnet, John, 15–16
Bywater, Ingram, 14
Callicles, as Sophist, 366
Callimachus, on Thales, 98
Callippus, 97
Calogero, Guido, 17
Cambridge Companion to Plato, 285
Categories (Aristotle), 294
causation, 8
Presocratic views on, 289
cause(s)
Aristotle on, 504–5
efficient, 156–57
as employed, 287
knowledge of, 504
notion of, 395–97
Plato's recognition of, 291
in Presocratic philosophy, 434–55
water as material, 155–56
change
air in theory of, 116
Anaximenes’ account of, 113
Anaximenes’ measures of, 112–22
Anaximenes’ theory of, 114
cycles of time for cosmos’, 112–13
of fire, 171–72
Heraclitus’ model of, 121–22
Heraclitus on, 171–72
material monism and theory of, 114–17
natural, 536–38
Plato on model of, 118
world as produced by mixture, 233–34
charity, 10
Charondas, 298
Cherniss, Harold, 17–18, 32
Chronicle (Apollodorus), 12, 40
Chrysippus, 142
Cicero, 528–29
clay tablets
in Akkadian, 63
Hittite, 63
of Syria, 63–64
Cleanthes, 15
Clement of Alexandria, 41–42
on Greeks, 531
Cleostratus of Tenedos, 65
clouds
classifying, 148–49, 150
lunar, 147–49
moon as cumulous, 149, 151–52
shape of, 154
stars as stirred/ignited, 146
Xenophanes’ astrophysics of, 5, 134–59
Clouds (Aristophanes), 354
Diogenian tenents held in, 361 n15
Commentary on Aristotle's Physics (Simplicius), 30
competition, 414
convention, 373–74
Cornford, F. M., 20, 61, 266
on Ionians, 18–19
cosmic cycle
cycle of guilty god and, 262–63
Empedocles on, 252–56
five long-lived gods of, 255–56
movements dominating, 252–53
new timetable of, 253–55
structure of, 252–53
timetable of, 253–55
cosmic matter
Aristotle on, 415–16
as cosmological problem, 415–20
defining, 415
in Presocratic cosmologies, 415–20
cosmogony
of Anaxagoras, 444
of Anaximander, 107–11
of Anaximenes, 116, 421–22
atomic, 421
in Bible, 68
of Empedocles, 444
Empedocles on complete, 424
Greek philosophy and, 68–72
Heraclitus on, 423
narrative options of, 70
Near Eastern, 107
Presocratic, 421
as speculative, 68–69
cosmology, 341–42
of Anaximander, 112
anthropic principle and, 427–28, 432 n73
cosmic beginnings/limits in study of, 420–27
cosmic matter in Presocratic, 415–20
creation in, 169
of Heraclitus, 422–23
humans as part of, 427
in Megas Diakosmos, 344
outlines of, 67–68
of Parmenides, 15
of Plato, 288
Presocratic, 338–40, 413–28
Pythagorean, 421
spatial infinity and, 426–27
cosmos
Anaximander on, 90, 103, 105–7, 111
cycles of time for change throughout, 112–13
Empedocles on, 424–45, 493–94
geometry of, 138–39
(p. 577)
nature of, 3–4
physical structure of, 103
power over, 470
rational/directive principle operation in, 544
of Xenophanes, 138
Cratylus, Plato's depiction of, 10
Critias
life of, 368
as Sophist, 366
cuneiform writing
clay tablets of, 63
literature, 63
daimons
allegorical nature of cycle of guilty, 265–66
Apollo and, 261–62
cosmic cycle and guilty, 262–63
cycle of, 261
in Empedocles, 260–61, 261–66
in epic poetry, 259–66
exclusion of, 263–65
guilty, 261–66
in Homer, 259–60
love and strife v., 260
Damascius, 60
Democritean atomism, 318
argument for, 312–16
atoms in, 320–23
Zenonian inspiration for, 320–21
Democritus of Abdera, 33, 38, 43, 60
Anaxagoras criticism by, 71
Aristotle on, 310–12, 328 n16, 342
on astronomy, 338–39
atomism defense of, 321–22
atomism developed by, 7
as atomist, 305
atomist thesis of, 311–12
cone paradox of, 323–25, 324f, 351 n51, 351 n52
dating of, 336, 342–43
on embryology, 341
on geology, 339–40
on indivisibility, 323
Leucippus as pseudonym for, 335
Leucippus v., 334–48
on magnitude, 315–16
on meteorology, 340–41
physical theory of, 307
physical views of, 441
Demosthenes, 365
Dercyllides, 93
Derveni Papyrus, 59, 354, 360 n1, 393
Dicaearchus, 90
Diels, Hermann, 12, 143–44, 335. See also Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker
Aëtius as reconstructed by, 135
attitudes towards, 43–44
doxographi term as used by, 35
flawed methodology of, 36
legacy of, 27–31
parallel columns used as analytical technique by, 30
Presocratics as studied by, 15, 16
Diller, Hans, 343
Diogenes Laertius, 14, 420–21
contribution of, 354–55
Eleatics treatment by, 296–97
on Empedocles, 250–51
on Epicurus’ response to Leucippus, 334
in history of teleology, 354–55
as material monisms’ promoter, 354
Milesians as treated by, 38–39
popularity of, 354
Presocratic biographical information and, 38
published text of, 13
on Pythagoras, 294
on Thales, 92–94, 99
Diogenes of Apollonia
on air, 495
Anaxagoras v., 355–57, 358
Anaximenes’ monism implications stated by, 354
autonomy and, 358
criticisms of, 359–60
eclecticism of, 354, 359
on future of world, 357
on intelligence exercised by things, 358–59
mind-based teleology of, 8
monism of, 358
speculations about, 354–60
teleological program of, 355–56
theory based on air of, 7–8
work as naive, 359
Dioskouroi
iconography of, 152
St. Elmo's fire association with, 135
diversity
Anaxagoras on, 418–19
in Hippocratic medicine, 389–90
in Hippocratic writings, 389–90
in medicine, 389–90
principle underlying, 416–17
divine. See also gods
mortals distinction from, 469–79
nature's relationship with, 390–95
Parmenides on, 493
revelation, 473–74
soul as, 285–86
Doctrines of the Natural Philosophers (Theophrastus), 11
doxai
origin of, 35–36, 37
as useful, 36
Doxographi Graeci (Diels), 12, 15, 34, 35, 142
doxographers in, 29–30
doxography
ethical, 38
(p. 578)
origin and method of ancient, 34
as Presocratic philosophers’ transmission strand, 35–38
as term, 35
dreams
Aristotle on, 393
body/soul relationship for, 394
as divine intervention, 394
types of, 394
dualism
atomism as physicalized, 305–6
Empedocles’ development of, 74
Iranian, 74
Iranian impact and, 73
of Parmenides, 305–6
principle of, 74
dynamical principles
Aristotle on, 442
Milesians and, 442
of Presocratic philosophers, 442–45
Dyroff, Adolf, 335
Early Greek Philosophy (Burnet), 15–16
Eclogae Physicae (Stobaeus), 135
Eleatics
Anaxagoras and, 232, 234
atomism of, 344–48
atomism's roots in work of, 305–25
Diogenes Laertius’ treatment of, 296–97
physical theory of, 435
principles of, 234
elements
Anaximenes on, 439
Empedocles on, 440–41, 451–52
Leucippus as identifying, 346
theory of, 418
embryology
Democritus on, 341
Hippocratic writings and, 405–7
Leucippus on, 341
Empedocles, 417
allegorical account of daimones in, 261–66
allegory of, 257
allegory's function for, 266–68
on attraction/repulsion principles, 418
on complete cosmogony, 424
components of teachings by, 251
on cosmic cycle, 252–56
cosmogony of, 444
on cosmos, 424–25, 493–94
daimons in, 260–61, 261–66
Diogenes Laertius on, 250–51
on divinity of long-lived gods, 256
on elements, 440–41, 451–52
ethics in, 266–68
evolutionary zoogony of, 449
on experience, 467–68
on gods, 494
on long-lived gods, 252–59
on love as cosmic principle, 545
on love/strife, 444
mythical law work of, 251
nonallegorical reference to daimones in, 260–61
papyrus of, 250
on personal reincarnation, 265–66
physical theory of, 251–52
physics work of, 251, 266–68
on primeval sin/transmigration, 494
on Pythagoras, 464–68
Pythagoreanism and, 295–96
self-preservation of, 465–66
on Sphairos, 253
on structure of cosmic cycle, 252–53
textual knowledge about, 250
theory of elements of, 418
on timetable of cosmic cycle, 253–55
Empedocles of Acragas, 7, 71
dualism developed by, 74
on plants, 238
poetry of, 31
Encomium to Helen (Gorgias), 33, 370
epic poetry, 434
daimon in, 259–66
Epicurus, 40
Leucippus as responded to by, 334
epilepsy, 407
Epimenides of Crete, 465
Epistemology, Presocratic, 8
ethics, 513
Hippocratic writings on, 407
Eudemus, 104, 111
Anaximander reports attributed to, 111
on Anaximander's rings, 107
Aristarchus study of, 100
solar eclipses predicted by, 101
on Thales, 90–91, 99–101
Eudoxus, 96
Hayades data recorded by, 97
as Pythagorean, 294
experience
Empedocles on, 467–68
Heraclitus on, 176–77
as knowledge source, 176–77, 461–62
river fragments as, 181
sense, 182
experiment, Greek conception of, 399–400
fire
changes of, 171–72
Heraclitus on, 170–71, 440
Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (Diels), 16
chapter subheadings in, 44–45
edition of 1951, 28
features of, 28–29
(p. 579)
patterns of presentation in, 29
title of, 28–29
Frank, Erich, 19
geology
Democritus on, 339–40
Leucippus on, 339–40
on Presocratic cosmologies, 339
geometry
of cosmos, 138–39
insights in, 93
Gigon, Olof, 61
Gladstone, William Ewart, 61
gnomological literature, 40
gods, 392–93
air as, 487
allegorical names of, 255
anthropomorphization of, 487–88
characteristics of, 490
cosmic cycle and guilty, 262–63
cosmic cycles’ long-lived, 255–56
Empedocles on, 494
Empedocles on long-lived, 252–59
goddess and, 137, 425, 472–74
Heraclitus on, 489–90, 492
moral criticism by Sophists of, 378
supreme, 489–90
Thales on, 485, 493–94
Xenophanes on, 136, 488–89
Goetze, Albrecht, 61
Gorgias, 32–33, 371
on being, 533
convention and, 373–74
life of, 368
on logos, 370
on Presocratic philosophers, 10
Socrates influenced by, 534
as Sophist, 366
Graham, Daniel, 113
Greek philosophy
from ancient eastern prototypes, 60–61
Aristolelian bias in evidence concerning, 503
cosmogony, 68–72
creator term in, 71
epochs of research on, 60–62
heavenly ascent idea in, 73–74
historiography of, 530
Iranian affinities with, 72–75
Iranian dualism's influence on, 74
magos term in, 72–73
origin of, 89–90
origins/principles as searched for in, 435
Greeks. See also Greek philosophy
alphabetic writing as adopted by, 57
calendars of, 95
Clement of Alexandria on, 531
history by Zeller, 14–15
intuitions about wisdom by, 512
knowledge as thought about by early, 478 n8
Mesopotamia influence on, 64
meteorology for, 246 n20
Persian domination of, 59
philosophy from ancient eastern prototypes, 60–61
poetry of, 57
special luck of, 59
threefold defect characterizing situation of ancient, 58–59
Guthrie, W. K. C., 20
heaven
Ahura Mazda as distinct from, 74
in Anaximander's work, 71
ascent to, 73–74
Hecataeus of Miletus, 38, 58
as Thales information source, 91
Xenophanes and, 471
Hegel, G. W. F., 17
historicism of, 14
Heidegger, Martin, 20
Hellenistic philosophy, period of, 11–12, 40
Heraclitus of Ephesus, 7, 38, 40, 43
Aristotle on, 490, 548–49
audience of, 170
basic principle of, 416–17
on blood-purification, 492
on change, 171–72
on conservation, 171
on cosmogony, 423
cosmology of, 422–23
cosmos of, 172
on creator of the world concept, 70–71
epistemology of, 181–82
on experience, 176–77
on fire, 170–71, 440
flux and, 170–72
on god, 489–90, 492
on gods characteristics, 490
on human condition, 170, 184 n1
human ignorance theme in work of, 170
on human nature, 470–72
on human understanding, 176
on information sources, 471–72
on insight/wisdom of humans, 470, 477 n5
Iran connection with, 73
on knowledge, 176–84
kosmos term as used by, 170
on language, 177, 186 n20
law of non-contradiction and, 490
logic of, 181–82
logoi of, 183–84, 186 n38, 450
on logos, 470–72, 478 n7
material principle of, 440
metaphysics of, 450
Milesian speculation influence of, 169–70
(p. 580)
model of change as form of measured exchange for, 121–22
names for, 6
opposites doctrine of, 175–76, 178–79
on order, 172–76
original works of, 31
as pantheist, 489
as philosopher of change, 170
Plato on, 174–75
pluralization by, 180
on popular religion, 492–93
on power ruling cosmos, 470
on principle underlying diversity, 416–17
on Pythagoras, 465
on rational utterance, 490–91
on river fragments, 172–74, 179–81, 185 n10
on sense experience, 182
on sense perception, 470
on simultaneous unity/plurality, 423
on souls, 443–44
on supreme god, 489–90
on turnings, 171
verbal techniques of, 177–79
views of, 6
on wisdom, 523
wisdom literature of, 66, 68
wisdom of Odysseus and, 67
world critically viewed by, 169
Herodotus, 4, 468
magoi in work of, 72
on Persian worship, 74
on Thales, 91
Hesiod, 59
Hippias of Elias, 32–33
doxographical compendium of, 544–45
life of, 368
on Presocratic philosophers, 10
as Sophist, 366
Hippocrates, medicine as separated field by, 386
Hippocratic medicine
diversity in, 389–90
environment focus of, 402
as modern biomedicine's forerunner, 393
paradigm shifts in study of, 393
role in early Greek thought's formation, 385–408
Hippocratic tradition, scientific method pioneered in, 19
Hippocratic writings
on anatomy/physiology, 402–3
authorship of, 389
on causal explanations, 395–96
commonalities of, 390
diversity in, 389–90
embryology and, 405–7
on ethics, 407
on food, 395–96
on human nature related to nature of universe, 402
on human seed theory, 405–7
on mental illness, 403
on nature and relation to divine, 390–95
on nature of human being, 400–402
notion of cause as articulated in, 395–97
preservation of, 390
religion and naturalism in, 394
on soul/body, 403–5
techniques for observations as examined/recorded in, 398–400
on therapy/causal explanation connection, 397–98
on transmission of life, 406
visible/invisible inference in, 400
Hippolytus, method of, 42
historiography
of Greek philosophy, 530
of philosophy, 42
of Presocratic philosophy, 9–21
History of Philosophy (Hanley), 14
Hittite texts, 62
collection of, 63
Kumbari text in, 68
Homer, 257
daimon in, 259–60
Plato on, 519
Huffman, Carl, 19
Husserl, Edmund, phenomenological analysis pioneered by, 19–20
Iamblichus, 294, 296
Pythagoreans as catalogued by, 297
idealism, Hegelian, 19–20
ignorance
in Greek poetry, 459–64
human, 170
immortality, celestial, 73–74
Imperial period
Presocratic philosophy and, 41–42
as transmission for Presocratic philosophers, 40
indivisibility
Democritean, 323
temporal, 330 n45
institutions
in oriental world, 58
of philosophy before Plato, 58
Isocrates, 66, 365, 370, 533
Jaeger, Werner, 18
justice
metaphors of, 447–48
in Presocratic philosophy, 447–48
Sophists on, 375
Kahn, Charles H., 18, 261
Karsten, Simon, 14
(p. 581) Katharmoi (Empedocles), 250
knowledge
of body as obtained, 398
in early Greek poetry, 459–64
experience as source of, 176–77, 461–62
of first principles, 504
gaining, 460–61
Greeks on, 478 n8
Heraclitus on, 176–84
Homeric knowing and, 460
in Homer's Odyssey, 461–64, 479 n14
human, 475
opinion as inferior to, 469
Parmenides on, 472–76, 482 n50
from physical experience, 461–62
Plato on, 184
of Presocratic philosophers, 41
prospects for, 469
routes to, 461
as secularized, 475–76
of special skills, 460
wisdom and, 181
Kranz, Walter, 28
Kugler, F. X., 65
language
Heraclitus on, 177, 186 n20
of nature, 177
Protagoras’ approach to, 376
Protagoras on, 375
letters, 40
Leucippus of Abdera
Aristotle on atomism of, 334
on astronomy, 337–39
atomism as contributed to by, 344
atomism as Eleaetic pluralism for, 346
atomism developed by, 7
atomism of, 333–48
as atomism's founder, 333
as atomist, 305
authorship of, 334–36
Bailey on, 336
biographic information on, 335
Democritus v., 334–48
elements identified by, 346
on embryology, 341
Epicurus’ response to, 334
existence of, 333–36
on geology, 339–40
on infinite worlds, 420
influence of, 334–35
on meteorology, 340–41
physical views of, 441
problem of, 333–37
as pseudonym for Democritus, 335
Theophrastus on, 336
literary tradition, transmission/interpretation in, 27
logos
Gorgias on, 370
Heraclitus and, 183–84, 186 n38, 450
Heraclitus on, 470–72, 478 n7
optimism, 67
Sophists exploring, 370–73
love
Aristotle on, 545–46
as cosmic principle, 545
daimons v. strife and, 260
Empedocles on, 444, 545
luck, 59
Lucretius, 40
lunar cloud, 147–49
lunar eclipse, 151, 165 n76
Lysias, 365
magnitude
atomism and, 314–15
Democritus on, 315–16
Mansfeld, Jaap, 36, 37, 44, 143–44
on historiography of Greek philosophy, 530
Manutius, Aldus, 13
material monism, 114
Diogenes Laertius as promoter of, 354
evidence in testimonia of Anaximenes, 157
material reduction in, 122
physical theory of, 435
theory of change and, 114–17
Xenophanes and Inonian, 134–59
material principle
Anaximander on, 438–39
of Heraclitus, 440
of Milesians, 436–39
water as, 437, 455 n4, 517
of Xenophanes, 440
material principles, Aristotle on, 520–21
mathematics. See also Pythagorean theorem
Aristotle on, 527–28
Greek, 64–66
in Mesopotamia, 64
philosophy and, 521–22
Plato on, 526
in Plato's Republic, 285
Plato's use of terms in, 285–86
principles in, 521
sexagesimal system in, 64
Mazdaic doctrine, 73
McDiarmid, John, 18
medical writers
Greek, 383
on knowledge of body as obtained, 398
philosophical interests of, 388–89
visible/invisible inference for, 400
medicine. See also Hippocratic medicine; medical writers
diversity in, 389–90
early development of, 386–87
(p. 582)
as fluid field, 388–89
philosophy and, 385–87
as separated field, 386
Megas Diakosmos, 334–36
authorship of, 337
cosmology in, 344
theories in, 341
Melissus, 7, 33
Aristotle on, 542
criticism of earlier cosmologists by, 343
Eleatic pluralists as responded to by, 346–47
form in work of, 450–51
monism of, 543
as Pythagorean, 296
on rearrangement notion, 343
void account introduced by, 343–44
Memorabilia (Xenophanes), 354
Mesopotamia
astronomy in, 64
Greece as influenced by, 64
mathematics in, 64
metaphors
of justice, 447–48
spatial, 210–14
Metaphysics (Aristotle), 286–87, 458, 502
knowledge of first principles/causes in, 504
origin of philosophy topic in, 503
Plato/Pythagoreans relationship and, 284–91
wisdom's desirability in, 506–7
meteorology, 41
Democritus on, 340–41
for Greeks, 246 n20
Leucippus on, 340–41
Xenophanes theories of, 5
Meteorology (Aristotle), wet/dry exhalation in, 144
Mikros Diakosmos, 342
dating in, 342–43
Milesians, 5–6
Anaxagoras influenced by, 231
Aristotle on, 17
Diogenes Laertius’ treatment of, 38–39
dynamical explanation and, 442
framework of world for, 169
Heraclitus and, 169–70
material principles of, 436–39
nature/structure of world as concern of, 414–15
on Thales, 90–91
Milky way, 152
mind
Anaxagoras on, 236–39, 242, 425–26, 441, 444
causal role in Anaxagoras theory of, 239
character of, 242
control of, 239
motion beginning from, 239
as ordering/controlling principle, 242–43
power of, 242
pure cosmic, 243
understanding world and, 241–43
worlds produced by, 240–41
moon, 140–41
Aëtius on, 136–37
Aristarchus on, 109–10
as cumulous cloud, 149, 151–52
eclipse of, 151, 165 n76
goddess of, 137
Xenophanes on, 145, 147–49
Mouraviev, Serge, 44
myth, 61
Natorp, Paul, 334
naturalism, religion's compatibility of, 394
natural philosophy, of Xenophanes, 137, 138–39
nature
concept of, 390
of cosmos, 3–4
of deity, 137
divine's relationship with, 390–95
forces of, 485–86
of human being, 400–402, 470–72
language of, 177
of philosophy, 507
of universe, 402
of world, 103
of world for Milesians, 414–15
Xenophanes on stars’, 146
Nausiphanes, 16, 38
Neugebauer, Otto, 65
nous. See mind
Oath, 407
Ocellus of Lucania, 15
Odyssey (Homer), knowledge in, 461–64, 479 n14
On Ancient Medicine, 524
On Divination in Sleep (Aristotle), 393
On Nature (Empedocles)
allegorical names of gods according to, 255
long-lived gods in, 255–56
On the Pythagorean Life (Iamblichus), 296, 297
contradictions/repetitions in, 298
On the Sacred Disease
animal dissection in, 399
on brain, 403–5
causal connections in, 397
epilepsy in, 407
gods in, 392–93
on naturalness of disease, 392
phenomena in, 391–92
On the Senses (Theophrastus), 59
optimism, logos, 67
Pahlavi texts, 73
papyrus. See also Derveni Papyrus
of Antiphon the Sophist, 47 n22
(p. 583)
from Egypt, 62
of Empedocles, 250
of Presocratic philosophers found, 31–32
Parmenides, 6–7, 71, 296
achievement of, 219–21
argument requirements on basic entities for, 232
arguments introduced into philosophy by, 189
arguments of, 189, 217–19
Aristotle on, 542
atomism arguments and, 322–23
axioms of, 346–47
B8 fragment of, 189–221
basic principle of, 417
on being, 305–6
on being complete, 195
commentary on, 42–43
conception of necessity/bonds/limits of, 211–12
cosmology theory of, 15
on divine revelation, 473–74, 493
dualism of, 305–6
generation/perishing in work of, 220
on goddess, 472–74
goddess in work of, 425
group A of fragment B8 of, 192–96, 199–200
group B of fragment B8 of, 192, 196–202
group F of fragment B8 of, 214–16
groups C/D/E of fragment B8 of, 205–10
on growth, 193–94, 223 n19
on human knowledge, 475
on knowledge, 472–76, 482 n50
metaphysical argument of, 446
monism of, 543
on nothing from nothing, 447
on now/future, 196
as numerical monist, 215–16
on one universe, 493–94
ontology of, 345–46
original works of, 31
on past/future, 207–8
Plato on, 10, 215
on powers available, 474–75
project and presuppositions in fragment B8 of, 190–92
on secularizing knowledge, 475–76
soundness of arguments by, 218
on spatial limits, 212–13
spatial metaphors in fragment B8 of, 210–14
systemic approach to what-is argument by, 217–18
on thought's starting point, 203–4, 225 n55
on timeless present, 206–7
on truth, 474
twentieth century view of, 16–17
on way of truth, 192, 202, 219
on what-is, 189, 192–96, 231–32
on what-is as all alike, 196–99
on what-is as changeless, 208–10, 220
on what-is as full of itself, 197–98, 201–7
on what-is as holds together, 197–99
on what-is as motionless, 199–201, 208–10, 220, 224 n40, 224 n41, 226 n56
on what-is as now, 206
what-is as singular in work of, 215
on what-is as steadfast, 210
on what-is as thought spoken of, 202–5
on what-is as unique, 214–15, 221 n10
on what-is as whole/motionless, 204–5, 226 n56
on what-is existing timelessly, 196
on what is not, 192–96, 222 n18, 226 n62
on what-is v. bulk of sphere, 213–14
Peri Nou, authorship of, 337
Peri physeos (Empedocles), 250
Periplus of Hanno, 56
Phaedo (Plato), 237, 354–55, 534
Anaxagoras as treated in, 544, 550 n10
Pherecydes of Athens, 58, 465
Philebus (Plato), 291, 466
Philistion of Locri, 390
Philodemus, 40
Philolaus, 299, 303 n33
Philoponus, 315
philosophy. See also Greek philosophy; natural philosophy
analytical, 20
ancient tradition's interpretations of, 10–12
common use of, 3
contexts of history of, 55–59
critical histories of, 14
development of beginning of, 502
dialectical, 525
discovery of immaterial principles in evolution of, 505–6
dunamis concept in, 396
early medicine's overlap with, 386–87
education in, 511
emergence of, 3
formation of discipline, 27
histiography of, 42
influence on first, 501–2
institutions of, 58
mathematics and, 521–22
media of, 57–58
medical writers interest in, 388–89
medicine and, 385–87
metaphysics and, 515
motivation of philosophers, 506
nature/task of, 507
non-Greek text corpora of, 62–64
origin of, 516–18
origin of life in, 405–7
origins of, 501–29
as Platonic dialect, 526
practical, 513–14
from religion, 18
theoretical wisdom as concern of, 514–15
types of, 514, 527
(p. 584) Phocus, 98
physical theory
of Democritus, 307
of Eleatics, 435
of Empedocles, 251–52
of material monism, 435
of pluralists, 435
types of, 435–36
physics
of Anaxagoras, 441, 446
Empedocles’ work in, 251
physiology, Hippocratic writings on, 402–3
Phythagoras, 6–7
piety, 136, 458–59
Placita (Aëtius), 12
doxai in, 35
tradition of, 36
plants, 238
Plato, 71, 237
on air, 118
on Anaximenes, 117–18
Aristotle v., 546–47
astrology as described by, 102
causes recognized by, 291
commentaries on, 42–43
cosmology of, 288
flux doctrine of, 174
as following Presocratics, 288–89, 301 n5
on Heraclitus, 174–75
on Homer, 519
human body views of, 387
idiosyncrasies in work of, 32
on knowledge, 184
mathematical terms used by, 285–86
on mathematics, 526
metaphysical doctrines origin by, 284–85
on model of change, 118
on Parmenides, 10, 215
philosophia term used by, 525
philosophical theories as presented by, 10–11
as Presocratic philosophers’ transmission strand, 32–33
Presocratics as figures in work of, 32
Presocratics as treated by, 536
Presocratics as viewed by, 8–9
Presocratics influence on, 549
Protagoras treated as relativist by, 376
Pythagoreanism influence on, 284–91
Pythagoreans and theory of forms of, 290–91
scientific studies v. theories of, 13–14
on Socrates v. Sophists, 366, 380 n4
Sophists taking pay objection of, 366
on Sophists’ view of truth, 372–73
Sophist view fostered by, 365–66
on soul as immortal/divine, 285–86
style of philosophy by, 10
Thales in work of, 91
theory of forms, 285, 290–91, 522
Pleiades, Greek calendars and, 95
Plutarch
Empedoclean myth decoded by, 251–52
Presocratic information from, 41
pride of place and, 41
Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta (Diels), 30–31
poetry. See also epic poetry
Empedocles of Acragas, 31
Greek, 57, 479 n22
knowledge/ignorance in early Greek, 459–64
seers and, 458, 477 n2
of Xenophanes, 135–36
Pour l’Histoire de la Science Helléne (Tannery), 15
power
cosmos ruled by, 470
of mind, 242
notion of, 395–97
Parmenides on, 474–75
of sun, 137
prayer, 395
Presocratic philosophers
Aristotle as influenced by, 549
Aristotle as transmission strand for, 33–34
Aristotle's attitude toward, 530
Aristotle's depiction of opinions of, 11
atomists as, 419
biographical information of, 38
biography as transmission strand for, 38–40
classical representations/uses of, 530–49
competition and, 414
cosmology beginnings by, 413–14
Diels’ study of, 15
Doxography as transmission strand for, 35–38
dynamical principles of, 442–45
Gorgias on, 10
Hellenistic period and work of, 11–12
Hellenistic period as transmission for, 40
Hippias of Elias on, 10
Imperial period as transmission for, 40
letters and, 40
as materialist physicists, 5
medical interests of, 386–87
metaphysical principles of, 445–48
Middle Ages view of, 12–14
Modern Age view of, 14–21
natural explanation of, 453–55
original writings of, 31–32
papyrus finds of, 31–32
Persians rule and, 56–57
phenomena of, 3
Plato as following, 288–89, 301 n5
Plato as influenced by, 549
Plato as strand of transmission for, 32–33
Plato's treatment of, 536
in Plato's work, 32
as Preplatonics, 55
principles/causes as employed by, 287
religious belief and, 8
Renaissance view of, 12–14
(p. 585)
Sextus’ contribution to knowledge of, 41
shortcomings of, 448–49
Simplicius and information on, 43
as term, 3–4
theology, 18
theory of everything for, 413
topics of study by, 3–4
tradition as recorded by, 30
transmission strands for, 31–43
as viewed by themselves, 524–25
The Presocratic Philosopher (Barnes), 20
Presocratic philosophy
analytical philosophy and, 20
causation as viewed in, 289
cause in, 434–55
chance and necessity in, 448–50
cosmologies in, 413–328
epistemology and, 8
explanation in, 434–55
formal principles of, 450–52
historiography of, 9–21
justice in, 447–48
moving cause recognized by, 521
notion of conservation in, 447
orientalizing context of, 55–75
physicians influenced by, 4
Plutarch's information on, 41
reason in, 434–55
sensation and evidence in, 452–53
texts of, 4–5
traditional histories of, 6–7
traditional piety in writings of, 458–59
variations of traditional theme in, 464–76
Presocratics
Aristotle's view of, 8–9
Plato's view of, 8–9
Primavesi, Olivier, 31
Prodicus, as Sophist, 366
Pros Demonikon (Isocrates), 66
Protagoras
Athens visited by, 367–68
democratic views of, 369
on good judgment, 374
on language, 375
language as approached by, 376
Plato's treatment of, 370
as relativist, 375–76
as Sophist, 366
Protagoras (Plato), 368
Protrepticus (Aristotle), 507
Ptolemy, 64
Pyrhogenous theory, 143, 144
pyridia, 144–45, 163 n52
Pythagoras, 38
as attributed with supermortal characteristics, 465
body of knowledge credited to, 464–68
character of, 292
Diogenes Laertius on, 294
Egypt associated with, 60
Empedocles on, 464–68
Heraclitus on, 465
miracles by, 465
numerical relationships focused on by, 466–67
preservation of work of, 41
on wisdom as aspired to by humans, 523
Pythagoreanism
Aristotle's account of fifth-century, 284–91
defining, 293
early, 294
as philosophical movement, 41
Plato as influenced by, 284–91
problems in, 284–301
term as used, 292–93
Pythagoreans, 6–7
catalogue of, 297–98
criteria for identifying personas for, 299–301
explanatory principle employed by, 544
formal explanations’ necessity for, 451
identifying individuals as, 294–301
on number as principle, 521
in Presocratic views in causation's development, 289
role in early thought, 19
theory of forms and, 290–91, 522
Pythagorean theorem, 64
rainbows, 135–36, 151
pre-classical Greeks use of, 150, 164 n72
reincarnation, 265–66
Reinhardt, Karl, 61
Reitzenstein, Richard, 61
relativism, as defined, 375
religion
in ancient Greece, 379
demythologization of popular beliefs from, 492
Heraclitus on, 492–93
naturalism's compatibility of, 394
origin of, 378
philosophy's emergence from, 18
popular, 492–93
Presocratic philosophers and belief in, 8
Sophists as threat to, 378–79
for twentieth century scholars, 18
Republic (Plato), mathematics in, 285
research
on Greek philosophy, 60–62
methods of Aristotle, 34
Research in Astronomy (Eudemus), 111
rhetoric
defining, 370
Sophists as teaching, 370–73
river fragments, 172–74, 179–81, 185 n10
as experience, 181
as whole, 181
(p. 586) Rohde, Erwin, 334
Runia, David, 143–44, 148, 163 n50, 163 n51
on Xenophanes’ moon, 145
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 14
Schofield, Malcolm, 20
on atomism, 345
science
demonstrative v. dialectical, 47 n34
dialectical, 34
emergence of, 3
Sedley, David, 189
seers, 458, 477 n2
Sextus Empiricus, tradition represented by, 41
Shaeder, H. H., 61
Sharples, R. W., 143–44
Simplicius, 30
air in work of, 115
commentary on Aristotle by, 42
commentary on doctrine of Parmenides, 42–43
Sisyphus, 378–79
skepticism, 375
Snell, Bruno, 531–32, 550 n5
Socrates
Gorgias’ influence on, 534
Pantlossian teleology of, 354
Sophists v., 366, 380 n4
solar eclipses, 153–54, 165 n84, 165 n86
predicting, 92, 99–101
Xenophanes on, 143
solstices, 93–94, 98–99
Sophist (Plato), 422, 506–7
Sophists, 4
as challenging traditional views, 367
convention and, 373–75
from democratic cities, 369
disregard for truth by, 375
eikos concept in arguments of, 374
general description of, 366–67
justice as topic for, 375
logos as explored by, 370–73
methods/attitudes uniting, 367
moral criticism of gods in work of, 378
as movement, 365
as non-Athenian, 366
opposed speeches taught by, 377–78
oral performance by, 372
orthos as focus of interest for, 371–72
as paid teachers, 366, 380 n7
Plato fostering view of, 365–66
as political force, 367–70
political writings by, 369
Presocratic ideas developed in period of, 530–31
as relativists v. skeptics, 375–77
religion threatened by, 378–79
rhetoric taught by, 370–73
Socrates v., 366, 380 n4
speaking both sides of subject by, 371
term as used, 365–66
topics studied/taught by, 8
truth as viewed by, 372–73
understanding, 365–67
written communication by, 372
Sorabji, Richard, 309
Sotion, 296
soul
Alcmaeon of Croton on, 443
Anaxagoras on, 237
as autonomous cause of motion, 443
body relationship with, 394, 403–5
Heraclitus on, 443–44
immortality of, 443
location of, 403–4
motion as ascribed to, 442
Plato on, 285–86
as structured whole, 184
Thales on, 442–43
transmigration of, 295
Sphairos
allegorical name of, 258–59
destruction of, 253
lifespan of, 253
Stanley, Thomas, 14
stars, 141
Anaximenes on, 72
as clouds, 146, 152–53
clusters of, 151
St. Elmo's fire and, 136, 155
Thales as watching, 95–96
Xenophanes on, 146
Steinmetz, Peter, 143–44
St. Elmo's fire, 152
Dioskouroi association with, 135
phenomenon of, 134–35
stars and, 136, 155
Stephanus, Henricus, 13
Stobaeus, Ioannes, 135
Story of Achiqar, 64
strife
daimons v. love and, 260
Empedocles on, 444
Suda (Empedocles), 250–51, 269 n9
sun, 109, 136, 139–40
clouds and, 143–45, 149–50, 153–54
mock, 153
power of, 137
pyrhogenous theory of, 143
Xenophanes on, 145
Symposium (Plato), 545
Syntaxis (Ptolemy), 64
Syria, 63–64
Tannery, Paul, 15
Taylor, A. E., 503
(p. 587) teleology
Diogenes of Apollonia in history of, 354–55
mind-based, 8
Panglossian, 354
Tetralogies (Antiphon), 371, 376
Thales of Miletus, 56
approach of, 517
Aristotle on, 97–98, 437, 516–20
as astronomer, 91–93
astronomical calendar compiled by, 95–96
on astronomical phenomena, 90
books written by, 90
circumstantial evidence about, 93
Diogenes Laertius on, 92–94, 99
Eudemus on, 90–91, 99–101
evidence for work of, 90
on forces of nature, 485–86
geometrical insights of, 93
on gods, 485, 493–94
horizontal astronomy utilized by, 96–98
linear dimensions as calculated by, 102–3
little wagon constellation measured by, 98
lunar cycle and, 99
measures of time and, 90–102
Milesian recordings about, 90–91
philosophy's origin in, 516–18
in Plato's work, 91
poem ascribed to, 102
predecessors of, 518–20
solar eclipse predicted by, 92, 99–100
solstices as determined by, 93–94, 98–99
on souls, 442–43
sources for information on, 90
star watching by, 95–96
on water as material principle, 437, 455 n4, 517
Theiler, Willy, 18
Theogony (Hesiod), 59
theology
ancient, 519–20
as defined, 485
Presocratic, 18, 485–97
Xenophanes and, 489
Theon of Smyrna, 93
Theophrastus, 11, 90, 104, 111, 112, 416
on Diogenes of Apollonia's work as naive, 359
on Leucippus, 336
pyrhogenous theory of sun's constitution attributed to, 143
reliability of, 335
Thrasymachus
life of, 368
as Sophist, 366
Timaeus (Plato), 285–86, 288
creator term in, 71
primary triangles in, 308–9, 327 n7
Xenocrates’ deliteralization of Plato's creation story in, 308
time
Anaximander on, 102–3, 112–13
cosmic cycle and, 253–55
measures of, 90–102
Timon of Phlius, 15
truth
disregard for, 375–77
Parmenides on, 474
Parmenides on way of, 192, 202, 219
Sophists’ disregard for, 375
Sophists view of, 372–73
Truth (Antiphon), 369
Tusculan Disputations (Cicero), 528–29
vapors, 118–19, 145
Vlastos, Gregory, 18, 20
water
Aristotle on, 531–32
as material cause, 155–56
as material principle, 437, 455 n4, 517
wisdom. See also wisdom literature
Aristotle on, 508–13, 514–15
aspiring to, 523
desirability of, 506–7
Greek's intuitions about, 512
Heraclitus on, 523
of humans, 470
knowledge and, 181
as knowledge of principles/causes, 510
of Odysseus, 67
Pythagoras on, 523
as theoretical, 510–11, 514–15
wisdom literature
development of, 66
genre of, 66–68
intellectual achievements in, 67
literary devices in, 66–67
traditional, 68
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 20
Works and Days (Hesiod), 59, 66
world
Anaxagoras on, 233–34, 240–41
Anaxagoras on mixture changes producing, 233–34
creator concept, 70–71
future of, 357
Herclitus on, 70–71, 169
indestructibility of, 308–9
infinite, 420
Milesian framework of, 169
Milesians’ on nature of, 414–15
mind and understanding, 241–43
mind producing, 240–41
multiple v. worlds within worlds view, 240–41
natural, 435
(p. 588)
unlimited nature of, 103
Xenocrates on indestructibility of, 308–9
writings. See also Hippocratic writings; medical writers; wisdom literature
alphabetic, 57–58, 63–64, 75 n5
chronography as genre of ancient, 40
cuneiform, 63
genres of ancient, 39–40
gnomological literature as genre of ancient, 40
letters, 40
political, 369
Presocratic philosophers original, 31–32
tablet for, 57
technical, 123 n4
writing tablet, Greek adoption of, 57
Xenocrates, 308
atomism of, 308
on indestructibility of world, 308–9
indivisible lines doctrine of, 308, 327 n8, 327 n9
Xenophanes of Colophon, 33, 297, 354, 415, 468
Anaximenes v., 157–58
astrophysical clouds as incandescent and, 142–43
astrophysics of, 141–50
caution of, 453
cloud-astrophysics in Greek testimonia of,139–41
cloud-astrophysics of, 5, 134–59
on cosmos, 138
on deity's nature, 137
doctrine of nature of stars by, 146
efficient causes and, 156–57
fiery-sun doctrine attributed to, 145
on gods, 488–89
on gods of traditional piety, 136
grand generalization by, 154–55
Hecataeus and, 471
human awareness allocated to opinioncategory by, 469
Ionian material monism and, 134–59
on luminescence in skies, 146–47
material principle of, 440
meteôra doctrine of, 137–38
meteorological theories of, 5
on moon, 145, 147–49
on moon's association with clouds, 151–52
on natural phenomena, 481 n42
natural philosophy of, 137, 138–39
oneify idea of, 417
pepyrômenon/-a as used by, 141–43
pious view of cognitive capacities of mortals by, 468–70
poetry of, 135–36
on rainbows, 135–36, 150–51
rationalism of, 453
single-boundary geometry of cosmos of, 138–39
skeptical reflections of, 452–53
on solar eclipse, 153–54
solar eclipses theory of, 143
on sun as cloud, 153–54
sun in work of, 145
in theological speculation history, 489
vapor bath v. pyridion for, 145
water as material cause for, 155–56
Xenophilus, 298
Xenophon, 534
Zaleucus, 298
Zarathustra, 73
Zeller, Edward
Greek history written by, 14–15
on precursors of Greek philosophy, 60
Zeno of Elea, 7, 33
atomism influenced by, 306–10, 320–21
large-small antimony of, 306–7, 326 n4
motion critique by, 306
Plato's depiction of, 10
as Pythagorean, 296
Zhmud, Leonid, 293–94
zodiac, 65
zoogony, 260, 449