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date: 18 October 2019

(p. 631) Index

(p. 631) Index

Abbas I, 448
Abbasid period, 316, 403, 448, 469
Abd al-Wahhab. See Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab
Abduh, Muhammad, 492
Abdullah, Shaykh Muhammad, 482
aboriginals, 575–84
abortion, 329
Abu-Lughod, Lila, 502
Abyssinia, 350
Adae festival, 539
Adams, James Luther, 247
Ad Dharm movement, 38
ad-Din, Hakim Nur, 521
Aden, 206, 207–9
Adi Granth, 45, 46, 47, 48
Adrian (patriarch), 300
Adventism, 304
Afghani, Jamal al-Din, 479
Afghanistan, 410, 416, 461–62, 469, 486
Africa
charter myths, 541–42
Christian communities, 349–55, 529–30
civil religion, 534
globalization and religion, 527–34
independent churches, 529–30
indigenous traditions and faiths, 533
Islamic communities, 419–25, 427–34, 532
mainline mission churches, 531
pentecostal and charismatic churches, 530–31
religion and public morality, 542–43
social and religious change, 543–44
social organization and religion, 539–41
sub-Saharan, 350, 355, 427–34, 532
traditional religious society, 537–44
women in religious communities, 529 See also North Africa; specific countries
African Americans, 509–10, 522–23
afterlife, 118, 260
Agha Khan, 485
Agonshu movement, 145, 147, 149–50
Agravals, 54
ahimsa, 52
Ahl-i Hadith, 479
Ahmad, Mizra Bashir ad-Din Mahmud, 521
Ahmad, Mizra Ghulam, 515, 519–20, 522
Ahmad, Nasir, 521
Ahmad, Tahir, 522
Ahmadiyya movement, 515–16, 519–23
Ahmed, Akbar, 432
Ahmedabad (India), 236
Aini, Sadruddin, 459
airplanes, 627
Akali Dal, 42, 47
Akan, 539, 540
Akbar (emperor), 475
Akhbari school, 451
Aladura movement, 352
Alafin of Oyo, 542
Al-Aqsa Intifada, 229
al-Arabi, Ibn, 492
al-Aziz, Shah Abd, 477
Albania, 265, 269, 272, 290, 438–40
Albert-Llorca, Marlène, 262
al-Biruni, 470
Al-Duri, Abd al-Aziz, 415
Alevi Shi'i, 442
Alexei the Second (patriarch), 302
al-Fasi, ‘Allal, 421
Algeria, 419, 422, 423
Al-Hamamsy, Leila, 416
Ali, Amir, 449
Ali, Noble Drew, 509
Aligarh movement, 479
aliyah, 224–25
All-India Adi Dharm Mission, 39
al-Masih, Khalifat, 521
al-Mehdi, Sadiq, 430
Almush (king), 307
al Qaeda, 8, 417, 486
Altan Khan, 94–95
Alta River, 560
Ambedkar, Bheem Rao, 31
American Jewish World Service, 229
American Muslim Council, 512
American Muslim Society, 510
Amin, Samir, 415
Amritsar (India), 44, 46, 47, 48
ancestors, 126, 137, 550, 589
ancestor worship, 109, 112
Angkor Wat Temple (Cambodia), 59
Angola, 355, 546
Angus Reid Group, 342
animism, 86
Anokye, Okomfo, 540–41
anthropology, 177–78
antisemitism, 218, 225, 229, 270, 310
Arabi, Ibn, 517, 520
Arabic language, 411, 412, 417, 467
Arab Islamic societies, 411–18
Arab Nation, 414–16
Aradhya Brahman caste, 36
Argentina, 223, 224, 225, 228, 330
Arjan, Guru, 46
Armenian Church, 288, 295
Arminianism, 344
Arnott, John, 354
Arya Samaj, 20
Asante, 540–41
asceticism, 52
Ashkenazi Jews, 182, 183, 192–94, 201, 227–28
ashramas, 59
Asian Jewish communities, 231–41
Asoka (king), 69, 83, 161
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 442
atheism, 301, 459
Atlanta (Ga.), 60, 61
Aum Shinrikyo movement, 145, 147, 148, 152, 153, 619
Aung San Suu Kyi, 85
Aurangzeb (emperor), 476, 477
Auschwitz, 218
Australia, 163, 575–84
autocephaly, 287, 289, 294, 300
Ayodhya (India), 23
Azad, Abul Kalam, 480
Azariah, V.S., 364
Aztecs, 326, 564
Azusa Street Mission (Los Angeles), 344, 346
‘Azzam, ‘Abdallah, 417
Ba'ath party, 449
Baba, Sathya Sai, 63, 64
Babis, 516–17
Babri Mosque, 483–84
Babur, 474
Babylonia, 178, 179, 180, 182
Badal, Parkash Singh, 48
Baghdad (Iraq), 469, 471
Baghdadis, 234, 235, 239
Bahadur Shah II (emperor), 478
Bahai movement, 515–19
Bahaullah (Mizra Husayn Mi Nun), 515–19
Bahmani dynasty, 473
Bahrain, 447, 450
Bai Shouyi, 503
Ba Khin, U, 89
Bakhsh, Wahid, 485
BaKongo, 350
Bali (Indonesia), 3, 16
Balkans, 438–42
Bandaranaike, S.W.R.D., 84
Bangkok (Thailand), 231, 239–40, 495
Bangladesh, 16, 358, 485
baptism, 351, 364
Baptists, 304, 335
Barber, B.R., 408–9
Barelwi, 479
Barer, Shlomo, 207
Barkindo, Bawuro, 432
Baron, Salo, 176
Baroque, 268
(p. 633) Barrett, David B., 342–43
Barth, Karl, 246, 247
Barthwal, P.D., 35
Barwick, Linda, 578
Basava, 36
Bataille, Georges, 80
Battle of Lipany, 267
Bauchi, Dahiru, 429
Baudrillard, Jean, 75
Baumann, Martin, 74, 163
Bawa Muhaiyadeen Peace Fellowship, 485
Beck, Ulrich, 615
Begin, Menachem, 198
Beijing (China), 4
Bektashis, 438–40
Belgium, 256, 259, 260, 261
Bellah, Robert, 257
Bello, Ahmadu, 428, 429
Belorussia, 217
Bene Ephraim, 236
Bene Israel, 234–36, 239
Bengal (India), 476, 479
Ben-Gurion, David, 239
Benin, 533, 546
Bentenshu, 144
Berberiscos, 192
Berger, Peter, 11, 603
Beta Israel, 211–12
bhagats, 37–38
Bhagavad Gita, 17, 18, 28, 75
Bhindranwale, Sant Jarnail Singh, 47
Bhutto, Benazir, 485
Bhutto, Zulfikar Au, 521
Bible, 177, 180, 295, 342, 345, 361, 392
Bihbahani, Aqa Muhammad Baqir, 451
Bin Badis, ‘Abd al-Hamid, 421
bin Laden, Osama, 8, 410, 417, 433
Blackfoot Indians, 564, 570
Blavatsky, H.P., 72–74
Bohemia, 266–67
Bolivia, 330
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 250
Bon religion, 91–92
Book of Mormon, 392
Boris (czar), 266
Bosnia, 269, 274, 290, 438
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 274, 440–42
Bourdieu, Pierre, 281
Boyarin, Daniel, 252
brahmans/Brahmanism, 17, 19, 25–31, 33–35, 86
Brahmo Samaj, 20
Brazil, 162, 224
Brenner, Louis, 429
British Columbia (Canada), 337
British East India Company, 30, 358, 361, 478
Brown, Peter, 4
Brunei, 493, 494
bSam-yas debate, 92–93
Buber, Martin, 176
Buddha, 72, 83, 87, 88, 118, 119, 161, 164
Buddhaghosacariya, 84
Buddha's Light International Association, 121
Buddhism
Chinese, 96, 118–20
esoteric, 144
and European Enlightenment, 71–72
festivals and rituals, 88, 89
Fo Kuang Shan, 120–21
as global religion, 69–81, 89, 161–70
in India, 29, 69, 70, 83, 87, 161
in Japan, 133, 135–39
in Korea, 155–57, 158–59
laity in relation to, 89, 118, 121, 165
Mahayana, 71, 72, 110, 118, 167
meditation and rationality in global economy, 78–81
monasteries, 83–84, 87, 89, 156
outside Asia, 162–70
rational, 72–74
in Russia, 309–10
Theravada, 71, 72, 73, 83–90, 110
Tibetan, 91–104
transmission to Mongolia, 93–96
transmission to West, 96–101
as transnational religion, 6–7, 168–69
in U.S., 163–70
in Vietnam, 110, 113
Zen, 78, 81, 167
Buddhist Catechism, The (Olcott), 73
Bukhara, 458, 461
(p. 634) Bulaç, Ali, 444
Bulanyi, Gyorgy, 273
Bulgaria, 266
Bulgarian Orthodox Church, 289, 292, 295–96
burial societies, 183
Burma. See Myanmar
Buryatia, 309
Butrous Ghali, Butrous, 322
Buyids, 448
Cadge, Wendy, 163
Cairo (Egypt), 318, 319
Calcutta (India), 239
Cambodia, 59, 85, 86, 89, 379, 380, 495
Campbell, Joseph, 10
Canada, 60, 163, 223, 224, 333–34, 336–39, 342
Cao Dai, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114
capitalism, 607–8, 620, 626
in Africa, 354
and Christianity, 251
in Latin America, 328, 329
in North Africa, 422
and Protestantism, 281
protests against, 611, 612
Carey, William, 361, 366
cargo cults, 589–90, 591
Caro, Joseph, 183, 219
castes
Christian view of, 363
and class, 33
conversion of, 363–65
Dalits, 15, 31, 33, 39, 358, 364, 365
Jain, 53, 54
scheduled, 15, 30–31
catastrophe, 251
Catherine the Great, 268
Catholicism
in China, 374–75, 376, 377
in Eastern Europe, 265–74
in Goa, 359–60
in Korea, 157, 159
in Latin America, 325–30
and national awakening of nineteenth century, 269
in North America, 334, 336, 337, 339
opposition to economic globalization, 612, 614
and Orthodox Church, 290–91, 295, 312
in Philippines, 381, 382, 383, 384
pillarization, 256–57, 259
post-Communist context, 272–73
in Russia, 305–6
in twentieth century, 270–72
in Vietnam, 109, 110–11, 113
in Western Europe, 255–62
Central Africa, 546
Ceric, Mustafa, 441
Chabad-Lubavitch network, 226–27, 239, 240
Cham, 495
Chamar castes, 38, 39
chandalas, 27, 30
charismatics, 345, 530–31, 590
Chechnya, 307–8, 410, 444, 626
Chen, Carolyn, 167
Chen Dasheng, 501
Cheng Yen, 121
Chile, 329, 330, 559, 560
China
Buddhism in, 96, 118–20
Christianity in, 373–77
Confucianism in, 116–17, 119–20
Daoism in, 117–18, 119–20
deity worship and village temples, 128–29
divination, 127–28
as empire, 626
family rituals, 126–27
Islam in, 499–504
Jews of, 233, 237–38
new forms of religion, 120–22
Orthodox Church in, 291
policies in Tibet, 97
popular lay sects, 129–31
popular religion in mainland, 125–31
traditional religious society, 115–20
in world economy, 251
Chinese Falun Gong (Li), 130
Ching, Julia, 120
Chishti Sufi order, 472, 473, 485
(p. 635) Choson dynasty, 156–57, 158
Christian Identity movement, 619
Christianity
in Africa, 349–55, 529–30
in China, 373–77
and colonialism, 70
Coptic Church, 315–24
early, 8–9
and economics, 351, 354
globalization of, 245–53, 349, 350, 352, 592
in India, 357–71
interreligious dialogue, 284
in Korea, 157–58, 159
and Native Americans, 570
in Pacific Islands, 587–93
in Philippines, 381–86
in Southeast Asia, 379–86
theologians and theology, 10, 249
as transnational religion, 6–7 See also Catholicism; Orthodox churches; Protestantism
Church of England, 361, 362, 368
Church of God in Christ, 335
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. See Mormons
Church of Sinai, 288
Church of South India, 368
Church of the Virgin (Zeitun, Egypt), 320
Cieszkowski, August, 269
Cisse, Hassan, 433–34
civilizations, 248, 250–52
Clement VI (pope), 267
Cochin Synagogue, 232, 233
colleges and universities, 366–68, 370
Colombia, 329, 330
colonialism, 70, 353, 481, 494, 625–26
Comaroff, Jean, 354
Comaroff, John L., 354
communication, 251, 347
Communism, 265, 283, 292, 293, 295, 313
Compact of Iglau, 267
Confucianism, 116–17, 119–20, 131, 156
Conservative Judaism, 184, 224, 226
Constantin, Francois, 428
Constantine (emperor), 8
conversion
Christian, 361, 363–65, 381, 382, 529
Islamic, 316, 476, 510
as process of acculturation, 476
cooperative churches, 278–79
Coptic Church
demographics, 317–18
in diaspora, 323–24
in Egypt, 315–24, 350
history, 316–17
and Muslims, 317, 321–22
ritual practices, 319–21
Costa Rica, 329, 330
Council of Chalcedon, 316
Council of Split, 266
Counter-Reformation, 267–68, 278, 326, 359
Croatia, 265, 266, 267, 269–72, 274
Cult of Mithra, 266
cultural interaction, 4, 5
Cultural Revolution, 375, 501
culture, 603–4
Curaçao, 224
cyberspace, 62–64
Czechoslovakia, 265, 270–72, 629
Dagestan, 307–8
Dahomey, 546
Dalai Lama, 79, 95, 97, 99, 100, 103
Dalits, 15, 31, 33, 39, 358, 364, 365
Dalmatia, 266, 269
dance, 61, 227
Dara Shikoh (prince), 476
Darfur (Sudan), 229
David-Neel, Alexandra, 97
Dawson, Christopher, 247
Dayal, Baba, 45
Dayananda Sarasvati, 20, 21
Decline of the West (Spengler), 246
defensive counteruniversalism, 409–10
Dekkan kingdoms, 474, 477
Delhi (India), 478, 484
Delhi Sultanate, 470–71, 473, 474
democracy, 327–28, 329, 607, 626, 629
Democratic Republic of Congo, 546
Deng Xiaoping, 375
(p. 636) Deoband Academy, 479
Deobandi movement, 479, 486
derivative practices, 602
Devanampiyatissa (king), 83
Dharamdas, 37
dharma, 17–18, 19, 21, 164
dharma centers, 98, 102
Dharmapala, Anagarika, 75–76, 77
Dhu Nuwas (king), 202, 203
diasporas
African, 527, 531
Armenian, 288, 295
Coptic, 323–24
global, 5–6, 626, 627
Hindu, 5, 15
Jewish, 5, 176, 181–84, 210, 228, 229
of native peoples, 557, 560
Palestinian, 416
Tibetan, 77
Vietnamese, 114
dictatorship, 629
Digambara sect, 53, 54, 56
Dihlawi, Abd al-Haqq, 476
Din-i Ilahi, 475
Diocletian (emperor), 316
discursive practices, 602
divination, 127–28, 138, 156
Diyanet, 442–43
dominance, 19
Dominicans, 326, 373
Dornakal (India), 364, 365
Dowie, John Alexander, 353
Dreaming, 575–78
Dubnow, Simon, 176
Duff, Alexander, 367
Dumont, Louis, 18–19
Durkheim, Emile, 17, 177, 260
Durrani, Ahmad, 461
East Africa, 532
Eastern Europe, 265–74, 629
East Timor, 380
Eck, Diana, 248
ecumenism, 167–68
Effendi, Abbas, 517
Effendi, Shogi, 518
egalitarianism, 165
Egungun, 542
Egypt, 204, 315–24, 350, 407, 413, 419, 422
Eickelman, D.F., 408, 409, 432, 433
Eliade, Mircea, 10, 247
Ellis, Catherine, 578
Emerson, Michael, 342
Enlightenment, 71–72, 74, 278, 282, 327, 333
Ennokyo religion, 153
Erbakan, N., 443
Essenes, 180–81
Estonia, 291
Estonian Lutheran Church, 303
ethics. See morality
Ethiopia, 211–12, 228, 355
Ethiopian Church, 350
ethnic religions, 557–62
Europe
cooperative churches, 278–79
Eastern Catholic societies, 265–74
Enlightenment, 71–72
Islam in, 437–46
Jewish communities, 215–20, 227, 228
Protestant societies, 277–85
state churches, 278–79
Western Catholic societies, 255–62
Western Orthodox borderlands, 290–92
European Union (EU), 273, 278–79
European Valus Study (EVS), 257, 260
evangelicalism
attitudes toward society, 346–47
definition of, 341–42, 345
demographics of, 341–43
global perspective, 345–46
history of, 343–44
in India, 363, 366
in North and South America, 334, 341–47
Evangelical Lutheran Church (America), 335
Evangelical Lutheran Church (Russia), 303
Evans-Wentz, Walter, 97
expansive nationalism, 626
(p. 637) faith tourism, 617
Falasha, 211–12
Falun Gong, 129–31
Fara'idi movement, 479
Fard, Wallace D., 509, 523
Farrakhan, Louis, 509
fasting, 52, 513
Fatima, 447
Fatimids, 468, 469, 470
Federation of Jewish Communities, 227
fengshui, 127–28
Ferdinand II (kaiser), 267
Fertile Crescent, 413
Fiji, 5, 6, 15, 16, 58
filioque controversy, 266
Finkelstein, Louis, 177, 178
Fischel, Walter J., 205
Fletcher, Joseph, 501
Fo Kuang Shan Buddhism, 120–21
fortunetelling, 138
Fort William (Calcutta, India), 478
Foucault, Michel, 618
founder worship, 148
France
Buddhists in, 163
Catholics in, 255–56, 260
Jews in, 183, 223, 225
separation of church and state, 278
Franciscans, 269, 326
Francis Xavier, Saint, 359, 360
Frazer, James, 177
freemasonry, 327
fundamentalism, 345, 401, 402, 409, 608, 618
Fundamentals, The (pamphlets), 345
funerals, 126–27
Gabriel, Peter, 473
Gainurtdin, Sheikh, 445
Gallagher, Sally, 342
Gamsakhurdia, Zviad, 293
Gandhi, Indira, 48
Gandhi, Mahatma, 21, 23, 31, 235, 364–65, 483
Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, 459
Gay, Peter, 74
Gaza, 196, 197, 229
Gedatsukai, 144, 153
Gedimu Islam, 501
Geertz, Clifford, 75, 492
Geiger, Abraham, 176
Gellner, Ernest, 405, 427–28
Gelug-Pa school, 309
Genghis Khan, 94
genocide, 229, 355
geomancy, 156
George, Saint, 320
Georgian Orthodox Church, 290, 293
Germany, 163, 201, 217, 226, 280, 360
Ghana, 355, 539
Ghazna Sultanate, 470
Ghaznavids, 470
Ghulat, 448
Gilgamesh Epic, 4
Gillette, Maris, 504
Ginsberg, Louis, 177
Glagolitic alphabet, 266
global civilizations, 250–52
global diasporas, 5–6, 626, 627
global economy, 78–81, 251, 354
globalization
and African religion, 527–34
and Arabs, 416–18
of Buddhism, 69–81, 89
of Christianity, 245–53, 349, 350, 352, 592
definition of, 587
economic, 612–16
of Hinduism, 15–23
and indigenous peoples, 557–62, 575, 576–77
and Islam, 408–10, 427, 431–34
of Judaism, 175–84, 223–30
of Mormonism, 389–90, 393–94, 397
as multifaceted, 75
and Native Americans, 570–71
in Pacific Islands, 587, 589–93
and Protestantism, 285
protests against, 611, 612–13, 614–16
of religion, 3–12, 591, 597–608, 625
Godan Khan, 94
Godhra Massacre, 484
Goenka meditation, 78
(p. 638) Goitein, S.D., 178
Gorakhanath, 35
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 291, 301, 311
Gracias, Valerian, 360
Graetz, Heinrich, 176
Graham, Billy, 345
Grant, Charles, 361
Great Awakening, 360
Great Britain
Buddhism in, 163
East India Company, 30, 358, 361, 478
Jewish population in, 217
Mormonism in, 394
role in Aden, 208–9
and Sikhs, 42, 43
Greek Orthodox Church, 293, 336
Green, John C., 342
Gregory (bishop of Nin), 266
Gregory, Peter, 165, 169
Gujarat (India), 369, 370, 469, 476
Gulf War (1991), 416
Gumi, Abu Bakr, 428–29
Gush Emunim, 195–96
Gutierrez, Gustavo, 328
Haile Selasie (king), 211
Haiti, 545–46, 549
hajj, 417, 479
Hamilton, Charles, 478
Hanafi school, 438, 500, 510
Hanbalism, 403, 404
Hanh, Thich Nhat, 114, 167
Harbin (China), 237
haredim, 188–92, 197
Harris, William Wade, 352
Harrist churches, 352
hasidim, 189–90
haskala, 183
Hatha Yoga, 35
headscarf, 443, 454
healing, 548, 550–51
Hebron (Israel), 196
Hellenic culture, 180
Herzl, Theodor, 188, 220
Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, 226
Himyar kingdom, 202–3
Hinayana Buddhism, 83
Hindi language, 481
Hinduism
addition of new divinities, 22
brahmanical traditional society, 16, 25–31
caste, sect, and family, 18–19
communities outside Indian subcontinent, 57–64
community activities, 61
contemporary trends, 21–23
dance forms, 61
definitions of, 25
designer communities in cyberspace, 62–64
diasporas, 3, 5, 6, 15, 16
as global religion, 15–23
and Jainism, 54–55
modern, 19–21
pilgrimages, 22
pluralistic character of, 16–18
popular movements, 33–40
temples outside of India, 59–61
in U.S., 58–59
Hindustani music, 471, 475
History of the Mind, The (Zhang), 503
Hoa Hao religion, 111–12, 113, 114
Hocking, William Ernest, 10, 248, 249
Holocaust, 216, 218
Holy, Prokop, 267
Holy Spirit Movement, 353
Homo Hierarchicus (Dumont), 18
Hong Kong, 43, 237, 238
honor code, 461–62
hospitals, 366, 368
Hsing Yun, 120, 121
humanism, 628, 630
human rights, 327–28
Hungary, 265, 266, 270
Huntington, Samuel, 10–11, 248, 251
(p. 639) Hus, Jan, 267
Hussayn, Shah, 475, 476
Hussein, Imam, 448, 449
Hussein, Saddam, 450
Hussites, 266–67
Huynh Phu So, 111, 112
Hyderabad (India), 482, 483
Idel-Ural, 445
identitarian movements, 422
idolatry, 363
Idris, Mallam Ismailia, 429
Ife-Ife, 533, 541
Iglesia ni Kristo, 384
Ilyas, Maulana Muhammad, 484
imams, 511–12
Imdadullah, Hajji, 479
Imilgei, Sara, 560
Imo Giri cemetery, 494
imperialism, 373–74
Incas, 326
indentured labor, 627
Independence (Mo.), 391
India
Buddhism in, 29, 69, 70, 83, 87, 161
Christianity in, 357–71
colleges in, 366–68
independence, communalism, and partition, 481–83
Isma'ili syncretism, 467–69
Jain community, 51–56
Jews of, 232, 234–36
Muslims in, 3, 23, 465–84
religious communalism and radicalism, 483–84
Sikh community, 41–48, 476
traditional brahmanical society, 16, 25–31
Indians, American, 617
and Christianity, 570
creation stories, 565, 566, 569
definition and identity, 563–64
diversity of ways, 564
and globalization, 570–71
identity through harmony, 568–69
and Mormons, 392, 393
religious societies, 563–71
sacred earth, space, and sites, 566–67
indigenous peoples, 557–62
individualism, 165, 166, 327
Indonesia, 380, 468, 491, 492–94, 496
Ingermanland Lutheran Church, 303
Inquisition, 240, 326, 359
institutions, religious, 604–6
International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISCON), 22, 62
International Society of Divine Love (ISDL), 62
Internet, 62–64, 433
interventive practices, 602–3
intifada, 196, 197, 229
Iqbal, Muhammad, 479
Iraq, 209, 210, 413, 447–50
Islam
in Africa, 427–34, 532
alleged inferiority of nonbelievers, 203–4
Arab societies, 411–18
in Balkans, 438–42
in Central Asia, 457–62
in China, 499–504
of commercial classes, 492
contemporary revival, 405–6
conversion to by Egyptian Christians, 316
European, 437–46
and globalization, 408–10, 427, 431–34
in Indonesia, 380, 491, 492–94, 496
interreligious dialogue, 284
militant, 619
and modernization, 427–31
mosques and organizations, 432, 511–12
in North Africa, 419–25
orthodox, 429, 492
in Pakistan, 370
in Philippines, 381, 492, 494
(p. 640)
political, 406–7, 422, 493–94
religious movements with Islamic origins, 515–23
revivalism, 420, 421, 429
in Russia, 306–8, 444–46
in South Asia, 465–87
in Southeast Asia, 491–96
as transnational religion, 6–8, 484
in United States, 507–14
universalist expansion of, 402–4 See also Muslims
Islamic Circle of North America, 512
Islamic Jihad, 423
Islamic Salvation Front, 423
Islamic Society of North America, 512
Isma'il, Shah, 478
Isma'ilis, 467–69, 470, 485
Israel
aliyah, 224–25
American Jews and, 229
early leaders, 220
Ethiopian Jews in, 211
haredim, 188–91
ingathering of exiles, 209–11
Jewish communities in, 187–99
Jewish religious nationalists, 195–98
Jews from Arab countries in, 191–94, 201, 203
Orthodox Jews in, 184
Yemeni Jews in, 206–7
Israeli, Raphael, 500, 503
Isserles, Moshe, 183, 219
Italy, 260
Izetbegovic, Alija, 441
Jadidist movement, 459
Jagodzinski, W., 258
Jahriyya Naqshbandi Sufism, 503
Jainism, 29, 51–56
Jama'at-i Islami, 407, 484, 485
Jama'at Islamiyya, 423
Japan
centers of faith, 149–50
control in Korea, 158
Jews in, 238–39
new religious movements, 141–54
Orthodox Church in, 291
rites for the dead, 137
traditional religious society, 133–39
Jaspers, Karl, 70
Jats, 44–45
Java (Indonesia), 59, 380
Jawi, 492
Jehovah's Witnesses, 304, 336
Jerusalem, 188, 193, 194
Jesuits, 269, 360, 373
Jesus Christ, 316, 319, 322, 359, 392, 520, 570
Jews and Judaism
in Aden, 206, 207–9
in Americas, 223–30
antisemitism, 218, 225, 229, 270, 310
of Argentina, 223, 224, 225, 228
in Asia, 231–41
Chabad-Lubavitch network, 226–27, 239, 240
of China, 233, 237–38
Christian dialogue, 284
contributions of, 219–20
diasporas, 5, 176, 181–84, 210, 228, 229
diversity in ancient Judaism, 179–81
of Ethiopia, 211–12, 228
in Europe, 215–20, 227, 228
globalization of, 175–84, 223–30
of India, 232, 234–36
of Iran, 204–5, 224
in Israel, 187–99
of Japan, 238–39
of Morocco, 209–10
in New York, 618
from North Africa and near East, 191–94
in North Africa and Middle East, 201–12
philanthropic activity, 228–29
religious nationalists, 195–98
in Russia, 310–11
(p. 641)
sociological study of, 177–79
Soviet Jewry, 216, 224, 228
study of Jewish societies throughout world, 175–79
as transnational, 229
in U.S., 223, 224, 225–28, 229, 336
of Yemen, 202–3, 205–7
jihad, 410, 423, 522
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, 480
John Paul II (pope), 271, 272, 328, 329
John Paul XXIII (pope), 327
Jones, William, 478
Josef II (king), 268
Jubilee 2000, 612
Judaism. See Jews and Judaism
Judge, William Q., 72
Juergensmeyer, M., 617
Jung, Carl, 10
Kabir, 35, 36–40, 476
Kabir Bijak, 37
Kabir Panth, 37–38
Kachins, 379
Kadoorie family, 238
Kaifeng (China), 231, 233, 237
Kalamukhas, 36
Kalimantan (Borneo), 494
Kalki (god), 520
Kallen, Horace, 225
Kalmykia, 309
Kanaphata Yogis. See Naths
Kanji Svami Panth, 56
Kantowsky, Detlef, 78–79
Karbala (Iraq), 449
Karens, 85, 379
Karimov, Islam, 460
karma, 18, 52, 88, 118
Karnataka (India), 35–36
Kashmir (India), 359, 482–83
Katipunan movement, 383
Katz, Jacob, 177, 179
Kaunda, Kenneth, 355
kavenga, 581, 582
Kayapo Indians, 564
Kazakhs, 457, 458
Kazakhstan, 460
Kellstedt, Lyman A., 342
Kennedy, Paul, 342
Kenya, 353, 433
Kerala (India), 369
Khaldun, Ibn, 428
Khan, Abdul Ghaffar, 480
Khan, Inayat, 485
Khan, Nusrat Fateh Ali, 473
Khan, Sayyid Ahmad, 479
Khandelval Jains, 54
Khanty, 559, 561
Kharijis, 447
Khatris, 45
Khilafat movement, 480
Khiva, 458
Khmer Rouge, 495
Khmers, 85, 86, 89, 495
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 205, 407, 408, 453, 454
Khri srong lde brtsan (king), 92
Khrushchev, Nikita, 295
Khurasan, 469
Khusro, Amir, 471, 473
Kierkekaard, Soren, 10
Kievan Rus, 300
Killen, P., 616
Kim, Bishop, 159
Kimball, Spencer W., 396
King, Karen, 252
kinship, 539
Kirchentag, 280
Kirtland (Ohio), 393, 394
Kochi (India), 231, 232, 234–35
Koçi, Hafiz Sabri, 439
Kofuku no Kagaku movement, 143, 147, 148, 152
Kong Fu Zi (Confucius), 116
Kongo people, 546
Konkan (India), 234–35
Koranda, Václav, 267
Korea, 155–59
Korean War, 158
Kornfield, Jack, 78, 165, 168
Koryo dynasty, 156
Krishna (god), 22, 39, 62
kshatriyas, 28, 29
Kublai Khan, 94
Kung, Hans, 10
Kurozumikyo, 145
Kuwait, 450
Kyrgyz, 457, 458
Kyrillos VI (patriarch), 317, 320
Lahori, 522
Lakwena, Alice, 353
land, 558–60, 568
language, 558, 559, 578
Laos, 85, 86, 89, 379, 380
Latin America, 325–30, 343, 561
Latin Church, 266
Latin language, 266
Lau, Benjamin, 194
Lauder, Ronald, 226
Lauterbach, Jacob, 177
LDS Church. See Mormons
League of Arab States, 414
Lebanon, 288, 413, 450
Legazpi, Miguel Lopez de, 381, 382
Lekganyane, Ignatius, 353
Lenin, Vladimir, 313
Leo IX (pope), 266
Leo X (pope), 267
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 80
liberalism, 327
liberation theology, 328, 628
Libya, 419, 422, 423
Li Hongzhi, 130
Lingayats. See Virasaivas
Lipman, Jonathan, 501, 503
Lithuania, 217
locally based memory, 559
local religious societies, 557–62
Loimeier, Roman, 428
Lord's Army, 293
Los Angeles (Calif.), 4, 336
Lotus Sutra, 144, 146
love charms, 549
Lucknow (India), 477
Luhmann, Niklas, 257
Lukashenka, Aleksander, 291
Luther, Martin, 267, 343, 345
Lutheranism, 278, 283, 285, 303
Luzon (Philippines), 381–82
Macedonian Orthodox Church, 287, 294
MacKinnon, J., 616
Madonna. See Virgin Mary
Maghreb, 413
Mahabharata, 28
Mahabodhi Society, 76
Mahavihara monastery, 83–84
Mahavira, 52
Mahayana Buddhism, 71, 72, 110, 118, 167
Mahdawis, 474
Mahesh Yogi, 22, 62
Mahikari movement, 145, 150–51, 153
Mahima Dharma movement, 39
Mahinda, 83
Mahmoud, Muhammad, 430
Mahmud of Ghazna, 470
Maimonides, Moses, 183
Malabar coast, 466, 467
Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, 360
Malaysia, 493, 496
Malay-speaking Muslims, 491–94
Malcolm X, 509–10
Mali, 429–30, 432, 532
Mama Lola (Vodou priestess), 547–48, 549, 551–52
Manalo, Felix, 384
Manchu Tungusic, 561
Mansura (India), 468, 469
Manu's Dharma Shastra, 27, 28, 31
Maoist regime, 375, 376
Mappilas, 467
maps, 3, 4
Mapuche Indians, 559, 560
maraboutism, 421
Marcel, Gabriel, 247
mare djol, 547–48, 549, 551–52
Marett, Allan, 578
Maritain, Jacques, 327
Mark the Evangelist, 315, 316, 350
marriage
aboriginal, 577
Coptic, 319
Jain, 53, 55
of monks, 159
Muslim, 512
Shinto rites, 138
(p. 643) Marshall, David, 239
Marshall Islands, 593
Martin, David, 256, 343
Marxism, 328, 355, 503, 626
Mary. See Virgin Mary
mass movements, 364–65
Mawdoodi, Abu al-A'la, 430
Mawdudi, Abu'l-A'la', 407
Mawdudi, Mawlana, 484
Mbeki, Thabo, 355
McDonald's, 611–12
Meaning and End of Religion, The (Smith), 247
Mecca (Saudi Arabia), 402, 408, 416, 417, 492, 521
media, 408, 417, 433
Medina (Saudi Arabia), 402, 416, 417
meditation, 76, 77–81, 89, 118, 166, 251
Medjugorje, 273–74
Megasthenes, 29–30
Melanesia, 588, 589, 590, 592
melting pot, 225
Men, Aleksandr, 293
Mendelssohn, Moses, 183, 219
Menelik I (king), 211
Methodist Church, 335, 531
Mexico, 163, 224, 252, 326, 329
Micklethwait, J., 618–19
Micronesia, 592
Middle East, 201–12, 350
migration, 592–93, 627
Miki, Nakayama, 143, 149, 150
Mindanao (Philippines), 381, 382, 494
Mirabai, 39, 40
miracle of the gold teeth, 354
Mishna, 181, 211
Mi Son temple (Vietnam), 59
missionary work
in Africa, 350–54
in China, 373, 374
and globalization, 401
in India, 361, 362–63, 366
of Islam, 404
Orthodox, 291–92
in Pacific Islands, 588, 591
in Philippines, 383
in Southeast Asia, 386
in Vietnam, 379
mitnagdim, 189, 190
Mizoram (India), 366, 369
Mizrachi, 227–28
Mizra Husayn Mi Nun. See Bahaullah
modernism, 492–93, 628, 629
modernity, 347, 427–31, 597–98, 608
Moffat, Robert, 350, 351
monasteries
Buddhist, 83–84, 87, 89, 156, 158
Coptic, 319–20
Hindu, 36, 37
in Korea, 156, 157, 158
Orthodox, 290
in Tibet, 92
Mongolia, 93–96
Mongols, 471
monks, 53, 87, 88, 103, 118, 159, 319–20
Moorish American Science Temple, 509
morality, 87, 164, 542–43, 549–50
Morals for the Heart (Sijzi), 473
Moria (Africa), 353, 654
Mormons, 336, 389–98
Morocco, 191, 192, 193, 209–10, 419, 422, 423
Moros, 381
Morreale, Don, 163
mosques, 432, 511
Mount Athos monastery, 290
Mouridiyyeh, 433
Mozambique, 355
Mughals, 458, 461, 474–78
Muhaiyadeen, Bawa, 485
Muhammad (prophet), 206, 402, 411, 412, 447, 472, 515, 520, 521
Muhammad, Elijah, 509, 510
Muhammad, Sayyid Mi, 516
Muhammad, Wallace (Imam Warith Deen), 510
Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, 479
Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, 404, 416, 448, 460
Muhammadiyah movement, 492, 494
Mu'in al-Din ‘asan Sanjari, 472
(p. 644) Mukaddas, Hatib, 445
Mukta, Parita, 39
Mumbai (India), 234–36, 360
music, 227–28, 471, 473, 475, 578, 617
Muslim Brotherhood, 407
Muslim League, 480, 481
Muslims
in Africa, 350, 355, 428, 429, 431
in Albania, 438–40
in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 440–42
in China, 499–504
and Copts, 317, 321–22
education of, 512
in India, 3, 23, 465–84
killings by Hindus, 23
Malay-speaking, 491–94
as minorities, 494–96
in North America, 336, 337
in Philippines, 383–84, 492, 494
in Russia, 306–8, 444–46
situating Arab, 412–16
in Sri Lanka, 77
treatment of Jews in Yemen, 205–6
in Turkey, 442–44
women, 443, 452, 454, 512–13 See also Islam
Mutiny of 1857, 362
Muttaqi, Ali, 476
mutual interaction, 628
Myanmar, 85, 86, 89, 239, 379, 380, 491–92, 495–96
myths, 541–42
Nabivamsa, 475
Nagaland (India), 365, 366, 369
Naga people, 365–66
Na'ini, Ayatollah, 452
Najaf (Iraq), 449
Namadev, 36
Nanak, Guru, 46, 476, 520
Nao, Deguchi, 146
Naqshbandi Sufis, 476–77
Naropa Institute (Boulder, Colo.), 98
Nashville (Tenn.), 336
Naths, 35, 36
National Baptist Convention, 335
Nation of Islam, 509–10
Native Americans. See Indians, American
Nazism, 270–71, 283, 628
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 483
neo-evangelicals, 345
Nepal, 15, 26, 161, 227
Nestorian heresy, 360
Netherlands, 257, 259, 382
Neubauer, A., 206
New Age movement, 334
New Amsterdam, 224
Ne Win, 85
New Testament, 343
New York State, 618
nganga, 350
Nguyen Cong Binh, 113
Ngwato kingdom, 351
Nichiren, 142
Nichiren Buddhism, 144, 152
Niebuhr, H. Richard, 169
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 247, 248
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 79, 80
Nigeria, 428–29, 430, 432, 533
Nikkyo, Niwano, 150
Nirguni tradition, 36
nirvana, 77, 87, 88, 118
Nizam al-Din Awliya, 472–73
nkisi, 350
Nkrumah, Kwame, 355
nonviolence, 52, 629
North Africa
Christianity in, 350
Islamic societies, 419–25
Jewish communities in, 201–12
Jews from, 191–94, 216
Muslims in, 350, 355 See also specific countries
Northrup, F.S.C., 10
Nossig, Alfred, 176
Novakovich, Mary, 617
Nu, U, 85, 239
Nubian Church, 350
Numrich, Paul, 169
nuns, 101, 103, 118, 159, 319–20
Nuri, Mizra Yahya, 516
Nuri, Shaikh Fazlullah, 452
Nyerere, Julius, 355
Nyoraikyo, 145
occasional practices, 603
Oduduwa (god), 541–42
ohene, 539–40
oil, 416, 494
Okada Kotama, 150–51
Okada Mokichi, 150
Olcott, Henry Steel, 72–74, 75, 76
Omotokyo movement, 144, 145, 146, 148, 150
Ontario (Canada), 337
Opus Dei, 328–29
Oranyan (god), 542
Organization for Rehabilitation and Training (ORT), 235–36
Organization of Afro-American Unity, 510
Organization of the Islamic Conference, 409
Oriental Jews, 191–94
Oriental Orthodox churches, 288
Orphan Edict, 205
Orthodox churches, 287–96
autocephaly, 287, 289, 300
and Catholicism, 290–91, 295, 312
cultural identity and witness in society, 294–96
in North America, 336, 337
organization of, 289–90
and politics, 293–94
in Russia, 291, 293, 294, 300–302, 312, 445
subdivisions, schisms, and movements, 292–93
Western European borders, 290–92 See also specific churches
Orthodox Judaism, 184, 197, 223–24, 227, 311
Osei Tutu (king), 540
Ostpolitik, 271
Ottoman empire, 413, 438, 448, 619
Oyo kingdom, 533
Ozdenoren, Rasim, 444
Pacific Islands, 587–93
Pact of ‘Umar, 204
Padmasambhava, 92
Pahlavi family, 205, 452–53
Pakistan, 42, 358, 370–71, 407, 482, 485, 486, 521
Palestine, 188, 189, 192, 216, 413
Palestinians, 196, 197, 416, 628
Pali canon, 84, 86, 87, 89
Pali Text Society, 71
Panca Sila, 493
Papua New Guinea, 591
parent-child relationship, 148
Parittapotthaka, 84
Parsva, 52
Passover, 227
Pasupatas, 36
Pathans. See Pukhtuns
Paul (apostle), 8
Paul V (pope), 267
Paul VI (pope), 271
Peace of Westphalia, 267, 278
pentecostalism, 246, 304, 325, 344–46, 353, 530–31, 590
Peru, 326, 561
pesantren tradition, 492
Peter the Great, 300, 303, 305
‘Phags pa, 94
Pharisees, 180–81
philanthropy, 228–29, 251
Philip II (king), 382
Philippine Independent Church, 383
Philippines, 240, 381–86, 492, 494
phyletism, 289
Pietism, 360
pilgrimages
Catholic, 261–62, 273–74
Coptic, 320
Hindu, 22
Muslim, 408, 417, 459, 479, 521 See also specific sites
pillarization, 256–57, 259
Pillsbury, Barbara, 503
(p. 646) Piscatori, James, 432, 433
Pius X (pope), 188
Pius XI (pope), 270
pluralism
coining of, 225
global, 627
of Hinduism, 15, 16–18
in Latin America, 329
in North America, 333, 334
of Protestants, 277, 284, 285
vertical, 259
Pohlin, Marko, 268
Poland, 217, 265–73, 295
politics, 7, 293–94, 607, 617–18
Pol Pot, 89
Polynesia, 592
Popper, Karl, 75
Portugal, 192, 224, 326, 359–60, 382
Prabhupada, Shrila, 22
pragmatism, 166
Prambanan temples (Indonesia), 59
prayerbeads, 4
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 335
privatization, 333
Prophetic Traditions, 403, 404
Protestantism
in China, 374, 375, 376, 377
European societies, 277–85
and globalization, 285, 614
habitus, 281–82
in India, 362
in Indonesia, 380
and interreligious dialogue, 284
in Korea, 157
in Netherlands, 259
in North America, 334, 337
in Philippines, 383, 384–85
role in society, 279–81
in Russia, 302–4
in secular society, 282–83
and state, 278–79
and U.S. Buddhism, 166
in Vietnam, 111
Protestant Reformation, 267, 327
Protestant work ethic, 354
Prussia, 278
Pukhtuns, 461–62
Puljic, Vinko, 274
Pune (India), 236
Punjab (India), 41–44, 47, 48, 476, 478, 519
Puranas, 20, 22
Putin, Vladimir, 312, 314
Qaddhafi, Mu'ammar, 423
Qadiani, 522
Qadiriyyah, 428
Qadis, 471, 472
Qajar (Iran), 451
Qasim, Muhammad ibn, 468
Qawwali singing, 473
Quang Duc, Thich, 166
Qur'an, 402–3, 404, 412, 417, 522
Qutb, Sayyid, 407, 410
Qutb Shahi dynasty, 473
Rabwa (Pakistan), 521
Radhasoamis, 39
Raffles, Sir Stamford, 239
Rahabi, David, 234
Rajasthan (India), 35
Rajneesh, Acharya, 22
Ralco River, 560
Ram, Mangoo, 38
Rama (god), 23, 484
Rama V (king), 84
Rama VI (king), 84
Ramakrishna, 20, 76
Ramananda, 37
Ramanujan, A.K., 36
Ramayana, 28, 31
Ramdas, Guru, 46
Rammohan Roy, 20
Ravidas (Raidas), 36, 37, 38–39
Ravidas Panth, 38
Reagan, Ronald, 626
rebirth, 118
recognized incarnation. See tulku system
Redfield, Robert, 558, 559
Reformation. See Protestant Reformation
Reform Judaism, 184, 224, 226, 311
refugees, 559
Reiyukai movement, 144, 146, 148, 150, 152
(p. 647) relic cult, 156
religion(s)
in Africa, 527–34, 537–44
anti-global, 611–21
and civilizations, 248, 250
comparative, 10
crushing of “local,” 616–20
definition of, 599, 606
and economic globalization, 613–16
and economics, 351
ethnic and local, 557–62
global future of, 625–30
globalization of, 3–12, 591, 597–608, 625
global resurgence of, 606–8
Native American, 563–71
in North America, 333–39, 342
and politics, 7, 617–18
practices, 600–603
relativization of, 618
in Russia, 299–314
of salvation, 401
theory of, 598–600
transnational, 6–8
women in, 252–53 See also specific religions
religious institutions, 604–6
revivalism, 361, 590–91, 608
Reza Shah Pahlavi, 205, 452–53
Rhys Davids, T.W., 71, 72
Rida, Rashid, 420, 421
Riesebrodt, Martin, 11
Rig-Veda, 26
Rissho Koseikai movement, 144, 146, 150, 152
rites of passage, 558, 559
rituals, 559
Rizal, Jose, 384
Robertson, Roland, 11
Rokkan, Stein, 257
Roman Catholic Church. See Catholicism
Romania, 266, 272
Romanian Orthodox Church, 288, 293, 295
routine practices, 603
Ruppin, Arthur, 176
Rushdie, Salman, 408, 502
Russia
Buddhism in, 309–10
Catholicism in, 305–6
church-state relations, 313–14
as empire, 626
indigenous peoples, 561
Islam in, 306–8, 444–46
Jews in, 227, 310–11
Orthodox churches in, 291, 293, 294, 300–302, 312, 445
post-Soviet religious revival, 311–13
Protestantism in, 302–4
religious communities in, 299–314
Russian Orthodox Church, 287–90, 292, 293, 300–302, 312
Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, 288
Rwanda, 355
Sabiri-Chishti order, 485
Sadat, Anwar, 423
Sadayaw, Bhikkhu, 77–78
Sadducees, 180–81
sadhus, 37–38
Safavids, 448, 461
Safite school, 492
St. Patrick's Purgatory (Ireland), 261
saints, 209–10, 261, 262, 320, 329, 459, 551
Saiva cults, 36
Salafism, 420–21, 425
Salt Lake City (Utah), 389, 390, 397
Sam, Muhammad ibn, 470
Samaritans, 180
Samarkand, 461
samatha, 77
Sámpi (Sami), 559, 560
sangha, 83–89, 164
Sanghamitta, 83
Sanskrit, 25–26, 29, 34–35
Śāntaraksita, 92
Santiago de Compostella (Spain), 261
Sant tradition, 36
Saríc, Ivan, 271
sāsana, 69–70, 77
Sa skya pandita, 94
Sassen, Saskia, 75, 79
Sassoon family, 237, 238
Satanic Verses (Rushdie), 408
(p. 648) Satnamis, 39
Satya Sai Baba, 22
Saudi Arabia, 450
Sayyid Muhammad of Jawnpur, 474
Schama, Simon, 559
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 10
Scholem, Gershom, 178–79
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 71
science, 607
Sears, Laurie, 75
sea travel, 625–26
Second Great Awakening, 344
Second Temple of Jerusalem, 180, 232
secularization, 597–98, 606–8
Seicho no Ie movement, 151
Seiyu, Kiriyama, 145
Sekai Kyuseikyo movement, 150
Self-Realization Fellowship, 62
Senegal, 433, 532
Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), 191–94
Sephardim, 182, 183, 192–94, 201, 227–28, 239
Sepoy Mutiny, 478
September 11, 2001 attacks, 423
Serbia, 445
Serbian Orthodox Church, 289, 294
Sevener Shi'ites, 468
Shach, Eliezer, 194
Shahid, Sayyid Ahmad, 478
shamanism, 558–61
Shanghai (China), 231, 237–38
Shango (god), 542
Shapira, Anita, 198
Sha'rawi, Shaykh Muhammad, 322
shari'a, 422–24, 442, 453, 476, 477
Shari'atullah, Hajji, 478–79
Shastras, 26–28, 30
Shenouda III (patriarch), 317, 322
Shi'ism
and Hanbalism, 403
in Iran, 406–7, 450–55
in Iraq, 449–50
Islamic societies, 447–55
and Jews, 204–5
in South Asia, 473–74, 477
and Sufism, 404
and Sunnism, 447–49, 450
Shingaku, 145
Shinnyoen movement, 144, 148, 151
Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC), 47, 48
Shoko, Asahara, 148
shrine visitation. See pilgrimages
shudras, 30, 33
Siberia, 557, 559, 561
Sijzi, Amir Hasan, 473
Sikhs, 5, 6, 36, 41–48, 476, 520
Silesia, 267
Silk Road, 457, 501
Sindh (India), 467–69, 470
Singapore, 100, 239, 380
Singh, Baba Balak, 45
Singh, Guru Gobind, 43, 45, 46
Singh, Maharaja Ranjit, 43
Sinhalese, 84, 85–86, 89
Sirhak, 157
Sirhindi, Ahmad, 476
slavery, 545, 546, 626–27
Slovakia, 265, 267, 270–72
Slovenia, 265, 267, 268, 272
Small, Cathy, 581
Smart, Ninian, 11
Smartas, 33
Smith, Christian, 342
Smith, Huston, 10
Smith, Joseph, Jr., 391–92, 393, 397
Smith, Joseph III, 395
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 4, 10, 247
Smith, William Robertson, 177
socialism, 328
sociocultural Christianity, 259
Soka Gakkai movement, 142, 144, 146, 152–53
Song brtsan sgam po (king), 92
Sorush, Abdul Karim, 455
South Africa, 354, 355, 430
Soviet Union
in Afghanistan, 410, 416
collapse of, 626
(p. 649)
former republics, 458–61, 626
Jews from, 216, 224, 228
Orthodox churches in, 292, 295
Spain, 182, 192, 201, 217, 224, 326, 381–83
speaking in tongues, 353, 530
Speaking of Siva (Ramanujan), 36
Spengler, Oswald, 246, 247
Sri Lanka, 16, 29, 73, 75, 77, 83–86, 89, 358, 468
Srinivas, M.N., 18, 19
Sri Vaishnanva community, 63
Srutigopal, 37
Stalin, Josef, 459, 461
Staszic, Stanislaw, 269
state churches, 278–79
status, 19
Stepinac, Alojzije, 271
Strossmayer, Josip Juraj, 269
sub-Saharan Africa, 350, 355, 427–34, 532
Sudan, 350, 413, 430, 432
suffering, 87–88, 118, 161
Sufi Order of the West, 485
Sufism, 405, 451
in Central Asia, 457
in China, 501, 503, 504
in Europe, 438, 439, 442, 444
on Internet, 433
as mass movement, 404
Morals for the Heart, 473
in North Africa, 420
shrine visitation, 459
in South Asia, 470, 471–73, 476
in Southeast Asia, 492
in sub-Saharan Africa, 428–29
Sultan, Sayyid, 475
Sulu (Philippines), 381, 382, 494
Summit, Jeffrey, 228
Sunni Islam
in Albania, 439
in China, 500
of Hanafi school, 438, 500, 510
in Middle East and North Africa, 204, 419
and Shi'ism, 447–49, 450
in South Asia, 469–71, 486
in Southeast Asia, 492
Sutras, 26, 28
Svetambara sect, 53, 54
Svetosavlje, 289
Swahili language, 532
Sweden, 278
Switzerland, 257
synagogues, 180, 228
syncretism, 467–69, 590, 591
Syria, 288, 413
Syriac language, 359
Tablighi Jama'at, 484, 485
Taborites, 266–67
Tahmasp, 448
Taireido, 146
Tai Shans, 85
Taiwan, 100, 120–22, 503
Tajikistan, 460
Tajiks, 460–61
Taliban, 462, 486
Talmud, 211
Tamils, 35, 58, 77, 84–86, 89, 485
tantric Buddhism, 91–92
Tanzania, 355
Taoism. See Daoism
tapa cloth, 582
technology, 251, 607
Tenrikyo movement, 143–45, 147, 149, 150, 152, 154
Tent of the Living God, 353
Thailand, 84, 85, 86, 89, 239–40, 380, 494, 495
Thanarat, Sarit, 84
Theosophy, 72–74, 75, 334
Theravada Buddhism, 71, 72, 73, 83–90, 110
Theresa, Mother, 369
Third World debt, 612
Thirty Years War, 267, 278
Thomas (apostle), 358–59
Thomas Christians, 358, 359–60
Tibet, 29, 77, 91–104
Tijaniyyah, 428, 433
Tikhon (patriarch), 301
Tillich, Paul, 10, 247
Timur (Tamerlane), 458, 474
Tiso, Jozef, 270–71
Tojiki speakers, 460
(p. 650) Toledo, Alejandro, 561
Tonga, 581–83
Tonghak, 157
Torah, 180, 181–82, 232
Toynbee, Arnold, 10, 247, 248, 250
trade, 351, 415, 457, 501
traditions, 250, 252, 616
Transcendental Meditation, 62
transculturation, 169–70
translation, 350–51, 361
transmigration, 28, 29, 52
transnational religions, 6–8
transsubstantiation, 267
Trinidad, 5, 16
Troeltsch, Ernst, 334, 527
Tsong kha pa, 94, 96
Tudjman, Franjo, 274
tulku system, 95–96, 103
Tunisia, 419, 422, 423
Turkestan, 458
Turkey, 442–44, 480, 617
Tutu, Desmond, 355
Tuva, 309
Tu Wei-ming, 120
tying and binding, 548–49
tzaddik, 189–90
Tzu Chi Buddhist Compassion Foundation, 121–22
Uganda, 353
Ukraine, 217, 226, 291
Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 292
Umayyad dynasty, 468
umma, 431, 437, 445, 514
United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP), 385–86
United Kingdom. See Great Britain
United States
Buddhism in, 163–70
as denominational society, 338–39
Hinduism in, 58–59
Islamic communities in, 507–14
Jews in, 223, 224, 225–28, 229, 336
and Philippines, 383–84
religious communities in, 333–36, 338–39, 342
Untouchables. See Dalits
Upanishads, 26, 27
Urdu language, 475, 477, 479, 481
Uruguay, 329
Usuli school, 451
Utah, 390, 391, 395–96
Uthmaniyyah, 428, 429
Uyghur, 500
Uzbekistan, 460
van Gennep, Arnold, 558
van Leeuwen, Arend, 10
Vanuatu, 591
varna asrama dharma, 34
varnas, 18, 27–31, 54
Vedanta, 20, 21, 71, 74
Vedas, 17, 20, 21, 25–29, 34, 161
Vedic religion, 16, 20
vegetarianism, 52
Vibhajyavadins, 83
Victoria (queen), 362
Vietnam, 59, 109–14, 379, 491
Vietnam War, 89
vipassanā, 77, 78, 81
Virasaivas, 35–36
Virgin Mary, 261, 262, 273–74, 320, 329, 375
virtuoso practices, 603
Vivekananda, 20, 21, 23, 76, 77
Vladimir (prince), 300
Vodnik, Valentine, 268
Vodou, 545–52
Voyages: From Tongan Villages to American Suburbs (Small), 581
Voyé, Liliane, 257, 260, 261
Wahhab, Muhammad Ibn Abdul. See Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab
Wahhabism, 404, 416, 429, 432, 460, 486
Waliullah, Shah, 477, 478
Walls, Andrew, 245
wanga, 547–50
water, 560
Way of Unity, 130, 131
(p. 651) Weber, Max, 16–17, 18, 75, 87, 177, 281, 334, 354, 401, 527, 608
West Bank, 196, 197
White Brotherhood of Maria Tsvigun, 272
Wilberforce, William, 361
William of Rubruck, 162
Wise, Isaac Mayer, 227
women
in African religious communities, 529
in Japan, 149
Muslim, 443, 452, 454, 512–13
Pukhtun honor code, 462
in religious life, 252–53
in Tibetan culture, 100–101
in U.S. Buddhism, 165
and veneration of Mary, 329
Wooldridge, A., 618–19
World As Will and Representation, The (Schopenhauer), 71
World Trade Organization, 611
Wuthnow, Robert, 163
Yakut, 561
Yan Izala movement, 429
Yashovarman (king), 59
Yerushalmi, Yosef, 178
Yihewani Ikhwan, 501
Yogananda, Swami, 62
Yoruba religion, 533, 541–42
Yosef, Ovadiah, 194, 212
Young, Brigham, 395, 398
Yugoslavia, 294, 410, 440–41
Zaidis, 448
Zambia, 355
Zangwill, Israel, 225
Zaydis, 204, 205, 208
Zen Buddhism, 78, 81, 167
Zhang Chengzhi, 503
Zhang Tairan, 130
Zia, Khalida, 485
ziarah, 494
Zion Christian Church (ZCC), 353, 354
Zion City (Ill.), 353
Zionism, 176, 188–91, 193, 195, 197–99, 203, 210, 220
Zoe movement, 293
Zunz, Leopold, 176, 178