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date: 06 July 2022

(p. 655) Index

(p. 655) Index

ability 81, 148n.20, 150, 202, 238, 243, 247n.27, 248, 258, 279, 286, 293–294, 339, 361, 363, 396, 476n.5, 489n.38, 514, 525–526, 539, 544, 550, 556, 569, 602, 623, 625
joint 526
physical 126
rationality-ability principle 155–156
time and 136, 146, 146n.13
to do otherwise 75, 140n.6
ableist 627
actions:
act consequentialism. See consequentialism, act
component 128–133, 136
compound 336–340, 434
co-temporal 114–115, 127n.33, 128, 136
standard story of 37, 37n.26
act/omission distinction. See doing and allowing
actualism 74n.10, 81–82, 84n.19, 87–91, 115, 139–159, 188n.15, 434, 434n.21, 435, 435n.22, 565, 572n.26, 581n.50 (see also moral, actualism)
bad behavior objection to 151, 157–158
nonratifiability problem and 152, 157–158
not demanding enough objection to 151
Adams, C. J. 573, 573n.30
Adler, M. 594, 601, 603
admirability 250, 541, 556, 560–562
aesthetics 93, 95, 402, 415, 543, 596, 598
Agamemnon 368
agent-centered. See agent-relative
agent-centered constraints. See constraints
agent-centered options. See options, agent-centered
agent-centered prerogative. See options, agent-centered
agent-centered restrictions. See constraints
agent-neutral:
commitment 25–26, 28–29, 34
consequentialism and 47, 50, 62, 301–302, 303n.24, 342, 379, 382, 397, 624
consequentializing. See consequentializing, agent-neutral
considerations 68n.4
facts 408
interpretation of deontic constraints and special duties 49, 50n.5, 51
(p. 656) point of view 25, 27n.5, 28–29
ranking of outcomes 5, 6, 10n.18, 27, 28n.16, 43, 55
reasons 249–250, 265, 381
rules 48–49, 48n.4, 55, 63
value 29, 36, 52–54, 61, 62, 64, 179, 193, 247, 302, 381, 442, 624
agent-relative:
act consequentialism and 11, 14, 25, 25n.1, 29, 29n.8, 34–36, 38, 41, 47, 50, 51n.8, 52, 54, 59n.20, 60–63, 63nn.24–25, 302–303, 303n.24
commonsense morality and 2, 28–29, 49–50
consequentializing. See consequentializing, agent-relative
constraints. See constraints
goodness. See agent-relative, value
permissions. See permissions
ranking of outcomes 5, 28, 28n.6, 35, 46, 46n.1, 50–51, 54–55, 416
requirements 63, 304n.28
rule consequentialism and 10n.18
teleology 60
agglomeration 73–78, 82–91, 433n.19, 435n.22
aggregation:
axiological. See aggregation, value
contractualism and 361, 361n.7, 385–386
cost 598
deontic 363, 364, 364n.9
distal 379, 391–394, 398
distributive justice and 17, 379–388
harms and 364–366, 368n.11, 390, 459
interests and 378
intrapersonal 376, 387, 392, 392n.8
limited 361, 361n.7
local 379, 391–396, 398
prudential 383
selective 379, 390, 394–395, 398
unrestricted 364, 379, 390–398, 391n.7
Alexander, L. 383n.3
alienation 18, 174n.17, 175, 225n.7, 244, 401–416, 464, 468, 471, 540
Almassi, B. 643
Almeida, M. 147n.17
Alston, W. P. 211n.46
alternatives:
act trees as 123, 127–128
bottom-most act tokens as 122–124
consequentialism and 113, 115
constraints on what counts as one 116
highest normatively significant act tokens as alternatives 122, 124–127
multiple versions of 16, 18, 113–115, 117, 117n.14, 118n.15, 515
altruistic actions. See actions, altruistic
Alvarez, M. 180n.4
Anderson, E. 37n.27, 539
Andreou, C. 643
animal:
agriculture 565, 567, 569, 571–572, 576–578, 581
extermination 207, 581–587
pleasure 214
rights 564, 571, 575–576, 579, 617
animals:
attitudes and. See attitudes, animals and
Annas, J. 470n.6
Anscombe, G. E. M. 2n.4, 36, 42–43, 118, 470, 501n.3, 554n.24
(p. 657) Appleby, M. 607
Åqvist, L. 115n.7, 515n.5
Aristotle 31, 202n.18, 214n.58, 321n.6, 465
Arneson, R. 166, 389, 398n.13
Arnold, M. 212, 212n.50, 212n.53
Arntzenius, F. 639
Arpaly, N. 403, 468, 468n.5, 470
Arrhenius, G. 474n.2, 492n.45, 570n.22
Arrow, K. 599
Ashford, E. 463n.1
asymmetry:
between action and inaction 500
between appropriately joining and defecting from group acts 522–525
moral 388–391, 398, 525
procreative 481, 570
self-other 259, 267
attitudes:
agential 411
animals and 531, 571–576, 578, 581–582, 587
fittingness and 503n.6, 506, 508
irrational 503
justice and 469
outcome-centered accounts of 18, 35, 37–39, 41, 43
partial 241, 244–246, 618, 625
praise and 164, 226
propositional 35–37, 43, 503n.6
reactive 164, 226, 455n.10, 502–504, 506
requirements with respect to 13
value and 203, 205–206, 208–212, 241, 469
vicious 571
Augustine 550
Austin, J. 425
average principle 477–482, 488–489
Aydede, M. 212n.48
Babbitt, S. 628
Baber, H. E. 628–629
Bacharach, M. 188n.15
Bader, R. 407, 479n.10
Badhwar, K. N. 245, 245nn.21–22, 463
Baier, A. 618
Baier, K. 452n.8
Baker, C. 18, 174n.17, 401
Baker, D. 151n.27
balancing:
interpersonal 378, 383–384, 383n.5, 386–388, 391, 397
intrapersonal 383–384, 387, 397
Bales, R. E. 426n.5, 452
Banzhaf, H. S. 602
Bardsley, N. 187
Barnes, Elizabeth 395n.10, 531
Barnes, Eric 308n.30
Barnett, Z. 641
Baron, M. 245n.20
Barron, A. 607
Barry, B. 554, 554n.24
Barry, C. 641, 643, 645, 648–650
Bartky, S. L. 627
Beckstead, N. 577n.44
Beerbohm, E. 640
beneficence 107, 189n.16, 256, 262, 279, 327, 448–500, 522, 541, 542, 546, 646
Benn, C. 121n.25, 285, 286
Bentham, J. 17, 27, 199, 290n.2, 380n.2, 425, 531, 557, 564, 566, 566n.6, 617nn.2–4
Bergström, L. 98n.8, 113, 113n.1, 114n.2, 115, 116n.12, 118n.16, 514n.2
Berkey, B. 610
Bernstein, S. 100, 100n.13, 101n.14, 637–638, 641
Berridge, K. 212, 212nn.54–55, 213n.56
bias 214, 298, 424, 447, 538, 559, 568, 578, 599
Bilz, K. 576n.42, 576n.43
blameless wrongdoing 168–169, 168n.9, 169n.10, 170n.12, 250, 316, 320, 323–324, 578, 586
Blum, L. 406
Bradley, B. 175n.18, 190n.18, 275n.6, 467, 505
Braham, M. 639
Bramble, B. 211n.45, 211n.47
Bratanova, B. 574n.33
Bratman, M. E. 521n.21
Brennan, G. 406, 411, 425, 640
Brennan, J. 639–640
Brennan, S. 20, 616, 622, 630–631
bringing about an outcome 18–19, 28, 36n.23, 37–40, 42–43, 63, 147, 173, 267, 318–319, 324, 452, 506, 537, 558, 616n.1
Broad, C. D. 381
Brook, R. 55n.14
Browning, H. 607
Brudney, D. 401n.2
Brundtland, G. 602
Buchak, L. 593n.1
Bunzl, M. 637
Burgess-Jackson, K. 618n.7, 620
Buttlar, B. 574n.35
Byron, M. 276n.7
Calder, T. 467
Calhoun, C. 630
Card, C. 624
Cariani, F. 84n.18, 85, 148n.19
Carlyle, T. 214, 214n.58
Castañeda, H.-N. 113, 115, 141–143, 514n.2
categorical imperative 2, 3, 6, 12–13, 116, 376
causation 101, 350–351, 353, 635–636, 638–639, 646
backward 97
counterfactual theory of 100, 636–638, 647
individual 643
influence theory of 636–638
joint 643
productive theory of 636
Chan, K. 571, 574n.34, 605n.4
Chappell, R. Y. 8n.14, 19, 184, 239n.6, 407, 428n.9, 438n.25, 439, 452n.9, 498, 503, 505–507
Cohen, G. A. 406, 415
Cohon, R. 470n.6
collective action 459, 593, 640–641, 649–650
(p. 659) commensurability 201, 359, 367–376
commonsense morality 10–11, 28–29, 37, 47, 49–50, 59, 64, 73, 194, 269, 273, 276, 292, 297, 299n.17, 303, 306, 381, 427n.6, 430, 437, 447n.4
Connelly, M. 595
conscientiousness 311, 318, 319–321, 324–325, 326n.9, 329, 437, 468, 510, 572, 574, 575, 579
consequence argument against compatibilism 104
consequences:
act itself and 2, 80, 98, 101–103, 105–106
causal 2, 2n.4, 14, 79, 98n.10, 114, 122–123, 133, 185, 345
constitutive 39n.29, 85, 241, 245, 300
expected 239, 441
moralized approach to 95–96
probable 239
traditional approach to 97–101
consequentialism:
act:
alienation objection and 18, 174n.17, 175, 225n.7, 244, 401–416, 464, 468, 471
compulsory self-benefit objection and 253–268
dual-ranking 256, 264–267, 270, 276–280, 502
generalized 19, 520–521
harmonious 403–406, 409
ignorance challenge and 18, 310–329, 447–448, 513, 587
incorrect verdicts objection and 47, 50, 59, 67, 71, 423, 430, 436, 438, 507
integrity challenge and 18, 67, 173–175, 412, 463
modally robust 19, 524–525, 525n.31
no-difference challenge and 20, 101, 103, 634–650
position-relative 46–47, 46n.1, 60, 62
reasons and 180, 182–187, 189, 191
self-defeatingness objection and 19, 423, 425, 436, 438–439, 514–519, 523, 526 (See also self-defeat)
separateness of persons objection and 360, 378–398, 540
silence objection and 424–425, 428, 436, 438
standard 68, 74, 254–255, 525
straightforward 289–291
traditional 1–3, 5, 310, 416, 506, 519, 523–524
treating people as mere receptacles for pleasure and 8, 564
bullet-biting and 155, 173–174, 242, 255, 272, 311, 313, 323–324, 329, 356, 635, 644
compellingness of 33, 60–61, 69–70, 72, 78, 259, 295, 427n.6
consequentializing argument for 26, 29–34, 38
cooperative 19, 524–525, 525n.21
direct 246, 283, 409, 427
distribution-sensitive 386, 442
leveled 403, 409–415
maximalist 26n.2
maximizing. See maximizing
multiple-act 19, 522–523, 526–527
rule 1n.1, 4, 4n.7, 6, 9, 10n.18, 19, 84, 180n.1, 185–190, 192–193, 239, 239n.5, 239n.7, 283, 289, 290n.1, 298, 303–307, 423, 426, 427n.6, 441, 452, 454–460, 457nn.11–12, 471, 520, 521n.20, 555n.28, 561, 561n.50
collapse objection and 9, 188, 305, 561, 561n.50
conflicting rules and 187
incoherence objection and 9, 180n.1, 305, 426, 457–458
overarching commitment to maximizing the good and 9, 457, 457n.11
reasons and 187–190, 459
two-level 166, 568, 626
consequentialist generalization 19, 519–520
consequentializing 18, 25–43, 54, 57, 85–86, 543
agent-neutral 27–30
agent-relative 29, 34, 36, 38
consequentialist argument for 34–43
cooperation 19, 65, 73, 73n.8, 225, 257, 290n.3, 301, 383, 447, 513–527, 545, 584
Copp, D. 226n.8, 459–460
costs:
active compliance 232–233
internalization 283, 283n.16, 450
passive compliance 233
psychological 424, 450
self-imposed 500
Cottingham, J. 239, 239n.3, 560n.46
counterfactual determinism 2n.5, 312, 434n.21
counterfactuals 24, 80, 88n.23, 100, 135, 140, 140n.7, 149, 149n.21, 312, 354
Cowen, T. 570n.20, 599, 610
Crisp, R. 179, 180n.3, 214n.59, 273n.5, 439, 442, 464
criterion of rightness 303, 340, 358n.3, 452, 454–458, 504, 508, 561n.51, 565, 567–568, 572, 580
Crompton, L. 617n.2
Cullity, G. 52n.12, 61, 641, 646
Cummiskey, D. 27n.5
Darwall, S. 68n.4, 204, 204n.28, 234n.16, 301n.20, 405
Dasgupta, P. 485n.13, 605n.4
Davidson, D. 118
Davis, A. Y. 576, 576nn.39–41
Dawkins, M. 607
Dea, S. 618n.6
Deaton, A. 557n.35, 558, 558n.40, 595, 601
De Brigard, F. 101n.14, 214n.63
decision theory 84, 313n.2, 314n.3, 317, 333–334, 408, 427, 434n.21, 592–593, 604, 621
Delon, N. 567n.14, 580n.49
deontically equivalent 30–31, 38
deontic:
actualism. See actualism
aggregation. See aggregation, deontic
averagism 83–84
concepts 19, 274, 501, 501n.3, 508–510
constraints. See constraints
equivalence thesis 30, 38
maximin possibilism. See possibilism
monism 508–509
options. See options, agent-centered
pluralism 498, 508–511
principles 115, 134, 403n.7
properties 121n.24, 402
values 123, 140n.5, 317
verdicts 2, 31, 50, 54, 59, 507
deontologizing 31–34, 31n.16
desert 167, 183, 231, 234, 303, 313–314, 320, 327, 538, 545, 573, 585, 622
desire-based theories. See desire satisfactionism
desire satisfactionism 197, 208–210, 209n.41, 212n.9, 213, 380, 565, 603–604, 627–628
determinism 104, 163–164 (see also counterfactual determinism)
Diamond, C. 573, 573n.28
Dickens, M. 567n.11
Dietrich, F. 67n.2
Dietz, A. 188
difference making 58, 97–98, 250, 535, 541, 549n.4, 556, 565, 635–648
difference principle 385, 387–389, 389n.6
disabilities 390, 531, 619
disaster prevention 175, 189, 291, 315, 436, 450–451, 453, 457–458, 520n.17
dispositions 150, 244–247, 380, 411, 437, 447–448, 450, 463, 465, 471, 541, 625
distributive justice 17, 327, 378–380, 383, 386–397, 601, 611
doctrine of double effect 172–174, 173n.15, 328
doing and allowing 175–176, 507, 566 (see also killing and letting die)
Donaldson, S. 566n.7, 571n.23, 580n.47
Dorsey, D. 16, 93, 94n.2, 139n.3, 280–282, 281n.15, 312
Dougherty, T. 49, 280
Dowe, P. 636
Drummond, M. 594, 603
dualism of practical reason 383n.5
dual-ranking act-consequentialism. See consequentialism, dual-ranking act-
Duflo, E. 617
duty: (see also obligation)
aid and 56
beyond the call of 269, 272, 281–282, 499
imperfect 299n.16
perfect 299n.16
prima facie 292, 328, 376, 407
pro tanto 113, 122, 125, 132
special 47, 49–51, 54
Edlin, A. 639
egalitarianism 226, 379, 383, 385–386, 388–391, 398, 408, 499n.1, 566, 580, 601, 622
Eriksson, A. 637, 640
error theory 251
Estlund, D. 7
ethical egoism. See egoism, ethical
evaluative focal point 428–431, 436, 438
evaluator-relative. See agent-relative
excuses 165, 168, 170, 250, 296, 303, 306, 313, 320, 335, 456
experience machine 214, 214n.64
externalism 211, 211n.47, 213, 466
factory farms 414, 539, 574, 587, 639
feminism 20, 257, 257n.9, 272, 616–631
Fenton-Glynn, L. 639
Finlay, S. 253n.1
Finn, H. 326n.9, 465
Fischer, B. 571n
Fischer, R. 609–610
Flanagan, J. 254n.5, 617n.5
Flescher, A. M. 280
Fletcher, G. 204n.29, 205n.33, 205n.34, 442
Fleurbaey, M. 594, 601–603
Flores, A. R. 576n.42
Forcehimes, A. 63n.24, 182n.9
Foucault, M. 585n.54
Frankena, W. 200, 200n.11, 453
Frankfurt, H. 37n.26, 164–165, 176
Franklin, A. 93, 93n.1, 95, 101, 107
Fraser, C. 10n.17
Fraser, D. 607
Frijda, N. 212–213, 213n.56
future generations 207, 253, 414, 577, 601–602
Gabriel, I. 541
Garcia, J. 52n.12
Garnett, T. 610
Garrett, D. 470n.6
Garvey, J. 643
Gauthier, D. 360
George the chemist 173–174, 176, 634–635, 649
Gesang, B. 643
Gilbert, M. 521n.21, 524n.28
GiveWell 555, 558, 558n.38, 594
Glasgow, J. 20n.27, 116
global poverty. See poverty
global warming 312–313
Glover, J. 634, 639
Goble, L. 87n.32
Goldstein, L. F. 618n.7
Goodin, R. E. 622, 630
goodness. See value
Graham, P. 318
Greaves, H. 19, 312, 409n.13, 409n.14, 423, 437n.24, 577n.24
Greenspan, P. 147n.18
Griffin, J. 208n.39
Groff, Z. 580n.48
Grotius, H. 469
Gruzalski, B. 519n.16
Gunnemyr, M. 643
Haines, W. 98n.9
Hammerton, M. 46, 48n.3, 49, 51n.9, 57, 59, 59n.20, 63nn.25–26, 240n.9
Hanson, R. 570n.20
Hansson, S. O. 84, 87n.22
Harris, J. 231n.13, 253n.4
Harrison, J. 519n.16
Harrod, R. F. 457n.12, 519n.16
Hart, H. L. A. 96, 96n.4
Harwood, S. 271n.3
Hausman, D. 596
Hawkins, J. 205n.33, 206n.35
Heathwood, C. 200n.10, 211nn.46–47, 212n.49
Hedahl, M. 267n.24
Held, V. 623
Henne, P. 101n.14
Herculano-Houzel, S. 607, 609
Herzog, L. 536
Heyd, D. 271n.3, 272
Hiller, A. 603, 605, 643
Hills, A. 464, 470
Hilpinen, R. 85n.20
Hitchcock, C. R. 639
Hitler, A. 96
Hodgson, D. H. 297n.14, 424, 519n.13
Holtug, N. 479n.10, 496n.57
Honoré, A. M. 96, 96n.4
Horgan, T. 271n.2, 279n.12, 312n.1
Horty, J. 85
Horwich, P. 335
Howard-Snyder, F. 4n.7, 303n.24, 501, 501n.3, 509
Hsiung, W. 599, 610
Hubin, D. 544
Huemer, M. 492n.46
Hurka, T. 47n.1, 53n.13, 407, 431n.13, 469
Hurley, P. E. 3n.6, 25, 41, 86n.21, 240n.9, 302n.23, 443n.2, 543
Hursthouse, R. 226n.8, 431n.13, 470
hybridism 140–141, 151, 157–159
hybrid theory 298n.15, 403, 406–408, 416
Hyde, D. 394n.10
ideal code 4, 4n.8, 9, 10n.18, 186, 189n.16, 225n.5
imperfect duties. See duty, imperfect
inclusivism 333–334
incommensurability 201, 201nn.15–17, 359, 367–376
incomparability 201, 201nn.15–17, 202, 368–376, 369n.12
indirect consequentialism. See consequentialism, direct vs. indirect
inheritance. See normative, inheritance
internalism 211n.47, 213
intuitionism 269, 292n.5, 557
Jaeggi, R. 401n.2
Jaggar, A. 631
Jamieson, D. 585, 605
Jarvis, L. 599, 610
Jefferson, A. 166
Jeffrey, R. C. 434n.21
Jim in the jungle 173–176
Johnson, B. 344
Johnson, C. 55n.14, 59n.19
John, T. M. 19–20, 464, 543, 546
Jollimore, T. 241n.11, 250, 250n.34
Kahn, B. 644
Kahneman, D. 601
Kain, P. 401n.2
Kamm, F. M. 55n.14, 56, 98–99, 99n.11, 102, 174n.16
Kant, I. 2–3, 6, 12n.21, 13, 32, 116, 170, 321n.6, 328, 376
Kantsequentialism 2–3, 5–6
Kapur, N. B. 245, 245n.22, 412
Kavka, G. 490n.40, 491n.42
Kawall, J. 271n.3
Khader, S. J. 627, 630
Kiesewetter, B. 121n.26, 147n.15
killing and letting die 507–508, 507n.10
Kingston, E. 643
Klein, C. 607
Kment, B. 639
Kolstad, C. 597–598, 600, 603
Korsgaard, C. M. 566n.7
Kotarbinski, T. 269n.1
Kraut, R. 393n.8, 398n.13
Kringelbach, M. 212nn.54–55, 213n.56
Krishna, N. 540
Kuhse, H. 625–626
Kumar, V. 19, 531, 543–545, 563n.53
Kunst, J. R. 574, 574n.34
Kymlicka, W. 566n.7, 571n.23, 580n.47, 623n.10
labor injustice 20, 639–642, 648, 650
Labukt, I. 211n.45
Lam, D. 398n.13, 595
Lang, G. 273, 287, 501n.4
Lawford-Smith, H. 20, 168n.8, 634,639–643, 647
Lawlor, R. 501–502
Lazari-Radek, K. de 17, 169, 197, 203n.22, 209n.41, 226n.10, 273, 447n.4, 477n.7, 501n.2
Lazar, S. 13
Lenman, J. 96n.5, 558, 558n.41
Leopold, D. 401–402, 401n.2
Lewis, G. 556
Lichtenberg, J. 19, 533, 546, 548, 549n.6, 561n.49
Li, H. L. 391n.7, 398n.13
list theory. See objective list theory
Lockhardt, T. 326
logic of the larder 569–570, 587
logic of the logger 579, 580, 587
Lombard, L. B. 116n.11
Lopez, T. 55n.14
Lord, E. 181n.5, 468n.4
Lyons, D. 191n.20, 305n.29, 459, 561n.50
MacFarquhar, L. 552n.16, 557n.35, 559, 559n.44
Mackenzie, C. 624
Mackie, J. L. 195n.23, 342
Marcus, R. B. 267n.24, 402, 432n.17
Markovits, J. 404, 470
Matheny, G. 571, 571n.24
maxim 116, 328, 359–360
maximal alternatives. See actions, maximal and nonmaximal
maximally specific act-sets. See actions, maximal and nonmaximal
McElwee, B. 179, 181n.6, 234n.15, 273, 285, 287, 500, 502, 502n.5
McGeer, V. 165n.5, 166, 166n.6
McGrath, S. 99n.12, 101n.14, 641
McKerlie, D. 389n.6
McLeod, C. 406n.10
McLeod, O. 624
McNamara, P. 85n.20, 271n.3
McNaughton, D. 48n.3, 303n.24, 568n.16
McShane, K. 605
McTaggart, J. M. E. 392, 392n.8
meat eating 261, 376, 570n.21, 572, 574–575, 578, 581, 593, 617
meat paradox 573
Menzies, P. 315, 317–318, 639
mere addition 482–483, 484n.23, 486, 488, 492n.45, 493
mere addition paradox 474–475, 482, 484–485, 487, 491–495
mere addition principles 475, 482–483, 485, 570, 571n.23
Meyers, D. T. 257n.9
Mikati, I. 602
Mikhail, J. 118n.15
Mill, H. T. 619n.8
Mill, J. 17
Milne, P. 67n.2
minimal decency 504, 506, 510–511
Mitchell-Brody, M. 564n.1, 585n.54
Moore, M. 382n.3
moral:
actualism 479–482, 479n.11, 481n.17, 494, 494n.53 (see also actualism)
circle expansion 577
dilemmas. See delimmas
possibilism 479–481, 488, 491, 493–494
rationalism 231, 234, 234n.16, 265
reasoning 617, 619, 621–625, 629
responsibility. See responsibility, moral
sentimentalism 470n.6, 506–508, 510
uncertainty. See uncertainty, moral
Morgan-Knapp, C. 643
Morris, R. 163n.1
motivating reasons. See reasons, motivating
Mozi 10n.7
Murphy, L. 226n.9, 235n.18, 261n.13, 500
Nair, G. S. 10n.19, 50n.5, 67, 68n.3, 72
Narveson, J. 290n.2, 291, 292, 297n.14, 479, 479n.12, 481
Nebel, J. 391n.7
Nefsky, J. 593, 639, 641, 647
NESS conditions 645, 648–649
Newcomb’s problem 517n.12
Ng, Y.-K. 486n.32, 492, 492n.47, 493, 580, 605
Nilsson, M. 604
Noddings, N. 624
Nolt, J. 593, 643
non-human animals. See animals
nonidentity problem 475n.4, 490–491, 492n.47
nonmoral reasons 265–267, 277–279, 502, 506, 510
Nordhaus, W. 598, 602
Norlock, K. 631
normative:
authority 407–408
invariance 494
properties 53, 125, 128–133, 394n.10, 508, 544
uncertainty. See uncerntaintly, normative
Norwood, F. B. 599–610
Nussbaum, M. 617, 627–628
Nye, A. 639
Nye, H. 38n.28
objective list theory 208–210, 213, 225, 442, 603–604
objective ought. See ought, objective
objective rationality. See rationality, objective
objective reasons. See reasons, objective
obligations:
conditional 147–148
conflicting 153, 297
dependent 143–144, 146, 151
nondependent 143–144, 146, 150, 155, 159
possibilist moral 157–158
pro tanto 296, 297, 300, 304, 306, 307
unconditional 147–148
Oddie, G. 67n.2, 203n.25, 315–318
Okin, S. M. 619
Olkowicz, S. 607
omissions 99–101, 103, 295, 566, 636
omniscience 316, 316n.12
O’Neill, J. 605
options:
agent-centered 10
c-options 339–341
deontic 68–70, 79
ordinary morality. See commonsense morality
Ord, T. 17, 531, 548, 566
Ostrom, E. 595, 600
Otte, M. J.
ought:
actualist practical 158
(p. 667) ‘can’ and whether it’s implied by 155, 428n.8, 433n.19
just plain 406, 406n.10
most reason and 19, 498, 510–511
nonobjective 317
objective 33, 35n.20, 317, 320
prospective 334n.6
rational 34–35
outcome of an act (see also prospect of an act)
overdetermination 636–638, 645, 647–648
overridingness 244, 247, 305, 407, 450, 457–458
Oxfam 278, 341
Palmer, C. 605
paradox of supererogation. See supererogation, paradox of
Parsons, J. 479n.13
patriarchy 257, 618, 620–621, 627
Pearl, J. 88n.23
Pellegrino, G. 643
people:
actual 478–480
merely possible 479, 492–493
perfect duty. See duty, perfect
perfectionism 285, 621, 628–629
permissions 249, 249n.33, 258, 260, 263–264, 267, 272, 282n.3, 386, 407, 452, 630
Peterson, M. 25n.1, 29n.9, 30n.14
philosophical radicalism 17
Piazza, J. 576n.38
Pinillos, Á. 101n.14
Pinkert, F. 523n.26, 525n.30, 526n.32, 641
Plato 392, 531
pleasures:
bodily 212
emotional 212, 243
higher 392, 392n.9
intellectual 211–212, 214
lower 214, 392, 396
resonates requirement and 210–213
Podgorski, A. 188
Pollock, J. L. 149n.21
pollution 207, 367, 523–524, 594, 596–598, 600, 602, 611, 644
population axiology. See axiology
pornography 621
position-relative. See agent-relative
positive act. See acts, positive
positive duty. See duty, positive
Posner, R. A. 570n.20
(p. 668) Postow, B. C. 520n.19
Powers, M. 239n.5, 449n.5
practical guidance. See action, guidance
practical reason, reasons, and reasoning 14, 14n.23, 31–32, 35, 93, 158, 201, 264n.17, 275, 276, 383n.5, 405, 506
praiseworthiness 121n.24, 170–172, 255, 555
preference satisfaction theory. See desire satisfactionism
principle of moral harmony 516, 518
principle of normative invariance. See normative, invariance
prioritarianism 389–390, 442, 601
prisoner’s dilemma 63, 73n.8, 516
probabilities:
conditional 350–351, 355–357
epistemic 204, 315–316, 322, 336
objective 11, 11n.20, 15, 15n.24
subjective 314, 336, 342
Professor Procrastinate 434–435
promises