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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 957) Subject Index

(p. 957) Subject Index

a
as accusative preposition, 801n15
as article, 39, 133n18
as determiner, 278
as functional element, 277
acc-ing, 214n8
accusative
case, 376, 900n11
clitics, 233, 253nn1112, 390, 393, 796, 801n15, 801n19, 803n34
marker, 783
object, 386–87
preposition, a as, 801n15
adjectivalization, nominalization and, 933–34
adjectives
agreement, 424
article of, 441
attributive, 499
degree words and, 45, 909
determiners and, 63n81
ergative, 800n11
functional, 13
Manjaku, 465–66
nonprounciation with, 23, 63n80
nouns and, 499–500
numbers and classifiers, 810
overt, 31
placement, 424
prenominal, 37, 499
Scandinavian, 440–45
as specifiers of functional heads, 442
West-Germanic, 906–7, 909
adjunction
clitics and, 609, 619, 622, 632, 641, 650, 652, 658, 661, 665
head-, 609, 650, 658, 885
lowering and rightward, 463
multiple, 619
Prohibition, 842
adjuncts
direct objects and, 717
genitive and, 382–83
infinitival, 186
participles, 210
purpose, 184, 188
time, 144–45
adpositions, 13
movement, 51–55
West-Germanic, 907, 920
adverbials, 13
clitics and, 227–28, 235, 251–52, 608, 629, 675–78, 680
hierarchy of lower, 246
placement of, 756
time and place, 184
adverbs
Manjaku, 465
matrix, 533
middle-field, 147, 150–51
negation and, 307
numbers/classifiers and, 817–21, 823
reduplicated, 157, 504n35
West-Germanic, 908, 910, 916, 928
affective fronting, 644, 680
affective in situ, 644–45
affective movement, 647
affirmative
clauses, 211–12, 668–69
morphemes, 12
sentences, 181, 185, 192–95, 205, 208, 382
affixes
inflectional, 319, 353n32, 361n62, 748–49, 808
person/number, 408n44, 867
tense markers and, 154
TMA, 341, 362n62
verbal, 310
word order and, 55, 299
zero-, 57n25, 348n18
agency, subjects and, 710, 713, 715, 758–59
Agent, nouns and, 480
agreement, 6, 16, 49, 99
adjectives, 424
areal, 785, 801n20
case and, 374, 376–80, 514, 645, 679–80
in Celtic languages, 848–49, 864–71
clitics and, 233, 251, 353n32, 522–23, 525, 535–36
functional heads and, 848
gender and, 379, 495, 907–8
inflection and, 615, 679–81, 722, 865–66
mood and, 179, 208–9, 211, 522–25, 849
morphemes, 516–17, 520, 523, 526, 535, 646
morphology, 97–98, 212
nominal, 515
nouns and, 499–500
person, 434, 435, 447, 448–50, 516, 727, 740, 758, 777, 909
Phrases (AgrPs), 143, 515
plural, 384–85
possessives and, 517–18, 520, 526–28, 530–31
relationships, 134n25
rich, 98–99
SLI and, 114, 117
subject, 749, 753
subject/object, 56n12, 728
subject/verb, 56n14, 142, 424, 446
suffixes, 206
in Turkic nonsubject relative clauses, 513–41
verb/object, 775–76, 780–84, 787–88, 791
-aine, 15–18, 22, 58n27, 58n30
alternations, displacements and word order, 922–31
amount, 23–24
anaphor
c-commands, 863
disjoint, 708–9, 736–37, 745, 760, 761
subject, 854
theory, 752, 755
anaphora
Athapaskan, 708, 735
in Slavic languages, 397–99, 409n50
and, 14
animacy, 13, 56n12. See also inanimacy
subjects/objects and, 710–17, 725, 729–33, 737–38, 743–44, 758, 765n26
Antecedent Contained Deletion, 944n63
antisymmetry
clitics and, 619, 624
negation and, 885–86
theory of phrase structure, 619
any, 12
aphasias, 111
Broca's, 112–14, 129–30, 134n28
applicative alternation, 922–23
approximative inversion, 58n30
arguments
prepositional (dative), 7
pronominals, 700
voice and, 374, 385–89
articles
clitics and, 253n9
definite, 12, 286, 288
Dx (suffixed definite article), 440–46
free, 441–46
indefinite, 12, 37–39, 262
placement, 533
specific, 12
as, 13, 29, 35
ASIS data, 227, 228, 231
aspect, 12. See also TAM; TMA
case and, 400–401
in gerunds, 185–88, 197–98, 200
licensing, 173, 401
mood and, 207–9, 520
mood and tense, 429, 892–93
perfective, 152, 248
phrases, 192, 516
plurality and, 492
projection, 247
in serial verbs, 199–200
in Slavic languages, 374, 396, 399–401
temporal, 213n5
Terminative, 248
transitivity and, 399, 401
assez, 5, 26–31, 33, 60n47
asymmetries
bare v. nonbare, 547, 548
c-commands and, 146, 747
between direct and oblique objects, 736–37
between pre-and postverbal negation, 245–46
root v. embedded, 572
subject v. nonsubject, 548
subject-object, 395, 545–46, 842, 912
aussi, 29–30
auxiliaries
omission, 126–28
passive, 189, 214n9
prepositions and, 320
preverbal, 895–98
Scandinavian, 451n2
verbal, 389
backgrounding, 928
be, 13, 46
in Celtic languages, 849, 860–64, 872n6
as verbal prefix, 923
beaucoup, 26–27, 37–40, 60nn4950
bien, 35–36
bimorphemic, 14, 34, 36, 37
binding, 85, 767n38. See also Government and Binding theory
Aʼ-movement and, 114
anaphoric direct objects, 912
(p. 959) in Celtic languages, 854, 861, 863
EPP and, 173n5
government-based, 10
in Scandinavian languages, 441–45
in Slavic languages, 374, 396–99
bit, 42–44
blocking, 32
of partitive reading, 820
verb swallowing and, 677
body, 13
Borsley's Paradox, 856
bound morpheme, 491
bound-variables
overt pronominals as, 389
pronouns as, 921
Broca's aphasias, 112–14, 129–30, 134n28
but, 14
Canonical Structural Realization of semantic types, 100
Cartesian perspective, 294, 296, 299, 313, 338, 339
cartographic approach, 95
cartographic project, 646
case(s), 16. See also ECM
accusative, 376, 900n11
agreement and, 374, 376–80, 514, 645, 679–80
argumentality and, 254n19
aspect and, 400–401
chains, 4
Complex Inversion (CI), 560, 599n27
dative, 376, 378
direct objects and, 911
element, 52
filter, 526
genitive, 376, 446, 524, 529–31, 537n6
instrumental, 376, 381
locatives, 376
markers, 183, 184, 188–92, 312, 350n21, 357n53, 450, 453n18, 470, 480, 534, 744, 819, 821, 850, 852, 939n15
morphemes, 13, 514, 535–36
morphology, 142–43, 424, 442, 444, 446, 448
nominative, 376
null, 378–79
objective, 60n44
OS and, 312
Phrase, 521
Slavic, 374, 376
unmarked, 101
Categorical Uniformity (CU), 100–102
category, differences in, 44–47
causative(s), 13
alternation, 922–23
periphrastic, 886–89
prefixes/suffixes, 55
c-command, 84–85, 216n19
anaphor, 863
asymmetries and, 146, 747
clitics and, 661, 667, 685
DPs and, 745
of free article, 444
interrogatives and, 588, 590
negation and, 896
objects, 728
VP and, 308, 342
y- licensing and, 747, 750, 752–54, 760
cento, 57n26
chains, case, 4
che
as bare wh-word, 553–54, 598n22
as interrogative, 548–55, 565–66, 568–70, 578–83
as relative clause complementizer, 25
CHILDES system, 120, 353n32
ci
argumental, 254n19
copula, 502n22
nonargumental, 254n19
CIP, classifiers and, 279–81, 287
class. See also noun classes; word classes
agreement and, 461–62, 484
exponents, 462, 486–96
gender and noun classes, 480–86
inflectional, 486, 496
noun-forming, 474–80
number and, 487, 490–96
systems, 461–63, 497
classifiers (CLs), 13
bare, and definiteness, 823–26
canonical, 276
Chinese, 259–92, 289n2
CIP and, 279–81, 287
count, 272–74
demonstratives and, 268, 812–13, 819–20, 825, 827–30
and DPs in Southeast Asian languages, 806–35
enclisis and, 808
expletives and, 836n10
function of, 272–73, 280
beyond gender and noun classes, 497–500
HMC and, 811, 825, 829
individuation of, 276
mass, 272–73
noun classes and, 460–62
noun phrases and, 260–68, 270–72, 271t, 274–75, 280–87, 932
operators and, 281–82, 284, 286–87, 289t
overt, 286–87, 289t
parameters and, 288, 289t
Phrases (CLPs), 824
(p. 960) reduplication, 275, 288
strong, 288
verb, 501n6, 504n38
weak, 288
word order and, 822–23
clauses. See also relative clauses; small clauses
affirmative, 211–12
Athapaskan, 699–745
complement, 904, 912–14
conditional, 607
declarative, 242, 607–8, 610, 614–15
finite, 83, 85, 94, 183, 639–41, 841–49
finite copular, 178–79
gerundive, 255n28
infinitival, 639, 641–42, 667–89
inflected and uninflected, 87
main, 79, 83, 85, 101
matrix, 533, 855, 913, 916
monoverbal, 307
nominal copular, 218n29
nominalizing/nominal, 179, 197
nonfinite, 79, 83, 87, 185, 191, 849–57, 871n1
OV sequences and, 148, 164–71, 173
refuse, 161
root, 178, 614, 640, 655–61, 689n2, 840, 843, 858
structure and FP/F projection, 641, 642–48
subordinate, 81
VO sequences and, 140–54
clefts
in Celtic languages, 870
interrogatives and, 546, 573–74, 576, 582–83, 585, 588–91, 600n32
objects, 129
CL-Host Inversion, 609–10, 620, 622–25, 627, 632
clinical markers, 124–28, 131
clitic(s). See also enclisis; proclisis; subject clitic inversion; wh-clitics; specific clitics
accusative, 233, 253nn1112, 390, 393, 796, 801n15, 801n19, 803n34
acquisition of, 101
adjunction and, 609, 619, 622, 632, 641, 650, 652, 658, 661, 665
agreement and, 233, 251, 353n32, 522–23, 525, 535–36
articles and, 253n9
atonic, 317
benefactive, 254n19
c-command and, 661, 667, 685
classification and, 498–99
climbing, 794–96
demonstrative, 628–30
direct objects and, 227–29, 232, 234, 240, 250, 253n13, 649
directional, 608, 628–30
doubling, 53, 232, 241, 249, 786
DPs and, 227, 235, 249, 251, 610–11, 624–32
FP/F projection and, 641, 642–48, 662
functional categories and, 607, 611–15, 617, 619, 625, 627–28, 632, 642–43, 648–49
as functional heads, 391, 610, 620, 626, 630
future, 390
Gbe, 163, 168
gerunds and, 123, 671, 693n24, 694n36
heads and, 252n1, 557, 624, 632, 652, 658, 663, 666
inalienable, 254n19
indirect object, 228, 232, 250, 253n13
infinitives and, 8, 10, 642–43, 646, 667–89
interrogatives and, 392, 592–93
KT and, 609, 610, 627, 632
languages, 608, 618
left dislocation (CLLD), 7, 56n12, 253n15, 618, 725–26
lexical categories and, 615–20, 625, 632
locative, 12, 228–33, 777, 782, 785–86, 797
misplacement, 118–19, 122–23, 128, 132n11
partitive, 228–33, 783
phonological v. syntactic, 626
pied-piping, 250–51, 558–59
placement, 607–38, 639–97
possessives and, 631–32
possessor, 610
postverbal, 607
PPs and, 610, 618–19, 624–32
prepositional, 608
preverbal, 335, 607, 609, 611–12, 617, 622
(p. 961) proximitive, 628–29
recomplementation and, 643, 646, 648
reflexive, 392, 796
roots and, 488–89, 655–61, 680
second-position, 656, 894
SLI and, 112, 116–23
tonic, 223, 228, 253n11
verbs and, 698
wh-words, 555–60, 583, 592
word order and, 55, 401
CLs. See classifiers
clusters
of properties, 10–11, 52
verb, 905, 914–16, 915t
cognates
languages, 528, 539n22
subjects and, 708, 740
COLOR, 15
combien, 34–36, 61n62, 596n8
comme, 34–37
comment, 36–37, 559, 564, 573–74
COMP
object-pronouns and, 329–30
tense in, 185–86, 190
comparatives, 13, 461
neurolinguistics, 56n13
complementizers, 12. See also CP
in Celtic languages, 842–44, 851–53, 856, 862–63, 868–70, 873n14
declarative, 623
enclisis and, 684
-final, 49
movement to, 60n43
relative clause, 24–25, 930
Scandinavian, 437–38, 447
West-Germanic, 908, 920, 925, 930
wh-items and, 226, 236, 239–40, 396, 437
conjunctions, 14
Construct States, 500
control
complements, 184
infinitives, 431, 470
movement and, 10, 57n17
subjects, 377, 855, 856
theory of, 10, 57n17
verbs, 155, 159
coordination, ellipsis and, 936–37
copula
ci, 502n22
contractible/uncontractible, 133n18
dropping of, 78, 96
existential, 13, 202
interrogatives and, 562, 565, 572–73, 575–76, 579–80, 582, 585, 593–95, 600n35
pronouns and, 942n43
relative clause-like structure with, 62n77
tense and, 376, 388
copular clauses, 178–79, 218n29
copular constructions, 860–64
copulative verbs, 777, 792
“copy and delete” approach, 408n41, 538n14
correspondence, between morphemes across languages, 24
countability markers, 274
CP (Complementizer Phrase)
declaratives as, 85
RCs and, 519
recursion, 647, 872n3
theory, 93
wh-clitics and, 222–27, 239, 254n20, 254n23
wh-movement to, 251, 647
Creole Exceptionalism, 294–99, 306, 313, 314–36, 338
creolization, morphology and word order in, 293–372
C-systems, 93–94, 156
of small clauses, 156, 160–68
C-type markers, 173n6
Cyrillic, 402, 537n4
dative
alternations, 922, 924
arguments, 7
case, 376, 378
case-marker, 191–92
de
Dutch, 4
French, 19, 21–24, 40–43, 62n77
declarative(s)
clauses, 242
complementizers, 623
as CPs, 85
negation and, 242–43
null subjects in, 81
Scandinavian, 452n13
decompositionality, theory of, 14–15
definiteness
bare classifiers and, 823–26
specificity and, 910, 922, 924
subjects/objects and, 709, 726–27
definites, 16
English/French, 278–79
(p. 962) indefinites and, 20
word order through, 402–3
degree words, 13, 31–32
adjectives and, 45, 909
West-Germanic, 908–9
delearning, 96, 100–102
demonstratives, 12
classifiers and, 268, 812–13, 819–20, 825, 827–30
clitics, 628–30
derivation and, 533
nominative, 384–85
nonlocative, 920
derivational cascade, spell-out of, 664, 691n18
derivational morphemes, 479, 481–82, 489
derivational suffixes, 12, 18
derivations
Catalan, 790
interrogatives and, 582–83, 602n43
Japanese/Korean, 883, 885–89, 891, 896–97, 899
Kayneian, 514, 519, 525, 534
morphology, 16
movement and, 557–58, 828
noun classes and, 473, 480–82, 484, 495
determiners. See also DPs
adjectives and, 63n81
classifiers and, 278–80, 286
drop, 79, 96
English/French, 278–79, 281
free, 443–45
indefinite, 21, 58n30, 826, 828, 830
left-branch extraction and, 404
noun classes and, 466, 469, 483
nouns and, 41–42, 45
restriction, 19
unpronounced EVER and, 20–21
West-Germanic, 908, 920
di, 25, 60n47
diminutives, augmentatives and, 57n25
direct object(s), 227, 229, 234, 249, 381–82
clitics and, 227–29, 232, 234, 240, 250, 253n13, 649
dislocated, 7
ellipsis of, 408n36, 410n59
object inflection and, 741–45
positions, 717–20
right-dislocation of, 550
as topicalization, 402
discourse
configurational languages, 700
ellipsis, 410n59
modal suffixes, 885
Phrase, 727–28
topics, 709
displacements, alternations and word order, 922–31
distributed morphology (DM), 535. See also encyclopedia syntax
fusion/merger in, 501n8
INFL system, 347n18, 349n20, 361n62
noun classes and, 462, 474, 476–79
d-linked
objects/subjects, 726–29, 736, 757, 910
questions, Broca's aphasics and, 113–14
questions, Navajo, 726, 729–30
time specification, 152
do
as clitic, 556–57, 560
-subjects, 856–57
-support, 7, 56n10
Double Object Construction, 490
doubling. See also wh-doubling
clitic, 53, 232, 241, 249, 786
DPs, 232, 767n37
movement and, 52–55, 57n17, 551–52
questions, 552–53, 926
verbs, 359n58
dozen, 58n27
DPs (Determiner Phrases), 41
adpositions and, 51–52
Catalan, 789, 792–94, 797–98
CIP and, 279
classifiers and, 277, 284
clitics and, 227, 235, 249, 251, 610–11, 619, 624–32, 648–51, 664, 667, 673, 695n39
and CLs in Southeast Asian languages, 806–35
doubling, 232, 767n37
language development and, 78
movement, 51–54, 845
NPs and, 410n66
postnominal phrases and PPs, 138–41, 159–60
QP and, 385
RCs and, 519–20
RCs and APs, 62n77
in Scandinavian languages, 426–28, 430, 441, 445
SLI and, 114, 126
y- licensing and, 747–48, 751–52
Duality and Triality, 507n69
Earliness Condition, 663
ECM (Exceptional Case Marking), 100, 850
accusative case and, 900n11
constructions, 50
reduplication and, 167
subtypes, 64n89
with West-Germanic, 913, 919, 923
(p. 963) ECP (Empty Category Principle), 22, 406n22
language development and, 84–85
movement and, 868–69
subjacency effects and French questions and, 584–92
subject-object asymmetries based on, 395, 546
ellipsis
coordination and, 936–37
of direct objects, 408n36, 410n59
discourse, 410n59
Elsewhere Principle, 484, 496
emphasis, clitics and, 389
emphatic morphemes, 12, 191
empty dummy modal (EDM), 216n21
en, 12
enclisis, 117–20, 122–23, 132n12, 134nn2324
classifiers and, 808
clitics in, 117–20, 122–23, 234, 253n12
enclitics
proclitics and, 229, 391, 462
verbal, 353n32
encyclopedia syntax (e-syntax), 477–79, 483–86, 495
enough, 5, 31–33, 44–46, 56n16
EPP (Extended Projection Principle)
functional heads and, 64n99
Government and Binding theory and, 173n5
with Scandinavian languages, 432–35, 437–38, 447, 448
verb movement and, 141, 159
-er, 12
European Science Foundation (ESF), 353n32
ever, 21, 59nn4041
-ever, 13
every, 20–21
everything, 59n34
exclamatives, 13, 569–70, 576, 603n44
Exhaustivity principle, 618
existential
closure, 291n14
constructions, 775–88, 790, 792–94, 796–98
constructions, deontic, 778–80, 782–87, 796–98
copula, 13, 202
quantifiers, 285, 553–55, 557, 560, 562, 564–66, 571, 582, 586, 590, 592
expletives
classifiers and, 836n10
drop, 90–91, 103n3
locative/nonlocative, 909–10, 923, 942n41
negation, 248
null, 141, 165, 167–70, 173, 591
null subject, 141
subject, 380, 433–35
transitive, 435, 447, 450
Extended Optional Infinitive (EOI), 115, 125–28
extraction. See also subextraction
left-branch, 404
subject, 543, 545, 560–72, 596n6, 926
extragrammatical explanations, 86–89
extraposition, 21–22
movement and, 60n43
remnant, 940n21
West-Germanic, 904, 905, 913, 915, 928–29, 936, 940n21
faillir, 46
faim, 41–42, 62n77
familiarity, F encoding, 442
few, 13, 14–15, 23–25, 57n22
peu v., 39–44
finiteness
marker, 203
and negation in Dravidian, 178–220
Phrase, 432–33, 899n5
fission
-based analysis of INFL, 348n18, 349n20
binding and, 399
focalization, 19
adverbs and, 252
Celtic languages and, 840, 841, 863
focus, 13
clitics and, 607–8
fronting, 645, 648
markers, 161
movement, 729–31, 817
operators, 642
particles, overt, 86
presentational, 816–17, 819
topics and, 432–33, 924–28
wh-movement and, 395–96
for, 4, 12
as clitic, 226
complementizer, 64n89
dropping of, 189
force, 93–95
clitics and, 558–60, 562, 568
interrogatives and, 558–60, 562, 568, 575–79, 581–82, 586, 588–90, 592–95
small clauses and, 161–64, 167, 168–71, 586
of wh-movement, 395–96
Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics (FASL), 374
Formal Approaches to South Slavic and Balkan Languages (FASSBL), 374
Formal Description of Slavic Languages (FDSL), 374
(p. 964) fossilization
inflectional, 317, 327, 337
interrogatives and, 563, 580, 581
FP/F projection, and clitics, 641, 642–48, 662
function words, 133n17
functional
elements, 5, 6, 11–16, 18, 31, 57n22, 494
lexical v., 4, 57n22
morphemes, 462, 478, 487
projections, 698, 700, 717, 723, 757, 810, 847–48
functional categories
Athapaskan languages and, 757–58
in left periphery, 642–43, 648
functional heads, 4, 58n30, 120, 126, 132n12, 223
adjectives as specifiers of, 442
agreement and, 848
clitics as, 391, 610, 620, 626, 630
EPP and, 64n99
functional projection headed by, 475
movement and, 12, 829
nonfunctional root and, 484
numbers/classifiers and, 807–11, 829
positioning of, 756
fusion
in DM, 501n8
future
clitics, 390
in Slavic languages, 399–400
gapping, 937
gaps
antecedent-, dependencies, 89
in Celtic languages, 870–71
parasitic, 49
y- licensing and, 753
GB paradigm/tradition, 378, 379, 409n49
gender
agreement and, 379, 495, 907–8
languages, 461, 474
markers, 453n18, 495, 506n61, 516, 707
morphemes, 12, 480, 488, 489, 495, 496
noun class, lexicon, syntax and morphology, 459–512
noun classes and class, 480–86
and noun classes, classifiers beyond, 497–500
nouns and, 278, 290n10
Scandinavian, 439–40, 442, 444, 453n18
Generative Linguistics in Poland (GLiP), 375
genitive(s)
adnominal, 253n10
case, 376, 446, 524, 529–31, 537n6
marking, 529–32, 537n6
of negation, 374, 380–83
nominative and, 516, 521, 522, 524–25, 531, 537n6
partitive and, 410n57
phrases, 500
genug, 45
gerundive, 13
clauses, 255n28
and infinitive complement of negation, 182–85
phrases, 183, 378–79
gerunds
aspect in, 185–88, 197–98, 200
clitics and, 123, 671, 693n24, 694n36
English, 213n4, 218n25, 470–71
imperfect, 188
in Kannada, 182–87, 193–94
matrix, 181, 196
tense and aspect, 197–98
tense and infinitives, 185–90, 200–201, 205
good, 13, 27, 37–40, 58n28, 60n49
government
-based approach, 64n89
-based binding, 10
Minimalism and, 585
Government and Binding theory
anaphor in, 755
EPP and, 173n5
Turkish and, 514
Government Transparency Corollary (GTC), 887–88, 900n11
grammaticalization
Athapaskan, 747
classifiers and, 822–23, 826, 833
clitic placement and reanalysis in Berber, 607–38
Creole, 320, 322, 327–28, 337
Greenbergian typology, 47–55
habitual markers, 143–44, 146–48, 150–54
have, 13
Head Movement Constraint (HMC), 149, 153
classifiers and, 811, 825, 829
with Scandinavian languages, 443, 444
violation of, 849
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, 375
headedness. See also mixed-headedness
and directionality in DP, 810–15
parameters, 77
Southeast Asian languages and, 806–7, 810–15
head-final
languages, 49–50, 330, 513–14, 519, 522, 807, 811, 813, 829, 895, 899n5
parameters, 56n11
RCs, 513
head-initial
languages, 49–50, 513, 628, 807, 811–12, 814, 822, 906
parameters, 56n11
RCs, 513
(p. 965) heads. See also functional heads
adjunction, 609, 650, 658, 885
aspectual, 847, 849
F Projection and, 646–48
independent, verb movement and, 243–44
inflectional, 698
movement, 46, 490, 493, 506n63, 557–58, 571, 601n38, 826–29, 859, 885
raising, 619, 884, 887
-Spec relationship, 517
Holmberg's Generalization, 313–14, 336, 353n32, 695n38
homonyms, 30, 35
homophony, 194, 197
how, 34–37, 61n66, 223, 226
HPSG, 409n49, 888
hypotaxis, 680
idioms, incorporation and, 702–4, 709, 737, 757
if, 9–11
imperatives, 12
enclisis with, 123
negative, 245–46, 890–91
West-Germanic, 930
imperfect
conjugation, 349n20
gerunds, 188
morphology, 207
paradigm, 206
suffixes, 208, 212
imperfective
nonimperfective and, 140
perfective and, 399–401, 409n51
impoverishment, 348n18
in situ. See also wh-in situ
affective, 644–45
wh-questions, 549, 560
inanimacy, 234, 254n18
Inclusiveness Condition, 657
incorporation, 45–47, 477
agreement and, 866–67
idioms and, 702–4, 709, 737, 757
noun, 56n12
with Scandinavian languages, 443–45
indefiniteness, raising numbers and, 826–30
indefinites
English/French, 278–79
Scandinavian, 440
subjects/objects and, 727
indicative morphemes, 12
infinitival interrogatives, 9
infinitives
bare, 184, 188–91
case-marked, 188–90
clitics and, 8, 10, 642–43, 646, 667–89
enclisis with, 123
in Kannada, 182–90
matrix, 181, 201, 212, 217n21
noun classes and, 470–72, 479
optional/root, 78, 125, 127, 315
participles and, 326, 351n27
proclisis and agreement inflection in, 679–81
purposive, 188
tense and gerunds, 185–90, 200–201, 205
infix, negative, 187, 196, 200, 213n5
INFL Hypothesis, Split, 847
inflection, 16, 152, 159, 172. See also IP
agreement and, 615, 679–81, 722, 865–66
Berber and, 627, 635n10
Creole and, 307–9, 330–32
DM and, 347n18, 349n20, 361n62
rich/poor, 142–43, 309–10, 348n18, 358n54, 362n62
Scandinavian, 421, 423, 433, 446, 448, 452n11
SLI and, 117
structure, 77
subject, 707
third-person, parameters in, 756–62
Turkish, 535
verbal, 82, 224, 226, 234, 300, 318, 330, 332–33, 347n18
inflectional marking, 699
-ing, 4, 13, 133n18, 189
interpretable syntactic feature, 15
interrogatives
clitics and, 254n17, 389
derivations and, 582–83, 602n43
infinitival, 9
intonation and, 546, 550, 585, 593
negation and, 242–44, 250
predicates and, 573, 586, 593–95, 601nn3940
Romance, 542–606
wh-words in, 13, 35–37, 236
intonation, 240
compound, 454n20
interrogatives and, 546, 550, 585, 593
stress and, 585
with West-Germanic, 910, 924, 925, 928
word order and, 402
IP (Inflectional Phrase), 95
embedded, 167
head-final/head-medial, 330
-internal object movement, 311
internal position, 90, 165
interrogatives and, 549–51, 553, 557–60, 570, 573, 577
-markers, 143–47
movement, 305
TMA morphemes and, 320
truncation within, 100–102, 104n6
Turkish, 519–20, 525, 529, 533
verb movement outside, 314
wh-items and, 240
IP (Initial Preverbal element), 622
IPP effect, 940nn2021
-ish, 11, 13
island effects, strong and weak, 549–50. See also wh-islands
I-system markers, 143, 148, 151, 156–60
jamais, 59n40
Jespersen's cycle, 241, 244, 251, 326
Journal of Slavic Linguistics (JSL), 375
Kinship Terms (KT), 609, 610, 627, 632
KP
approach, 410n66
movement, 53–54
language(s). See also Null Subject Languages
V3, 330
acquisition/development, 70–109, 111, 216n21, 295–97, 299, 306, 309–10, 315–17, 319, 324, 326, 329, 332, 335–38, 343, 349n20, 555
agglutinative, 522
change, 306, 316, 318, 324, 336–43
cognate, 528, 539n22
delayed, 114–15, 127, 132n7
discourse configurational, 700
disorders, 110–37
early v. SLI, 114–15, 118–20, 126
head-final, 49–50, 330, 513–14, 519, 522, 807, 811, 813, 829, 895, 899n5
head-initial, 49–50, 513, 628, 807, 811–12, 814, 822, 906
missing, 49–50
morphemes for normal, 125, 133n18
non-null subject, 797
null subject, 776
number, 290n8
parameters and, 11–15
polysynthetic, 7
postpositional, 51–55
pro drop, 234, 874n25
radical/standard/conservative, 643–47, 658, 668–72
registers of, 89–90, 92
SNegOV, 891–95
SOV, 216n19, 249, 905–6
target, 299, 317
therapy, 129–31
transmission, 298, 306, 315, 327
verb-final, 881, 898
verb-second, 421–22, 428–29, 431, 433, 905
Last Resort, 644, 649, 656, 661, 686
le
as clitic, 12, 28, 253n14, 353n32, 557
as determiner, 278
Learnability Theory, 73
left branch
conditions, word order and, 404
extraction, 404
left dislocation
clitic, 7, 56n12, 253n15, 618, 725–26
topicalication and, 467, 643, 689n4, 725–26
left periphery
functional category in, 642–43, 648
markers, 160
with Scandinavian languages, 432–38, 446
theory of, 93–95
wh-phrases, bare wh-words and, 553–55
lexical
categories, clitics and, 615–20
head, 441
morphemes, 4, 7, 57n22
nouns, 19–20
relational structure (LRS), 476, 477
verbs, 77, 146, 152, 217n24
lexicon, 4, 23
functional, 93
syntax, morphology, gender and noun class, 459–512
UG, 47
licenses
D, 441, 450
TP, 146
licensing
aspect, 173, 401
clitics and, 673, 678, 680, 684, 686
conditions and development, 83–85
genitive, 524–25
(p. 967) of negative polarity, 911–12
nonpronunciation and, 18–19, 22, 25
of null elements, 89, 102
of null topic, 93
pro, 538n8
reinterpreted as movement, 31–34
subjects/objects and, 709–10, 717, 728–29, 733–34, 737, 740–41
licensor(s)
object as, 746–55
Spec, NumP as, 745
VP-internal, 737
like, 35
linear inversion rule, 827–29, 831
Linear Correspondence Axiom (LCA), 463, 487, 490
linearization, spell-out and, 392
little, 23–26, 32–33
bit and, 63n80
peu v., 39–44, 62n73
locative(s)
alternations, 922–24
case, 376
clitics, 12, 228–33, 777, 782, 785–86, 797
expletives, 909–10, 923, 942n41
markers, 920
nonclitic, 12
nouns, 62n68
PP, 78
logical form (LF), 240
root head raising at, 499–500
Slavic, 380, 399
l-syntax, 477
-ly, 13
macrocomparative syntax, 47–49
many, 13, 25–26, 30–31, 37
mass
over count, 42
plural v., 23
massifiers. See classifiers
measure phrases, 932
measure words, 272–73
memory. See also remembering
language development and, 97, 105n11
nominalization and, 490
microcomparative syntax, 24
macrocomparative v., 47–49
microparameters and, 6–11
microparameters
among Turkish languages, 525
microcomparative syntax and, 6–11
microparametric syntax, 113–14, 308
middle field, 429–32, 446
Minimal Link Condition, 443
Minimalism, 71, 72, 173n5, 332
agreement and, 848
clitics and, 609, 639–97
government and, 585
Scandinavian languages and, 424
Slavic languages and, 409n45, 409n49
Turkish and, 514
Mittelfeld, 910, 914, 917, 924, 934
mixed-headedness, 49–50
MLU/W (Mean Length of Utterance in Words), 118, 133n17
modality
clitics and, 389
markers, 538n13, 895, 897
negation and, 245
postverbal morpheme and, 241
verbs and, 222, 244, 779, 782, 800n12, 802n23, 940n18
modals, 12
empty dummy (EDM), 216n21
negative, 191–92, 195
particles, 910
pleonastic, 216n21
suffixes, 203, 885
verbs, 779, 914
modifiers
adjectival, 41
noun, 482–83
molto, 60n51
mood, 12. See also TAM; TMA
agreement and, 179, 208–9, 211, 522–25, 849
aspect and, 207–9, 520
finiteness and, 190–92, 197
indicative, 201
markers, 152, 539n16, 893, 896–98
morphemes, 522
negation and, 202–4, 207, 244–50
phrase, 521
tense and, 216n21, 865
tense and aspect, 429, 892–93
Morphological Merger, 900n9
morphology. See also distributed morphology
agreement, 97–98, 212
cases, 142–43, 424, 442, 444, 446, 448
default, 575
derivational, 16
inflectional, 16
lexicon, syntax, gender and noun class, 459–512
nominalizing, 13
numbers, 37, 274
perfect, 207
phonology and, 535
and word order in creolization, 293–372
movement. See also Head Movement Constraint; remnant movement
Aʼ, 114, 129, 404–5
(p. 968) A-dependencies, agreement and, 868–71
adpositions, 51–55
affective, 647
attraction and, 505n53
clefts and, 591
CL-to-D, 824–26
to complementizers, 60n43
complement-to-specifier, 64n100
control and, 10, 57n17
copy theory of, 832–33
CP and, 50, 251, 647
derivation and, 557–58
doubling and, 52–54, 57n17, 551–52
extraposition and, 60n43
feature-driven/closeness-driven, 54–55
focus, 729–31, 817
functional heads and, 12, 829
I-to-C, 842–44
licensing reinterpreted as, 31–34
N-to-CL, 281, 284, 291n15, 830–33
N-to-D, 281
objects, 305, 311–14, 332, 906
phrasal, 46
subjects, 710, 713, 753
V-second, 135n28
V-to-Asp, 141, 151–53
V-to-C, 243–44, 331, 346n14, 872n4
V-to-I-to-C, 96, 135n28
V-to-T°, 151, 154
X°, 119, 132n5, 135n28, 244, 823, 826, 833
XP, 119, 132n5, 330, 444, 833, 842, 863, 868
much, 25–34, 37
Narrative inversion, 453n13
negation, 12
adverbs and, 307
antisymmetry and, 885–86
aspect and, 399
double, 935–36
expletive, 248
and finiteness in Dravidian, 178–220
genitive of, 374, 380–83
gerundive and infinitive complement of, 182–85
mood and, 202–4, 207, 244–50
in Navajo, 706, 720
nonnegation v., 87
objects and, 451n3
postverbal, 241–43, 245–51, 880–86
in RCs, 205, 217n24
remnant movement and, 893, 895, 897, 899
in Romance, 221, 561–72
with Scandinavian languages, 429, 431, 438, 446, 451n3
scope and, 382, 406n15, 887–89, 896, 898, 900n10
Slavic, 374, 380–83
tense and, 881, 884–85
topicalization and, 859
West-Germanic, 934–36
negative imperatives, 245–46, 890–91
negative infix, 187, 196, 200, 213n5
negative modals, 191–92, 195
negative particles, 119, 242, 859, 874n20, 881–83, 885–86, 890, 898, 934
negative polarity, 911–12
nicht, 248
nominalization
adjectivalization and, 933–34
noun class and, 489–90
nominalizers, Gbe, 141, 162, 165–66, 168, 171, 173, 174n7
nominalizing
clauses, 197
morphology, 13
nominals
behavior, 16–17, 57n26
Chinese, 259–72, 271t
clauses, 179
expressions, 260, 700
predicate, 38, 179
nominative
case, 376
genitive and, 516, 521, 522, 524–25, 531, 537n6
markers, 899n5
nonconfigurationality, 56n11
nonpronunciation
-AINE, 15–18, 58n27, 58n30
ALMOST, 63n82
AMOUNT, 62n73
BIT, 44
COLOR, 15
ENOUGH, 63n82
EVER, 20–21, 36
HOW, 35–36
licensing and, 18–19, 22, 25
(p. 969) LITTLE, 43
MANY, 31
MUCH, 25–26, 31, 33, 35, 61n58
NUMBER, 15, 57n26
of Pʼ, 53–55
parameters, 15–37
PEU, 44
SO, 29–30, 33
THAT, 60n51
TIME, 59n40
non-zero phonological realization, 19
noun classes
abstractions and, 471–72
as agentive morpheme, 471
agreement, 460–63, 472
borrowings and, 468
classifiers and, 460–62
determiners and, 466, 469, 483
exponents, 469, 472–73
function of, 468–74
gender and class, 480–86
gender and, classifiers beyond, 497–500
gender, lexicon, syntax and morphology, 459–512
languages, 462
markers, 12, 480, 809
signs, 479–82, 488, 506n66
nouns, 13. See also protonouns
bare, 727
classification of, 460–61, 469, 473, 480–81, 485
count, 273–75
determiners and, 41–42, 45
filler, 13
functional structure of, 276–79
gender and, 278, 290n10
Incorporation, 56n12
inflected, 142
lexical, 19
as lexical morphemes, 4
locative, 62n68
mass, 27, 273, 499
movement, 443
West-Germanic, 906–7
NPs (noun phrases), 41–42
classifiers/DPs and, 807–8, 812–25, 828–31, 833
DPs and, 410n66
generic, 260–65, 269, 271t, 272
gerundive phrase as, 183
placement, 335
Scandinavian, 438–46, 451
shift, 50–51, 64n94
West-Germanic, 932–34
null doublet, 240
Null Subject Language(s) (NSL), 467. See also prodrop
language development and, 76–77, 80, 82–83, 91, 98–99
language disorders and, 126, 128
Non-, acquisition of, 74–77, 80, 83, 85, 102
Turkish as, 538n8
Null Subject Parameter (NSP), 74, 76, 80, 82–83, 96–97, 99–100, 102
NUMBER, 15, 57n26
number, 15, 23–24, 57n22
number(s)
class and, 487, 490–96
classifiers and, 806–34, 823, 829
languages, 290n8
markers, 468–69, 710, 865, 907
morphemes, 462, 491
morphology, 37, 274
noun classes and, 461, 469–70, 472
universality and, 459, 461
numerals, 13, 16–18
classifier and nominal phrases (Num-Cl-NPs), 260, 262–63, 267–72, 271t, 283–85
genitive with, 380–82
indefinite articles and, 38–39
Manjaku, 466
Slavic, 374, 383–85
object shift (OS)
clitics and, 642, 654, 667–83, 685–86, 688, 692n23
parameter for, 56n2
with Scandinavian languages, 423, 429–30
verbs and, 138–77, 305, 311–14, 319, 328, 336, 358n53
object(s). See also direct object(s)
clefts, 129
cliticization, 310, 312–14, 331, 335–36, 350n23
complement, 218n29
drop, 87
inflection, 711–12, 714, 717, 720–23, 725, 729, 739–45, 754
in-situ, 312, 337
as licensors, 746–55
movement, 305, 311–14, 332, 906
negation and, 451n3
omissions, 75
placement, 332–36, 350n21, 423, 450
(p. 970) subject agreement, 56n12, 728
subjects and animacy, 710–17, 725, 729–33, 737–38, 743–44, 758, 765n26
and subjects, Athapaskan, 699–762
verb particles and, 427–29
West-Germanic, 910–12
obligatory preposition, 19
oblique(s), 381, 384
Scandinavian, 436–37, 447, 450, 453n18
Slavic, 381, 384
obviation, 761, 921
of, 13, 16, 21–22, 24, 60n43
on, 12, 707
one, 13, 21, 262–63
operators
affective, 642–45, 662, 664–65, 690n11
Athapaskan, 699
classifiers and, 281–82, 284, 286–87, 289t
disjunction, 553–55, 557, 560, 562–68, 571, 578–79, 590, 592
focus, 642
null, 560, 589, 594
optimality
strategy, 666
theoretic account, 408n45
optional infinitive (OI), 126, 216n21
optionality, 430
or, 14
OS. See object shift
, 36–37
OV sequences
clauses and, 148, 164–71, 173
in Gbe, 140, 154–68
VO and, 449–50
OV structures, 77
OVV sequences, 141, 168–73
parameter(s), 3–6. See also microparameters; VEPS
classifiers and, 288, 289t
headedness, 77
head-final, 56n11
head-initial, 56n11
languages and, 11–15
minor v. major, 6, 7
missetting, 79–80
non-pronunciation v. pronunciation, 15–37
for OS, 56n2
principles and, 71, 306, 424, 514
pro-drop, 5–6
syntactic and morphological, 643–45
in third-person inflection, 756–62
time course in fixation of, 71, 77–79, 96
topics, 93
of UG, 3, 6, 11, 74, 76, 83, 93
participle(s)
adjunct, 210
Berber, 615
clitics and, 671, 682, 685, 693n24, 694n36
conjunctive, 199
infinitives and, 326, 351n27
morphemes, 386
past, 128, 174n14
relative, 209
particles, 13
Infl, 120
modal, 910
negative, 119, 242, 859, 874n20, 881–83, 885–86, 890, 898, 934
overt focus, 86
sentence-final, 289n2
subjunctive, 119
verb, 427–29
partitive(s), 16
aspect and, 399–401
clitics, 228–33, 783
genitive and, 410n57
readings, 820
pas, 247, 323–27, 347nn1516
Japanese/Korean and, 881, 882, 885, 892
passive(s), 351n23
alternations, 922–23
auxiliaries, 189, 214n9
morphemes, 385–87
Russian, 406n17
stativity and perfectivity, 187
perfect
morphology, 207
tenses, 208, 211
perfective
aspect, 152, 247, 248
imperfective and, 399–401, 409n51
markers, 144–45, 152, 155–58
morpheme, 215n16
perfectivity
boundedness marker, 289n2
passives and stativity, 187
person
agreement, 434, 435, 447, 448–50, 516, 727, 740, 758, 777, 909
first, 707, 728, 736, 741, 743, 757–58
markers, 707, 865, 907
morphemes, 12
and number affixes, 408n44, 741, 867
second, 98, 707, 728, 736, 741, 743, 757–58
(p. 971) peu, 23–26, 33
few/little v., 39–44, 62n73
phase
Impenetrability Condition (PIC), 674–75
Phonetic Form (PF)
clitics and, 641, 650–52
object shift as, 430
phonology, 15, 17
clitics and, 390–91
learning by forgetting in, 74
morphology and, 535
pidginization, 497
Creole and, 298, 306, 328, 332
pied-piping
in Celtic languages, 852
clitics, 250–51, 558–59
to Force, 588
questions and, 925
word order and, 404
place, 13
“Plato's Problem,” 296
plurality
aspect and, 492
class and number, 491–96, 500
markers, 274, 290n9, 495
noun class and, 468–70
singularity and, 491–93
plural(s)
mass v., 23
morpheme, 37
singular v., 17–19, 58n27, 59n36, 274–78
poco, 25
polarity, 406n15
negative, 911–12
possessive(s), 253n10
agreement and, 517–18, 520, 526–28, 530–31
markers, 517
morphemes, 13
pronouns, 918, 932
Scandinavian, 440
subject raising and, 514, 526–28
possessor(s)
clitics, 610
prenominal/postnominal, 6
third-person, 765n20
postnominal morphemes, 139, 172
postnominal phrases, 138–41, 159–60
postpositional languages, 51–55
postpositions, prepositions and, 52–55, 423
pourquoi, 35–37
as clitic, 226
as interrogative, 564–65, 573–74, 583, 596n8
predicate(s)
bounded, 261, 262, 264, 268
in Celtic languages, 861–64
embedded, 523
interrogatives and, 573, 586, 593–95, 601nn3940
markers, 466, 862
matrix, 576, 853
nominals, 38, 179
selecting, 573, 601nn3940
prefixes, 13
causative, 55
plural, 707
prepositional phrases (PPs)
clitics and, 610, 618–19, 624–32
direct objects and, 718–20
DPs and postnominal phrases, 138–41, 159–60
pied-piped, 138–40
placement of, 756
preposition(s), 133n18
case, 376
of central coincidence, 781–82, 792
complements and, 410n60
markers, 320
overt, 21
postpositions and, 52–55, 423
stranding, 35, 64n94, 139, 916, 920, 925–26, 929
preverbal markers, 322–23, 328
PRF (perfectivity/boundedness marker), 289n2
Primary Linguistic Data (PLD), 296, 308–10, 315–17, 320, 337–39, 343
Principle of Minimal Compliance, 435
PRO, 57n17
in case and agreement, 377–79
subjects, 84, 102, 853, 855–56
pro
-Agr complex, 82
clitics and, 249, 635n11, 659, 690n6
licensing, 538n8
null pronominal, 865, 867
predicates and, 466, 504n32
pro-drop, 16, 60n47
languages, 234, 874n25
parameters, 5–6
proclisis
and agreement inflection in infinitives, 679–81
proclitics, 229
enclitics and, 229, 391, 462
verbs and, 873n16
production corpora, 75
professeur, 41, 43, 62n77
progressive marker, 322
pronominal(s)
agreement, 7
argument, 700
null, 865–67
oblique objects and, 733
overt, as bound-variables, 389
wh-clitics v., 233–35
pronoun(s)
Athapaskan, 699
atonic, 301, 303, 333, 336, 353n32, 393
case morphology with, 142–43
clitics and, 333, 389, 487
copula and, 942n43
deletion of, 75
drop, 87, 97
marking, 305
personal, 221, 301, 917–18
possessive, 918, 932
reflexive, 921
second-person, 98
strong, 777, 919t
third-person, 12, 98, 506n62, 850
tonic, 317, 333–36, 353n32
weak, 252n1, 918–21, 919t, 928, 932
West-Germanic, 909–11, 917–21, 918f, 928, 930–32
wh-items and and negation, 221–52
proper names, Chinese, 290n7
pro-predicate morphemes, 12
Prosodic Inversion, 391
prosodic structure, 608–10, 618, 620, 632
prospective markers, 143–44, 146, 148–49, 155–63, 168, 171
Proto-Human, 344n4
protonouns, 478–79, 498
psycholinguistics, 299
purpose
adjuncts, 184
constructions, 171–72
Q-element, 616
Q-floating/stranding, 64n93
Q-morpheme, 623
QPs (quantifiers phrases), 382, 385, 642, 680
quand, 36–37
quantifier(s)
existential, 285, 553–55, 557, 560, 562, 564–66, 571, 582, 586, 590, 592
numbers and, 811, 814–15
phrases (QPs), 382, 385, 642, 680
raising (QR), 285
scope, 49
strong/weak, 814–15
universal, 13
quantity words, 13, 22–31
que, 21, 29–30, 59n41
as bare wh-word, 553–54
as clitic, 223–26, 234, 250, 253n5, 662–63, 667, 677
as head, 646
as interrogative, 542–95
quelque, 19, 24
quelquʼun, 23–24
questions. See also interrogatives
Athapaskan, 699, 726, 729–31
d-linked, 113–14, 726, 729–30
quʼest-ce-que, 542–606
Rhetorical, 597n16
West-Germanic, 924–29
yes-no, 607–8, 616–17, 835n4
qui, 5, 36–37
as bare wh-word, 553–54
as interrogative, 542–47, 554, 556, 559–61, 564–67, 577, 580, 583–86, 588
quoi, 37
as clitic, 224, 253n5
as interrogative, 549, 556, 575, 585–86
raising
head, 619, 884, 887
numbers, and indefiniteness, 826–30
quantifiers, 285
right-node, 51 (See also right-node raising [RNR])
root head, 499–500
recoverability, 33
reduplication, 547
adverbs and, 157, 504n35
classifiers, 275, 288
ECM and, 167
object shift and verb movement, 138–77
verbs, 138–77, 305, 350n20
reflexive(s)
clitics, 392, 796
complex, 13
pronouns, 921
relative clauses (RCs), 88–89, 145
agreement and, 513–41, 869–70
APs and DPs, 62n77
classifiers/DPs and, 806, 811
clitics and, 607–8
complementizers and, 24–25, 930
derivation of, 518–25, 533–34
free, 13, 36, 536, 575, 579, 588, 591, 931, 940n27
(p. 973) head-final, 513
head-initial, 513
negation in, 205, 217n24
reduced, 15
restrictive/nonrestrictive, 5
right-headed, 513, 515–16, 519–25, 533
simple, 36
relativized minimality, 54, 899n4
relexification, 299, 306, 328, 346n10
remembering, 186
remnant movement
interrogatives and, 548–51, 553, 558–60, 570–71, 584, 597n13, 599nn2627, 600n34
negation and, 893, 895, 897, 899
resumptive d-word, 927–28
right-dislocation, 51, 550, 928
Righthand Head Rule, 484
right-headed languages, 519, 533
right-node raising (RNR), 51, 64n94
Root Infinitives (RI), 85, 96, 105n11
root subject drop (RSD), 72, 80–83, 92–96, 103n4, 105n11
root(s)
class and number, 491–96
class exponents and, 486–96
clauses, 178, 614, 640, 655–61, 689n2, 840, 843, 858
clitics and, 488–89, 655–61, 680
noun classes and, 462, 463, 464, 466–67, 470–71, 474–86, 497–99
null subject, 85–86
Spec of, 83–85, 89–92, 102
verbal, 470
salience, 754, 768n46
(neo-)Schleicherian linguistics, 297
scope
negation and, 382, 406n15, 887–89, 896, 898, 900n10
quantifiers, 49
scrambling, 351n23
Slavic, 401–5, 405n7
with West-Germanic, 904, 905, 924, 928
word order and, 339, 401–5
SEELANGS, 375
serial verbs
aspect in, 199–200
construction (SVC), 174n10, 200
gerunds and, 180
several, 13
Shortest Move principle, 426, 434–35, 437, 443
si, 26, 30, 33, 41–42
singularity, plurality and, 491–93
singulars
bare, 38
plurals v., 17–19, 58n27, 59n36, 274–78
restriction to, 21
SLI (Specific Language Impairment), 112–31
agrammatism and, 112, 114, 131, 133n16
agreement and, 114, 117
clitics and, 112, 116–23
small clauses, 57n21, 100–101
in Celtic languages, 861–62
C-systems of, 156, 160–68
force and, 161–64, 167, 168–71, 586
full v., 178
I-system of, 156–60
nominalized, 141, 148
OVV sequences as, 141, 168–73
West-Germanic, 917
some, 12, 24
somebody, 23
someone, 21, 23–24
something, 18–19, 21, 25, 59n34, 59n36
SOV (Subject Object Verb)
languages, 216n19, 249, 905–6
and OSV word order, 713, 724, 729–30
to SVO, 249, 251, 330
Spec
-Complement-Head, 216n19
H, 54
-head relationships, 143, 146, 162, 169, 499, 572–73, 595, 609
of root, 83–85, 89–92, 102
specificity
D encoding, 442
definiteness and, 910, 922, 924
specifier(s)
complement-to-, movement, 64n100
of functional heads, 442
-head-complement hypothesis, 140–41
-Head-Complement order, 514
spell-out
of derivational cascade, 664, 691n18
of disjunction operator, 566, 571, 592
linearization and, 392
parse, 587, 595
RCs and, 521, 527
Sprachbund, German, 410n67
s-syntax, 477
Stammbaum branches/linguists, 298, 339
stress
intonation and, 585
patterns, 534
stylistic fronting, 435–36, 447, 448, 450
subcommands, 752, 761–62
(p. 974) subextraction, 925–26
subjacency
bounding nodes for, 73
ECP and French questions, 584–92
subject clitic inversion (SCLI), 236
interrogatives with, 242–43, 544–45, 557–58, 560, 567, 570–71, 576–77, 581, 583, 597n17, 597n20, 599nn2627, 600n34
wh-doubling with, 236, 597n17
subject(s). See also root subject drop
agency and, 710, 713, 715, 758–59
agentive, 709–16, 738, 740
agreement, 749, 753
animate/inanimate, 709–17, 732–34, 737–38, 743–44, 749, 754, 758–59
Aux Inversion, 560, 603n47
binding and, 397–98
cognates and, 708, 740
elided, 389
expletive, 380, 433–35
extraction, 543, 545, 560–72, 596n6, 926
first-person, 707, 728, 736, 741, 743, 757–58
floating, 431–32
human/nonhuman, 707, 710–11, 713, 717, 743–44, 749, 753, 755–56, 758–59
inflection, 707
inversion, 88–89, 563
movement, 710, 713, 753
object agreement, 56n12, 728
-object inversion, 700, 724–31, 733, 904, 907, 910, 942n40, 942n42
objects and animacy, 710–17, 725, 729–33, 737–38, 743–44, 758, 765n26
and objects, Athapaskan, 699–762
oblique clitic, 777–79, 785–86
omission in acquisition of Non-NSL, 74–77
questions, embedded, 437
referential, 422
second-person, 707, 728, 736, 741, 743, 757–58
third-person, 466, 699, 702, 707–9, 720–21, 728, 740–43, 746, 750, 755, 757, 760
verb agreement, 56n14, 142, 424, 446
-verb inversion, 930
VP-external, 702–7, 709–17, 719, 748
VP-internal, 701–7, 709, 711, 713, 715–18, 737, 748, 750, 754, 844–47
West-Germanic, 909–12
subjunctive, 12
marker, 119–20
present/past, 98–99
preverbal forms and, 250
subordination, 572–84
Subset Principle, 96, 103n5
-superset relation, 657
substrate, language acquisition and, 296, 304–6, 310, 336, 344n2
sufficient, 44–46
suffixes, 13
agreement, 206
causative, 55
derivational, 12, 18
discourse modal, 885
imperfect, 208, 212
infinitive, 13
inflectional, 12, 18, 59n31, 309, 312
modal, 203, 885
nominalizing, 193–94
perfect/imperfect, 212
tense and agreement, 318
zero, 18
superiority
in West-Germanic, 911–12
wh-movement and, 395–96
superlatives, 13
superstrate, language acquisition and, 302, 304, 310, 329, 344n2
suppletion, 492
SVO (Subject Verb Object)
Creole as, 300, 307
languages, 216n19, 249, 807, 839–42, 891, 905–6
Slavic, 405n7
SOV to, 249, 251, 330
TAM (Tense, Aspect, Mood) markers, 523–25, 528–30
telicity, 764n15
temporal information, 210, 218n29
tense, 12. See also TAM; TMA
in affirmative sentences, 192–95
agreement and, 178–81, 184–85, 191, 193, 201–2, 848–49
anterior, 247–48
clitics and, 607–8, 610, 615–17
compound, 209, 210, 218n26
infinitives and gerunds, 185–90, 200–201, 205
interrogatives and, 575, 577, 584
licensing, 859
markers, 144–45, 150, 152–54, 201, 893, 895
mood and, 216n21, 865
morphemes, 196, 201
negation and, 881, 884–85
number agreement and, 775–76, 786–90, 793–94, 798–99
Phrase (TP), 178, 277, 425, 429
present, 210–11
Slavic, 376, 409n51
SLI and, 114
and T-to-C raising, 359n58
Tense/Agr Omission Model, 133n13
that, 12, 25, 39
the, 4, 133n18
as determiner, 278
as functional element, 277
theta roles, with psych verbs, 46
thing, 13, 21
time
adjunct, 144–45
course in fixation of parameters, 71, 77–79, 96
and distance phrases, 382
and place adverbials, 184
specification, d-linked, 152
TMA (Tense, Mood, Aspect). See also TAM
Creole and, 301–4, 307, 309, 310–22, 327–29, 340, 341, 342
markers, 304, 320–22, 327–29, 332, 342
Tobler-Mussafia law, 641, 655–61
tone, of classifiers, 265–67, 265t, 270–71, 282–83, 287–88, 290nn23
tonemes, 160
too, 13, 31–32, 34
topicality, Athapaskan, 700, 710, 717, 749, 765n26
topicalization, 351n23
direct object as, 402
focus or, 816
infinitives and, 645
left dislocation and, 467, 643, 689n4, 725–26
negation and, 859
PP, 618
questions and, 927–28
remnant, 859
subject-object inversion as, 725–26
in Turkish language, 532–33
topic(s)
discourse, 709
focus and, 432–33, 924–28
Manjaku, 466–67
markers, 161, 741
null, 61n58, 90, 93
parameter, 93
tout, 20
transitivity
aspect and, 399, 401
in y- marking, 736, 738–40
très, 26–27, 30, 34, 41–42
trop, 26, 28, 31–33, 62n76
truncation, 95, 104n6
within IP system, 100–102, 104n6
typology
Greenbergian, 47–55
Slavic, 376
UG (Universal Grammar)
-admissible grammars, 10
case licensing and, 528
Catalan number agreement and, 775
class and, 486, 496
classifiers and, 277, 279
on clausal structure, 95
Creole and, 294, 296, 299, 310, 313, 315, 319, 320, 336, 338, 339, 343
element, 45–46
EPP and, 674
grammatical constraints, 97, 102
hypotheses, 49
interrogatives and, 548, 572
movement forced by, 47, 61n58
parameters of, 3, 6, 11, 74, 76, 83, 93
pronunciation/nonpronunciation and, 18
SLI and, 113, 130
theory of, 72–73
Uniformitarian perspective, 294, 296, 313, 329, 338, 339
Uniformity principle, 57n22
Unique Checking Constraint (UCC), 79, 103n1, 114, 126
UR-shift, 622–23
UTAH principle, 44
V2 languages, 90–91, 93, 103n3, 329–31, 346n14, 857–60, 868
V3 languages, 330
VEPS (Very Early Parameter Setting), 72, 77, 79, 83, 96, 100
verbal morphemes, 504n43
verbs
agreement, 504n38
classificatory, 743
clitics and, 698
clustering, 905, 914–16, 915t
control, 155, 159
copulative, 777, 792
defective, 202
doubling, 359n58
dropping of, 97
dummy, 215n14, 860, 884
existential, 775, 777, 779–83, 787
functional, 13
infinitival, 78
(p. 976) inflection, 82, 224, 226, 234, 300, 318, 330, 332–33, 347n18
-initial, 49, 51
intransitive, 387, 703–4, 755, 922
lexical, 4, 840–41, 884–85, 890, 891
markers, 326
matrix, 186, 213n5, 521, 572–73, 887, 888
in middle field, 430–31
modality and, 222, 244, 779, 782, 800n12, 802n23, 940n18
noun classes and, 465, 473–74
object agreement, 775–76, 780–84, 787–88, 791
particles, 427–29
perception, 190
phrases, Scandinavian, 425–29
placement, 293, 306–11, 314, 319, 324, 340, 342, 361n62
psych, 46, 922
reduplication, 138–77, 305, 350n20
restructuring, 13
Scandinavian, 424, 429–31, 448–50
Slavic, 376, 383–84, 387, 409n51
subject agreement, 56n14, 142, 424, 446
swallowing, 660–62, 664, 667, 670, 676–77, 683–85
transitive, 383–84, 387, 702–4, 737–38, 922
unaccusative, 234, 567
West-Germanic, 906–7
V-in-situ, 308–19, 323, 327, 332, 336–37
VO languages, 50
VO sequences, 140–54, 164–68, 173
VO structures, 77
voice, argument and, 374, 385–89
vowel harmony, 534
VP, 154
as complement of AspectP, 207–8
Creole and, 293, 294, 299–308, 311–12, 314, 327, 329, 332
-length, 96
-movement, 50–54
phrase, 183, 192
subject drop and, 87–88
VSO languages, 839–42, 905–6
V-to-Asp movement, 141, 151–53
V-to-C movement, 243–44, 331, 346n14, 872n4
V-to-I movement, 147, 152–53, 311–19, 327, 332, 340, 343, 872n4
V-in-situ and, 308–19, 323, 327, 332, 336–37
V-to-I-to-C movement, 96, 135n28
V-to-T° movement, 151, 154
VV sequences, 169–70
VVO sequences, 169
water, 474–78, 481
weak crossover, 49
what, 37
as bare wh-word, 553–54, 598n22
as clitic, 223–27, 234, 236–39