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date: 28 June 2022

(p. 775) Index

(p. 775) Index

A
Abe Shinzo 563, 568, 575, 580
Abu Dhabi 11, 702–703
Afghanistan 202, 595, 605, 689
African Development Bank 183, 734
African National Congress (ANC)
Congress of South African Trade Unions and 715, 765–766
corruption and 717
electricity sector and 723
factions within 711, 715, 721–723
South African Communist Party and 715, 765–766
African Union 174
Agua Zarca Dam (Honduras) 674
air pollution
China and 507, 510, 519–520, 524
energy regionalism and 174
fossil fuels and 7, 25, 36, 38
gender and 200, 202
hydraulic fracturing and 6, 24
Southeast Asia and 595
United States and 378, 380, 387
Alaska 103, 235
Alberta (Canada) 407, 411, 413–415
Algeria
civil war (1990s) in 695
energy consumption profile of 693
import substitution industrialization and 688
liquefied natural gas and 110
Morocco and 595, 759
natural gas and 692–693, 702
natural resource rents in 697, 699–700
nuclear power and 703
oil production in 692, 695
“resource rich, labor abundant categorization” and 690
al-Qaeda 10, 277, 282
Aluminum Bahrain (ALBA) 700–701
Amazon region 632–633, 674
American Anthropological Association Committee for Human Rights 676
American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) 387
American Petroleum Institute (API) 116
Americans for Prosperity 387
Angola
Chinese investment in 740
civil war in 282
corporate social responsibility and 240–241
energy interdependence and 153
natural resource rents in 699
oil exports from 14
resource curse and 648
Arab Spring 327, 699, 704
The Arctic
Arctic Circle Assembly and 604
climate change and 244
corporate social responsibility and 244
energy justice and 480
energy regionalism and 173, 175, 178
methane hydrates and 34
oil production projects in 483, 696
Polar Silk Road Initiative and 604
Argentina
center-left governments in 663
China and 656, 763
currency crisis (2001) in 670
electricity infrastructure in 77
energy regionalism and 178
energy subsidies in 672
hydraulic fracturing and 6
national oil company in 664–667, 669
nuclear power and 44–47
privatization in 665–666, 764
state-market relations in 665–670
(p. 776) Arizona 418
Armenia
electricity and 486
energy source overview in 466
Eurasian Economic Union and 479
nuclear energy in 45–46, 484
Russia’s energy diplomacy and 303, 481
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 595, 599
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 333, 595
Asia-Pacific region
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and 158, 161, 164–165
Association of Southeast Asian Nations and 173, 175, 178, 184, 599, 604
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and 591, 595, 597, 603
climate change and 600–601, 604
coal and 595, 601–602
electricity and 591–592, 595, 599, 605
energy governance and 599, 604–605
energy justice 595, 601, 605, 760
energy regionalism and 176
energy security and 592, 598, 600–601, 605, 758–759
energy subsidies and 602, 605, 769
Eurasia and 592–593, 603
hydropower and 600–601, 605
mining and 601–602
offshore oil drilling and 114
oil and 595–598, 602, 604
pipelines and 595–599, 601–603, 605
Polar Silk Road Initiative and 604
renewable energy and 596, 600
South China Sea and 592, 595, 598
al-Assad, Bashar 282
associated gas 473, 484
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 173, 175, 178, 184, 599, 604
Australia
Asia-Pacific region and 597
carbon capture and storage technology and 702
climate change and 347
coal and 15
energy interdependence and 153, 294
energy justice and 220
energy liberalism and 160–161, 166
energy regulation regimes in 105
liquefied natural gas and 110
renewable energy and 14–16
Austria 431, 434
automobile emissions standards 359, 577
Aylwin, José 675
Azerbaijan
attempts to establish independent export routes by 465
Caspian Sea region and 473
corporate social responsibility and 240
electricity and 486
energy source overview in 466
energy subsidies and 480
oil production and 28
sovereign wealth fund of 480
B
Bahrain 696, 698–701
Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline 603
Baldwin, David 254–256, 260–261, 263
Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) 597
Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP) 446
Baltic Sea 106, 265, 450
Bangladesh
Bangladesh-Bhutan-India-Nepal Group (BBIN) and 603
Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar (BCIM) Economic Corridor and 604
hydroelectric power in 601
nuclear power and 44, 47, 771
refugees in India from 544
Barkindo, Mohammad 329
Belarus
Chernobyl nuclear accident and 57
electricity and 486
energy source overview in 467
Eurasian Economic Union and 479
nuclear power and 44, 47
Russia’s energy diplomacy and 283, 299, 303, 479, 481–482
Belgium 45–46, 431, 434–435
Belize 412
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) 183, 524–525, 591, 595, 597, 603
(p. 777) Bin Laden, Osama 282
Bin Salman, Mohammed 700
biomass
advantages versus disadvantages of 137, 139–140
biodiesel and 131
bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and 358–360
Brazil and 626, 628
carbon dioxide emissions and 139–140
climate change and 347, 349
community-owned enterprises developing 766
cooking and 202, 534–535, 732
definition of 131
electricity and 44, 71, 74, 82–83, 133–139
energy crops and 132–133, 143
energy security and 261, 264
European Union and 432–433
flexibility of 126, 139
gender and 202
heating and 133, 139–140
India and 534–535, 541–542, 547
percentage of global energy consumption from 24
renewability of 7, 23, 131, 484, 766
stored solar energy in 132
sub-Saharan Africa and 732, 741
total global installed capacity of 142–143
United States and 373, 375–376
Black Sea 184, 483
Bolivia
center-left governments in 663
constitution in 676
corporate social responsibility and 240
energy regionalism and 178
energy subsidies in 671–672
hydropower in 666, 674
indigenous communities in 675–676
national oil company in 664–666
natural gas in 675
privatization in 665–666
state-market relations in 665–667
underground investments and 652
Bosporus Strait 689
Botswana 738
BP (British Petroleum) 28, 351, 373–374, 477, 700
Brandeis, Louis D. 384
Brazil
Agência Nacional do Petróleo in 620, 622, 669
Amazon region and 632–633
Brazilian Network of Environmental Justice and 678, 773
center-left governments in 663
China and 656, 763
Concessions Law in 631
constitution (1988) and 631
corruption in 620–621, 623–624
debt crisis (1980s) and 626
deforestation and 632–633
deregulation and 627
electricity in 74, 617–620, 625, 627–631, 634, 764
energy consumption growth in 4–5
energy governance and 617–620, 633
energy nationalism and 160–161, 166
energy regionalism and 178, 181, 183
Energy Research Company in 632
energy security and 257, 618–621, 632–633
environmental licensing for energy projects in 678
ethanol and 257, 617–618, 620, 625–628, 634, 756, 773
federalism in 758, 764
hydropower in 618, 628, 632, 634, 674, 676–677
industrialization and 617–619, 621–623, 625, 629, 631, 633, 761
Interconnected Operation Coordination Group and 630
Lava Jato scandal (2014) in 620, 623–624
Ministry for Mines and Energy and 620
National Congress and 622, 624, 629, 631
National Council of Energy Policy and 620
National Electricity Agency and 620, 629
natural gas and 620, 623, 628, 633
Natural Gas and Biofuels Agency and 620
New Development Bank and 333
nuclear power and 44–47, 284, 628
(p. 778) Oil Shock (1970s) and 626
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and 163
Petrobras and 619–625, 628, 634, 664, 765
Petroleum Law and 622, 624
Pre-Salt Law and 623–624
price freezes (2008) in 624
privatization in 617, 619–620, 622, 629, 631–632
Proálcool Program and 626
Real Plan and 620
renewable energy in 14–15, 142–143, 354, 628, 634
state-market relations in 665–667, 669
Sugar and Alcohol Institute (IAA) in 625, 627
Sustainable Development Goals and 740
System Planning Coordination Group and 630
Water Code and 629
wind power in 14–15, 628
Workers’ Party (PT) in 620, 623–624
Brexit vote (2016) 429, 444–445
British Columbia (Canada) 386, 414–415, 418
Brown, Carl 689
Brunei 604, 699
Bulgaria
energy import dependency and 434
energy security and 259, 447
gross national consumption by fuel in 431
nuclear power and 45–46, 63
Bunsen, Robert 31
Burkina Faso 734
Bush, George W. 381, 417, 420, 689
Buzek, Jerzy 446
C
Cáceres, Berta 674
Calder Hall 1 reactor (United Kingdom), 46
California
carbon cap and trade system in 359, 382, 417–419, 421
electricity infrastructure in 77
emissions standards in 387, 389
energy production totals in 376
energy security and 258, 261
oil spills and 380
renewable energy in 138–139, 385–386, 389, 392
Western Climate Initiative and 418
California Arabian Standard Oil Company (CASOC) 687
Canada. See also North America
Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA) and 409, 414
China and 423, 771
electricity and 81, 412, 415–416
energy interdependence and 153
energy liberalism and 160, 166
energy regionalism and 178–179, 183
energy regulation regimes in 105
energy trade with the United States and 410, 412–416
federalism in 408, 410–411, 764
hydraulic fracturing and 6
hydropower and 15, 411–412, 416, 757
Keystone XL pipeline and 407, 414
Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline and 414–415
Kyoto Protocol and 409, 417
Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord and 418
National Energy Policy (NEP) and 413–414
National Oil Policy and 413
natural gas production and 35, 411
North American Energy Working Group and 420
North American Free Trade Agreement and 419, 422
nuclear power and 45–46, 51, 62
oil and natural gas infrastructure in 103–104, 106, 108, 111–112, 411
oil production in 11, 14, 29, 35, 411, 413
Petro-Canada and 4
Regional Greenhouse Gas Inventory program and 418
renewable energy and 14–15
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement and 407–409, 420–421, 423
Western Climate Initiative and 418
(p. 779) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. See also greenhouse gasses (GHG)
Asia-Pacific region and 595, 598
biomass and 139–140
cap and trade systems and 351, 382–383, 387, 417, 419, 421, 514
carbon capture and storage (CCS) and 25, 74, 345, 358, 360, 702
carbon pricing and 92, 359, 382, 418
carbon taxes and 351, 358, 382, 391, 769
China and 514
climate change and 37, 343–348, 357–358, 360
coal and 25, 31, 37, 378
electricity production and 79, 83, 735
electric vehicles and 81
European Union and 429, 432–433
Japan and 576
Kyoto Protocol and 478
Mayors’ Climate Protection Agreement and 735, 772
natural gas and 31, 37, 377–378
nuclear power and 48, 50–51, 391
oil and 31, 37
Paris Agreement (2015) and 83
renewable energy and 84
sub-Saharan Africa and 735
United States and 377–378, 381–384, 386–388, 391
Cárdenas, Lázaro 413
Cardoso, Henrique 622, 631–632
The Caribbean 656, 671
Carter doctrine 283
Caspian Sea region 176, 178, 180–181, 184, 473
Central Asia-South Asia (CASA-1000) power project 605
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 280
Chad 278, 281
Chávez, Hugo
Bolivarian Revolution (1999) and 647
foreign policy and 656–657
oil industry reorganization and 652–653
Petróleos de Venezuela and 653–654, 658, 766
social programs of 654–655
Cheney, Dick 420
Cheniere Energy 110
Chernobyl nuclear accident (Soviet Union, 1986)
death total from 7, 57
declines in nuclear power use following 7, 55, 284, 571
ecological contamination from 7, 57
evacuations following 57
long-term health consequences in surrounding area and 57–59
reactor design at 57
Soviet nuclear industry’s poor safety record and 484
Chesapeake Energy 34, 330
Chevron 11, 28, 623, 667, 669
Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) 324–325
Chile
electricity in 82, 668
energy regionalism and 178
Mapuche community in 675–676
protests against hydropower dams in 674, 676–678, 773
state-market relations in 666, 668
China
19th Party Congress in 524
air pollution and 507, 510, 519–520, 524
Asia-Pacific region and 591, 597
Belt and Road Initiative and 183, 524–525, 591, 595, 597, 603
Canada investments by 423
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and 514
China Banking Regulatory Commission and 334
China Development Bank and 333, 518, 656
China Export and Import Bank (CHEXIM) and 333
China National Offshore Oil Corporation and 521
China National Petroleum Company and 11, 512, 521–523
Chinese Communist Party and 510–511, 514, 522
climate change and 344–345, 354, 356–357, 507–508, 512, 524–525
(p. 780) corruption in 511
credit markets in 333–335
cybersecurity and 770
decentralization in 513, 523–524, 758
electricity in 74, 88, 509–511, 515, 517, 520–521, 524
electric vehicles in 81
Energy Bureau and 522
energy consumption by fuel source in 510
energy consumption by sector in 509
energy consumption growth in 4–5, 303, 321, 331–332, 344–345, 356–357, 771
energy diplomacy and 297
energy governance and 511, 516–517, 525
energy interdependence and 152–153, 156, 294
energy nationalism and 160
energy regionalism and 174, 179, 183
energy resource wars and 156
energy security and 254, 259, 261, 264–265
energy subsidies and 165
European Union and 452, 519
Five-Year Plans in 507, 514, 516, 519–520
Global Financial Crisis and 332
greenhouse gasses (GHG) and 507–508
high-technology zones (HTZs) and 518
hydraulic fracturing and 6
hydropower and 508, 510, 601
India and 534, 537, 600
International Energy Agency and 163
Iran and 282
liquefied natural gas and 110
loans-for-oil deals and 301
mining in 519–520, 523, 601
Ministries for Petroleum and Petrochemicals and 512
Ministry of Coal and 519–520, 546
Ministry of Ecology and Environment and 512
Ministry of Environmental Protection and 520
Ministry of Finance and 514
Ministry of Petroleum Industry in 521–522
National Development and Reform Commission and 511–512, 520–521
National Energy Administration and 514, 520–522
natural gas and 31, 284, 305, 307, 521–523, 525
New Development Bank and 333
nuclear power in 14–15, 43–47, 50, 55, 61–63, 284, 515
oil and natural gas infrastructure in 101, 104, 106
“petroleum clique” in 511
pipelines and 521, 525
Polar Silk Road Initiative and 604
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue and 598
renewable energy and 14–15, 85, 142–143, 354, 359, 507, 510, 514–521, 524–525, 757, 762, 769
Renewable Energy Law and 516
shadow banking and 334
shale oil and 327, 329
solar power in 14–15, 85, 359, 507, 517–519, 762
South China Sea claims and 10, 278, 285–286, 592
State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission and 522
State Council in 511–512, 514, 517, 521–522
State Grid and 517
state-owned enterprises in 512, 515, 519, 522
State Petroleum and Chemical Industry Bureau and 522
Sustainable Development Goals and 740
United States and 264, 285–286, 519, 525, 598, 606
Venezuela and 650, 654–657, 763
wind power and 14–15, 507, 515–517, 520, 757, 769
World War II and 280
The China Syndrome (film) 60
Christie, Chris 387
Chubu Electric 574
Churchill, Winston 259, 261, 279
CITGO 655
Clean Air Act (United States) 383, 387, 411
Clean Power Plan (United States) 379, 383, 388, 411, 423
(p. 781) climate change
adaptation strategies and 7, 13
Asia-Pacific region and 600–601, 604
automobile emissions standards and 359
business’ energy-related policy and 350–353
carbon dioxide and 37, 343–348, 357–358, 360
citizens’ preferences and 346–350
Climate Change Action Plan and 418
Climate Change Convention and 739
coal and 343, 345, 351–352
community ownership arrangements and 349–350
corporate social responsibility and 12, 244
decarbonization and 344, 347–350, 353, 357–358
deforestation and 382
divestment movement and 351
electricity and 344, 347–350, 352, 354, 357–358
energy innovation and 358–359
energy interdependence and 156–157
energy justice and 16–17, 226–227, 350
energy regionalism and 174–175, 179, 187
energy security and 254, 266, 357
Environmental Kuznets Curve and 357
Eurasia and 478, 483, 485, 492
European Union and 352–353, 437–438, 447, 451–452, 578
extreme weather events and 349
fossil fuels and 5–6, 13, 23–25, 36–37, 343–345, 350, 356, 358
gender and 197, 200, 202, 205, 209
geoengineering and 360
greenhouse gasses and 6, 13, 37, 343–347, 351, 354–355
hydraulic fracturing and 307
hydropower and 347, 352
India and 13, 344–345, 357, 542, 545, 548–549
international conflict and 276
International Panel on Climate Change and 4, 382
Kyoto Protocol and 409, 417, 437, 478, 492, 564, 578
Latin America and 679
natural gas and 343, 345, 351–352
negative emissions technology and 359–360
North America and 407, 416–421
nuclear power and 51, 63, 347, 352, 391, 771
oil and 343, 345, 350–352, 356
oil and natural gas infrastructure and 117–118
Paris Agreement (2015) and 69
political institutions and 353–354
regional utilities and 765
renewable energy and 6, 13, 23, 141, 143, 344–345, 347–356, 358–359
renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and 349, 384–389
solar radiation management and 361
subnational governments and 764
sub-Saharan Africa and 357, 732, 739–741, 743
Sustainable Development Goals and 732, 739–740
transnationalism and 354–356, 763
United Nations Framework on Climate Change and 4, 343, 354–355, 383, 417, 606
United States and 347–348, 353–354, 378, 381–384, 386–390, 392, 418
wind power and 344–345, 349, 352, 354, 359
Clinton, Bill 392, 419
coal
air pollution and 25
Asia-Pacific region and 595, 601–602
broad availability of 15, 25
carbon dioxide and 25, 31, 37, 378
climate change and 343, 345, 351–352
coalbed methane and 27, 33–34, 385
corporate social responsibility and 233, 236–237
electricity production and 25, 37, 44, 71, 73–74, 76, 81, 83–84, 90, 275, 284, 711, 758, 761
energy interdependence through markets and 153–155, 157
(p. 782) energy regionalism and 174–175
energy security and 252, 264
Eurasia and 15, 26, 466–472, 478, 482, 484–485
European Union and 15, 430, 432–433, 435, 476
fossil fuel status of 23
geographic overview of production of 26
global politics and 309
international conflict and 283–284
Japan and 58, 564–566, 580, 759
low cost of production of 15
Middle East and North Africa region and 26, 689–691, 693, 701–702, 705–706, 766
North America and 412, 416, 422–423
Oil Crisis (1970s) and 284
paraffin and 28
percentage of global energy consumption from 11, 24
price of 155
South Africa and 16–17, 690, 711–720, 757–758
sub-Saharan Africa and 26, 732, 735–736, 740
United States and 15, 284, 373, 375–378, 383, 385, 387, 391–393
Cold War
end of 250–251
energy regionalism and 174
Japan and 568
nuclear weapons and 6
oil markets and 303
Persian Gulf region and 688
Venezuela and 759
Colombia
Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos (ANH) and 669
electricity in 669
energy subsidies in 671
national oil company in 665
opposition to wind farms in 759
protests against hydrocarbon extraction in 673–674
state-market relations in 665, 669, 671
Colorado 390
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) 324
community development agreements (CDAs) 243
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 570
Congo Civil War (1960–64) 156
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 715, 766
ConocoPhillips 28
Continental Resources energy company 34
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 12, 205–206
cooking
gender and 198, 202–204, 208–209, 760
India and 535–536, 541–542, 760
sub-Saharan Africa and 732, 737, 739, 742
Coriolis force 130
Coronil, Fernando 647–649
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards 380
corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Asia-Pacific region and 601
business’ reasons for engaging in 238–241
climate change and 12, 244
coal and 233, 236–237
community development agreements and 243
defining features of 11–12, 234–235
energy sector market dynamics and 236–237
environmental impact assessments and 239
Eurasia and 238, 480–481
foreign direct investment and 238, 243–244
free prior and informed consent and 243, 773
indigenous communities and 243
International Monetary Fund and 242, 763
international oil companies (IOCs) and 241
mining and 236–237, 239, 242–243
natural gas and 236, 244
obsolescing bargain hypothesis and 236
oil and 233–237, 239, 241–242, 244
operational risks associated with 242
(p. 783) renewable energy and 237, 244, 770
women’s right to energy and 207
World Bank and 242, 763
Correa, Rafael 676
corruption
Asia-Pacific region and 600
Brazil and 620–621, 623–624
in China 511
energy regionalism 174
Eurasia and 479–480, 482, 493, 764
India and 539
international conflict and 278
Japan and 568
South Africa and 711, 716–717, 722–723
Venezuela and 647, 649, 657
Costa Rica 671, 678
Crimea conflict (2014) 284, 301, 305, 446, 483
Croatia 431, 434
Cuba 262, 282, 656
Cushing (Oklahoma) 108
cybersecurity 116, 598–599, 602, 604–605, 770
Cyprus 431, 434
Czech Republic
energy consumption levels by fuel in 431
energy security and 447
import dependency by fuel in 434
nuclear power and 45–46, 52, 63
D
Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) 415
Danish Oil and Natural Gas (DONG) 351
decarbonization
climate change and 344, 347–350, 353, 357–358
European Union and 444, 447–448, 452
financial costs of 348
gender and 199, 209
India and 547–551
Japan and 563, 580, 582
Latin America and 672
North America and 421–422
security benefits of 348
South Africa and 721
United States and 388, 390, 392
Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010) 117, 373–374
deforestation
Brazil and 632–633
climate change and 382
cookstoves proposed as means of mitigating 202
Defenders of the Chilean Forest and 675
gender and 209
India and 542
sub-Saharan Africa and 741
Delors, Jacques 446
Delta Airlines 106
Democratic Party (United States) 379, 381
Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) 563, 568, 571, 575, 580
Democratic Republic of Congo 241
Denmark 85, 261, 349, 429, 431, 434
deregulation
Brazil and 627
electricity markets and 82, 258
energy security and 258–259
Japan and 575, 582
Latin America and 667, 669
Mexico and 670
United States and 381, 762
desalination 62–63, 114, 690, 694
Desertec Industrial Initiative 704
divestment movement 351
Djibouti 689
Dominican Republic 672
Dominion Energy 110
Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) 241
Drake, Edwin 29, 31
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 700–701, 706
Dubai Ports World 701
Dutch disease 200, 311, 479, 648–649
E
Earthlife Africa Johannesburg 721
Earth Summit (1992) 381
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 205–206
Ecuador
center-left governments in 663
China and 656, 763
constitution in 676
energy subsidies in 672
hydropower in 674
indigenous communities in 676
underground rents and 652
(p. 784) Edison, Thomas 31
Egypt
coal and 693, 702
energy consumption profile of 693
hydropower in 693
natural gas and 691–692, 702
natural resource rents in 687, 698–700
nuclear power and 702
oil production in 687, 692, 695
renewable energy in 693
“resource poor, labor abundant distinction” and 690
Straits of Tiran closure (1957) and 298
Suez Crisis (1956) and 280–281
Yom Kippur War (1973) and 281
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 280
electricity
air conditioning and 79
alternating current (AC) and 71–72, 76, 88, 704
Asia-Pacific region and 591–592, 595, 599, 605
blackouts and 77, 80, 88, 578, 668, 737
Brazil and 74, 617–620, 625, 627–631, 634, 764
China and 74, 88, 509–511, 515, 517, 520–521, 524
climate change and 344, 347–350, 352, 354, 357–358
coal used in production of 25, 37, 44, 71, 73–74, 76, 81, 83–84, 90, 275, 284, 711, 758, 761
demand for 71–73, 78–82
deregulation and 82, 258
direct current (DC) and 71–72, 76, 704
distributed infrastructures and 89
electric vehicles (EVs) and 81, 88–92, 260, 697
energy interdependence and 152
energy justice and 70, 82, 221
energy regionalism and 173–175, 180–182, 186
energy security and 249–250, 252–253, 257–261, 264–266
Eurasia and 473, 485–490, 492
European Union and 88, 309, 429, 435–436, 441–442, 444, 446–448
fossil fuel use in production of 23, 25, 35–37, 43, 73–75, 79, 83–85
gender and 71, 82, 91, 198–201, 204–205, 207
generation of 73–76
global politics and 295, 305–311
grid management and 77–78, 86–92
hydropower used in production of 44, 71, 74–76, 79, 83, 136, 141
India and 77, 533–543, 546–551, 765
Japan and 564–565, 568–569, 575, 577
Latin America and 665–671, 679
lower-income states and 358
Middle East and North Africa and 77, 694, 702–705
natural gas used in production of 31–32, 35, 37, 44, 71, 73–74, 83–84, 88, 90
North America and 408–413, 415–416, 419, 421
nuclear power used in generation of 6–8, 43–46, 48–52, 58, 61, 63, 73–74, 76, 79, 84, 90, 711
oil use in production of 29, 35, 44, 74, 84, 90
Paris Agreement (2015) and 69, 83
power density and 70, 73, 79–80, 83–84, 86–87, 89
prosumers and 80, 85, 88–89, 92, 442
renewable energy and 8, 16, 69, 83–90, 125–130, 133–143, 350
solar power used in production of 44, 71, 74, 76, 84, 88
South Africa and 711–723, 735, 738, 765
sub-Saharan Africa and 69–70, 77–78, 732–738, 742
super grids and 87–88
thermal power and 83–84, 87–90
thermodynamics and 72
transformers and 71, 73, 77
transmission and distribution of 72, 76–77, 79
turbines 8, 69, 71, 74, 84
United States and 74, 77, 88, 375–378, 380–381, 383–387, 389, 415
urbanization and 70, 78–80
wind power used in production of 74, 77, 88, 375–378, 380–381, 383–387, 389, 415
(p. 785) Eletrobras 619, 629–630, 632
El Salvador 672
eminent domain 104–105
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) 158, 161, 181, 477, 597
energy conservation
United States and 380, 389
energy democracy 85–86, 92, 350, 390, 392, 766
energy governance
Asia-Pacific region and 599, 604–605
Brazil and 617–620, 633
China and 511, 516–517, 525
energy interdependence and 152, 156–158, 162, 165–166, 759
energy regionalism and 563–565, 576–578, 581–582
European Union (EU) and 105, 298, 762
gender and 207–208
global politics and 295, 297–298, 763
International Energy Agency and 4
Latin America and 663
liberal approach to geopolitics and 10, 759
North America and 409
Russia and 477–478
South Africa and 720
energy interdependence
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and 158, 161, 164–165
climate change and 156–157
electricity and 152
energy governance and 152, 156–158, 162, 165–166, 759
energy markets and 151–154, 156–157, 159–162, 164–166
energy nationalism versus energy liberalism and 159–167, 759, 765
energy regionalism and 182–183
energy security and 9, 151–155, 157, 160–161, 163
energy subsidies and 163–165
European Union (EU) and 153, 158
foreign direct investment and 153
geopolitics and 155, 759
global politics and 294–295, 303
intergovernmental institutions and 157–163
international trade in energy commodities and 153
natural gas and 154157
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and 153–158
resource wars and 156
energy justice
Asia-Pacific region and 595, 601, 605, 760
Brazil and 634
climate change and 16–17, 226–227, 350
defining features of 12, 218
electricity access and 70, 82, 221
electricity and 70, 82, 221
energy access and 12
energy consumption and 220–222
energy poverty and 220–226, 759–760
energy production and 12, 222–223
energy security and 220–221, 223
energy vulnerability and 217, 221, 224, 226, 759
environmental justice and 217–219, 222–223, 226
framing of discussions of 225–227
gender and 207, 210, 221, 224
India and 223, 760
intersectionality and 224
Latin America and 760
renewable energy and 222–223
Russia and 480–481
sub-Saharan Africa and 734–735, 742
United States and 392
energy markets
Arab Spring (2011) and 327
Asia-Pacific region and 598
Brent benchmark and 325
commodity exchange system and 324–325
energy democracy and 85–86, 92
energy interdependence and 151–154, 156–157, 159–162, 164–166
energy market cycles and 156, 166
energy regionalism and 181, 187
energy security and 252
European Union and 436, 442
geopolitcal events and 326–327
global politics and 297, 301, 305–306, 310
(p. 786) hedge funds and 326
international political economy of energy (IPEE) and 322, 335–336
Latin America and 664
national oil companies and 323, 332–333
North America and 409, 414
oil and 321–336
oil and gas infrastructure and 99
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and 321–322, 327–333, 336
renewable energy and 125
shale oil and 322–323, 327–331, 336
sovereign wealth funds and 311, 336
Strategic Petroleum Reserve and 332
volatility and 154, 335–336
energy mercantilism 297
energy poverty
Eastern Europe and 200
energy justice and 220–226, 759–760
energy security and 251
fuel poverty compared to 12, 759
gender and 12, 198–203, 205–206, 758
global South and 200, 221
India and 533–534
sub-Saharan Africa and 732, 738
energy regionalism
African Union and 174
The Arctic and 173, 175, 178
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and, CROSS
Belt and Road Initiative and 183, 524–525
Caspian region and 176, 178, 180–181, 184, 473
climate change and 174–175, 179, 187
conflicts emerging from 186
corruption and 174
electricity and 173–175, 180–182, 186
energy governance and 563–565, 576–578, 581–582
energy interdependence and 182–183
energy markets and 181, 187
energy security and 173, 185–186
Eurasia and 176, 178, 180, 183
geopolitics and 181, 184, 187
Gulf Cooperation Council and 180
Latin America and 176, 181, 185–186
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and 175–176, 178–179, 183
mining and 184
natural gas and 174–175, 180, 182, 185, 187
North America and 17, 173, 175–176, 183, 759, 763
oil and 173, 175, 178–182, 187
pipelines and 173–175, 180–181, 186
regional development banks and 183–184, 187
renewable energy and 174–175, 187
South China Sea and 179
sub-Saharan Africa and 176, 180–181, 184, 187
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and 183
energy sanctions 294, 299–301, 305–306, 308, 758
energy security
Asia-Pacific region and 592, 598, 600–601, 605, 758–759
Brazil and 257, 618–621, 632–633
China and 254, 259, 261, 264–265
climate change and 254, 266, 357
coal and 252, 264
cybersecurity and 766–767
deductive approach to 255–256
demand security and 262, 481
deregulation and 258–259
electricity and 249–250, 252–253, 257–261, 264–266
energy interdependence and 9, 151–155, 157, 160–161, 163
energy justice and 220–221, 223
energy markets and 252
energy poverty and 251
energy prices and 153–155
energy regionalism and 173, 185–186
Eurasia and 252, 261, 472–473, 478, 481–483, 492–493
European Energy Security Strategy and 438, 446
European Union and 259–260, 265, 436–439, 445–449, 453
geopolitics and 251–252
Germany and 265–266
(p. 787) Global Energy Assessment (GEA) and 252–253
global politics and 295, 297, 310
hydropower and 252
India and 534–535, 545, 550
indicator and assessment framework and 252–253
international conflict and 10, 285
International Energy Agency and 4, 258–260
Israel and 254
Japan and 266, 563–564, 567, 571, 576–577, 582
natural gas and 252, 254, 256, 259–261, 266
nuclear power and 252–253, 260, 265
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Counties and 249–250
pipelines and 249, 252, 265
as polysemic concept 253–254
renewable energy and 7, 125, 143, 259
resilience and 253, 256–260, 262–263, 761
risk and 250, 252–253, 256–264
Russia and 259, 265, 481–483
securitization approach to 254
security jargon and 254, 265–266
sub-Saharan Africa and 737
supply security and 250–252
United States and 258, 381
vital energy systems and 250, 253, 255–257, 260, 262–265
vulnerability and 255–257, 259–260, 263–265
energy subsidies
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and 165
Asia-Pacific region and 602, 605, 769
energy interdependence and 163–165
environmental impact of 672
Eurasia and 480
G20 summit (2009) and 164
global politics and 299, 303
Latin America and 664, 671–672, 677, 760, 762
Middle East and North Africa and 690, 701, 762
Enron 77
environmental justice
climate change and 348
defining features of 218–219
energy infrastructures and 8
energy justice and 217–219, 222–223, 226
Latin America and 678, 773
United States and 392
Environmental Kuznets Curve 357
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 380, 383, 387
Equatorial Guinea 699
Equinor 351
Eskom
coal and 711, 715
corruption in 717
debt of 716
Department of Energy and 717
factions in 723
nuclear energy and 718–719, 721
renewable energy and 16, 711, 718–720
state-owned monopoly status of 711, 714–716, 719
Estonia 430–431, 434
ethanol
Brazil and 257, 617–618, 620, 625–628, 634, 756, 773
energy security and 257
rail cars used in transportation of 111
stored solar energy in 132
United States and 627
Eurasia
Asia-Pacific region and 592–593, 603
climate change and 478, 483, 485, 492
coal and 15, 26, 466–472, 478, 482, 484–485
corporate social responsibility and 238, 480–481
corruption in 479–480, 482, 493, 764
electricity and 473, 485–490, 492
energy regionalism and 176, 178, 180, 183
energy security and 252, 261, 472–473, 478, 481–483, 492–493
energy source overview in 466–470
environmental impact of energy issues in 483–485, 492
Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and 183, 453, 476, 478–479, 482
(p. 788) fossil fuels and 30, 32, 478, 484–485, 492
hydropower and 484–485, 492
natural gas and 466–474, 476–478, 482, 484
oil production in 14, 466–477, 480–484, 492, 756
renewable energy and 473, 478, 481, 484–485, 493
Russia’s dominant role in 465, 472
European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) 435–436, 438, 441
European Community (EC) 435
European Community on Coal and Steel (ECCS) 180, 435–436, 438
European Economic Community (EEC) 435
European Union (EU)
Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) and 441–442
Brexit vote (2016) and 429, 444–445
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and 429, 432–433
China and 452, 519
Clean and Secure Energy for All Europeans and 448
climate change and 352–353, 437–438, 447, 451–452, 578
coal and 15, 430, 432–433, 435, 476
Court of Justice and 440, 442
Crimea conflict (2014) and 305
decarbonization and 444, 447–448, 452
Directive on Renewable Energy and 437
electricity and 88, 309, 429, 435–436, 441–442, 444, 446–448
electric vehicles in 81
Emissions Trading System (ETS) and 437
Energy Acquis Communautaire and 450–451
energy consumption profile by fuel in 430
Energy Diplomacy Action Plan and 449
energy governance in 105, 298, 762
energy interdependence and 153, 158
energy liberalism and 160–161, 166
energy markets and 436, 442
energy regionalism and 173–176, 178, 180–181, 187
energy security and 259–260, 265, 436–439, 445–449, 453
Energy Union and 173, 429, 435, 440, 446–453
EU Commission and 429, 431, 434, 439–442, 449, 451
European Energy Security Strategy and 438, 446
European Networks of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE) and 442
European Networks of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG) and 442
Eurozone crisis (2009) and 452
federalism and 437
Foreign Affairs Council and 440
foreign policy and 440–441
fossil fuels and 430–433, 453
fuel poverty and 220
Green Deal (European Union) and 435, 451–452
greenhouse gas emissions in 579
intergovernmentalism in 431–432, 443, 758
international conflict and 285
Lisbon Treaty 431, 433, 438–439, 442–443
Maastricht Treaty (1993) 436
National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs) and 448
natural gas and 429–434, 438, 447–448, 450, 757
nuclear power and 429, 435
oil and 429–431, 434, 453
Parliamentary Committee on Industry, Research & Energy (ITRE) and 442
renewable energy and 14–15, 430, 437, 444, 447–448, 580
Russia and 430, 438, 449–450, 476, 483, 492
Single European Act (1987) and 435–436
supranationalism and 185, 431, 433, 435, 443, 758
Sustainable Energy Security Package and 448
Third Energy Market Package 436, 443, 450
transmission system operators (TSOs) and 436, 441–442, 450
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) and 437
Union for the Mediterranean and 450, 704
ExxonMobil 11, 28, 234, 330, 351–352
F
(p. 789) Falklands War (1982) 156
Federal Power Commission (FPC) 380
Fermi, Enrico 47
Finland
energy consumption levels by fuel in 431
energy import dependency in 434
energy imports from Russia and 430
natural gas and 259
nuclear power and 45–47, 54, 62
First Gulf War (1990–91) 10, 276–277, 281–282, 293–294, 694
foreign direct investment (FDI) 238, 243–244
fossil fuels. See also specific fuels
air pollution and 7, 25, 36, 38
Asia-Pacific region and 595, 600
Brazil and 617, 626–627
China and 507, 510, 512
climate change and 5–6, 13, 23–25, 36–37, 343–345, 350, 356, 358
definition of 6, 23
electricity production and 23, 25, 35–37, 43, 73–75, 79, 83–85
energy interdependence and 165
energy subsidies and 165, 672
Eurasia and 30, 32, 478, 484–485, 492
European Union and 430–433, 453
geographic distribution of 13–16, 29
global politics and 294, 309
greenhouse gasses and 37, 125
India and 535, 548
Japan and 563, 567, 580
North America and 26, 30, 32, 411, 421
offshore drilling and 8
percentage of global energy consumption from 11, 23–24, 99
transportability of 126, 139
typology of 25–32
United States and 23–24, 31, 375–381, 388, 391–392
fracking. See hydraulic fracturing
France
carbon dioxide emissions in 432
electric vehicles in 81
energy consumption profile of 431–432
energy import dependency and 434
European Union and 435
Mediterranean Solar Plan and 704
nuclear power and 14–15, 43–47, 52, 55, 62, 429, 570, 582, 771
Pentalateral Energy Forum and 446
renewable energy and 142, 349
Suez Crisis (1956) and 281
Fredonia Gas Light Company 31
free prior and informed consent (FPIC) 243, 773
Friends of Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform 164
fuel cell technology 697
Fukushima nuclear accident (Japan, 2011)
death total from 7
decline in nuclear power use following 43–44, 58, 284, 350, 515, 567, 570, 573–574, 578, 766
earthquake and tsunami preceding 58, 571–572
ecological contamination from 7
energy conservation methods encouraged following 578
evacuations following 58, 563
Independent Investigation Commission and 572
Japanese utilities companies’ lost political power following 580
long-term health consequences near site of 58–59
nuclear reactor design and 572, 581–582
G
G8 countries 355, 763
G20 countries 158, 161, 164–165, 355
al-Gaddafi, Muammar, 277–278 281–282, 327
Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) 158, 162–163
gasoline
bans on automobiles using 81
fossil fuels and production of 23, 27, 29, 31
refineries and 106–107
Gazprom 305, 450, 473–476, 493
Geisel, Ernesto 626
gender
air pollution and 200, 202
climate change and 197, 200, 202, 205, 209
constructivist approach to 210
(p. 790) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and 12, 205–206
cooking and 198, 202–204, 208–209, 760
decarbonization and 199, 209
deforestation and 209
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and 205–206
electricity and 71, 82, 91, 198–201, 204–205, 207
energy governance and 207–208
energy justice and 207, 210, 221, 224
energy poverty and 12, 198–203, 205–206, 758
globalization and 201
global South and 197–198, 200–201, 204–205, 208, 221
households and 198–202, 206–207, 760
India and 17, 201–202, 207, 209, 542–543, 760
Millennium Development Goals and 203
renewable energy and 199–201
Russia and 481
sub-Saharan Africa and 733
Sustainable Development Goals and 12
women’s energy rights and 205–208
women’s health and 202–203
geopolitics. See also global politics
Asia Pacific region and 592–593, 597–598, 603–605
energy interdependence and 155, 759
energy regionalism and 181, 184, 187
energy security and 251–252
European Union and 435, 452
oil markets and 324, 327
sub-Saharan Africa and 740
Georgia 303, 467, 481, 487
geothermal energy
advantages versus disadvantages of 137
definition of 133
drilling needed to produce 140–141
earthquakes and 141
electricity production and 74, 134–135
Japan and 140, 581
limited transportability of 126
Russia and 484
space heating and 134, 140
total global installed capacity of 142–143
typology of 134–135
United States and 391
Germany
carbon dioxide emissions in 432
coal and 15
energy consumption profile in 431–432
energy import dependency and 434
energy security and 265–266
European Union and 432, 435, 444
Green Party in 347
Nordstream 2 Pipeline and 106, 265, 450
nuclear power and 45–46, 52–53, 58, 62–63, 770
Pentalateral Energy Forum 446
renewable energy and 14, 16, 84–85, 142–143, 266, 347, 349, 352, 359, 769
solar power and 359
wind power in 85, 266, 769
World War I and 276, 279
World War II and 279–280
Gesner, Abraham Pineo 28
Ghana 732, 739–740
Glencore 717
Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC) 202–203
globalization
Eurasia and 476–477
gender and 201
Latin America and 663, 665, 667, 675
oil markets and 323
Global North 198–200, 208–209, 220–222, 224
global politics. See also geopolitics
China and 508, 525
electricity and 295, 305–311
energy governance and 295, 297–298, 763
energy interdependence and 294–295, 303
energy markets and 297, 301, 305–306, 310
energy mercantilism and 297
energy sanctions and 294, 299–301, 305–306, 308, 758
fossil fuels and 294, 309
liberal approach to 297–298
natural gas and 306–307, 309–310
oil and 293–299, 301–311
(p. 791) pipelines and 303–304, 307, 310
realist approach to 295–297
renewable energy and 294, 297, 306–309, 311
sovereign wealth funds and 311
sub-Saharan Africa and 742
Global Reporting Initiative 243
Global South
energy justice and 220–221, 223–224, 226
energy poverty and 200, 221
women’s involvement in microenterprises in 204
global warming. See climate change
Gomez, Juan Vicente 645
Gordhan, Pravin 721
Great Recession 704
Greece 431, 434
Green Deal (European Union) 435, 451–452
green energy. See renewable energy
greenhouse gasses (GHG). See also carbon dioxide emissions (CO2)
Asia-Pacfic region and 595
China and 507–508
climate change and 6, 13, 37, 343–347, 351, 354–355
corporate social responsibility and 12
electricity generation and 74
energy consumption growth and 4
fossil fuel-based economy and 37, 125
hydropower infrastructure and 52, 137
Japan and 578–580
Middle East and North Africa and 688
nuclear power and 51–52, 59, 63
oil and gas infrastructure and 117
Oil Crisis (1970s) and reductions in 4
renewable energy and 125
Russia and 478, 483
United States and 378, 381–383, 386–389, 391–392, 579
Green New Deal 391
Greenpeace 672
Guatemala 674
Gulf Cooperation Council 180
Gulf of Mexico
offshore oil fields and 34, 114–115, 694
oil and natural gas infrastructure and 106–108, 110, 411
oil spills and 373–374
Gupta family (South Africa) 717
Guyana 674
H
Haliburton 374
Halliday, Fred 689
Hamas 278
Harper, Stephen 417
Hart, William 31
Hashimoto Ryūtarō 568
Hezbollah 278, 282
Hiroshima atomic attack (Japan, 1945) 6, 564, 569–570, 574
Hitler, Adolf 279–280
Hokkaido Electric Power Company 573
Honduras 674
households
climate change affected by behavior in 349, 358–359
electricity and 72, 75, 80, 82, 84, 91, 761
energy interdependence and 153, 163
energy justice and 220–221, 227
energy security and 261
gender and 198–202, 206–207, 760
India and 534–536, 538, 540–542, 548, 761
sub-Saharan Africa and 732, 734
Huawei 604
Human Rights Watch 676
Hungary
energy consumption levels by fuel in 431
energy security and 447
import dependency by fuel in 434
nuclear energy in 44–46, 63
Hussein, Saddam 277, 281, 293
hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
air pollution and, CROSS
climate change and 307
cost of 28
definition of 6, 23
earthquakes and 6–7, 24, 390
energy justice and 222
estimated global market impact of 307
horizontal drilling and 28, 33
Latin America and 664, 678
(p. 792) Middle East and North Africa and 766
natural gas extraction and, CROSS
North America and 411–412
research and development in 24
shale oil extraction and, CROSS
United States and 6, 23–24, 307, 377, 387, 389–390, 476–477, 757
water pollution and, CROSS
HydroAysén dam (Chile) 674, 676
hydropower
advantages versus disadvantages of 137, 140
Asia-Pacific region and 600–601, 605
Brazil and 618, 628, 632, 634, 674, 676–677
Carnot cycle and 128–129
China and 508, 510, 601
climate change and 347, 352
corporate social responsibility and 233
electricity production and 44, 71, 74–76, 79, 83, 136, 141
energy regionalism and 175
energy security and 252
Eurasia and 484–485, 492
global politics and 308
greenhouse gas emissions and 52, 137
India and 535, 545, 548, 601
Japan and 565
land required for production of 141
Latin America and 674, 676, 759
Middle East and North Africa and 689, 693, 766
North America and 416, 421, 757
percentage of world energy supply from 24
physics of 135–136
renewability of 7, 142
sub-Saharan Africa and 735
total global installed capacity of 142–143
turbines and 127–128, 136
United States and 375–376
Hydro-Quebec 416
I
Iceland 140
India
Asia-Pacific region and 591, 597–598, 603–604
caste system in 17, 540–541, 543
China and 534, 537, 600
climate change and 13, 344–345, 357, 542, 545, 548–549
constitution in 538
corruption in 539
decarbonization and 547–551
electricity in 77, 533–543, 546–551, 765
electric vehicles and 81
energy access politics in 535–543, 550
energy consumption growth in 4, 303, 344–345
energy independence politics in 543–547
energy interdependence and 153
energy justice and 223, 760
energy nationalism and 160, 166
energy poverty and 533–534
energy security and 534–535, 545, 550
energy subsidies in 762
gender and 17, 201–202, 207, 209, 542–543, 760
grid failure (2012) in 533
hydropower and 535, 545, 548, 601
Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) and 544
Indian Railways and 546
insurgencies in 591
International Energy Agency and 163
International Monetary Fund and 544
Kashmir and 592, 595
liquefied petroleum gas and 536, 538, 541–543, 551
mining in 601
Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change and 545, 548
Ministry of Finance and 548
natural gas and 535, 542, 544, 546–547
New Development Bank and 333
nuclear power and 44–47, 55, 63, 284, 535, 547
oil and 534–535, 539, 543–547
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation and 544
oil and natural gas infrastructure in 100, 106, 111
Pakistan and 539, 544, 600
Planning Commission and 534, 536–540
(p. 793) renewable energy and 142–143, 535, 547–548
rural electrification corporation and 538
solar power in 14–15
state electricity boards in 538–539, 541, 546
Sustainable Development Goals and 740
World Bank and 538–539, 544
indigenous communities 243, 407, 675–676, 773
Indonesia
Asia-Pacific region relations and 597
coal and 15
energy interdependence and 153
energy nationalism and 160–161, 166
energy subsidies and 165
geothermal energy and 140
Javanese culture and 602
liquefied natural gas and 110
South China Sea and 604
World War II and 280
Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) 115–116
industrialization
Brazil and 617–619, 621–623, 625, 629, 631, 633, 761
China and 507
electricity and 71, 73, 78, 82
gender inequality and 199
import-subsitution industrialization and 688, 761
Industrial Revolution and 6, 25, 382
Middle East and North Africa and 688–690
sub-Saharan Africa and 738
Venezuela and 648, 658
Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA) 674
Institute of Political Ecology 675
Interamerican Development Bank 183
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4, 81, 343–346, 739
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 52
international conflict
climate change and 276
energy security and 10, 285
natural gas and 283–285
nuclear power and 284
oil and 275–286, 297
Persian Gulf and 278, 282–286
petro-aggression and 277, 281, 284–285
petro-insurgency and 277
petro-states and 277–278, 281–282, 286
pipelines and 278, 283–285
South China Sea and 278, 285–286
International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) 243
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 88, 116
International Energy Agency (IEA)
climate change and 4–5, 355
energy consumers’ interests represented by 249–250
energy governance and 4
energy liberalism and 160–162
energy security and 4, 258–260
establishment of 4
International Renewable Energy Agency and 5
liberal approach to global politics and 298
membership expansion and 163
nuclear energy and 5
Oil Crisis (1970s) and 157–158, 303
International Energy Forum (IEF) 158, 162–163
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 702
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 242, 334, 544, 763
International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) 603
international oil companies (IOCs), 241, 304–305, 329, 544, 621, 646. See also specific companies
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) 5, 158, 355, 763
International Society of Automation (ISA) 116
investor-owned utilities (IOUs) 385
Iowa 376, 384
Iran
China and 282
coup (1953) in 280
currency exchange rates in 696
(p. 794) energy consumption profile of 693
energy interdependence and 153
energy sanctions against 303, 695, 703
Hezbollah and 278, 282
hostage crisis (1980–81) in 277
hydropower in 693
India-Pakistan conflict and 595
Iran-Iraq War (1980s) and 281, 694
Islamic Revolution (1979) in 281–282
natural gas and 691–693
natural resource rents in 699–700
nuclear power and 44–46, 693, 702–703
oil and gas infrastructure in 306
oil export revenues and 694
oil markets affected by nuclear program controversy (2012) in 326
oil production in 11, 14, 687, 691–692, 695–696
Pahlavi dynasty in 379
“resource rich, labor abundant categorization” and 690
Russia and 282
Saudi Arabia and 286, 328
Syria and 282
United Kingdom sanctions (1950s) against 300–301
United States and 280, 303, 379
Venezuela and 656
Iraq
Baath Party in 281
coal and 690
economic diversification failures in 701
energy production and consumption profile of 693
First Gulf War (1991) and 10, 276–277, 281–282, 293–294, 694
import substitution industrialization and 688
Iran-Iraq War (1980s) and 281, 694
Iraq War (2003–12) and 275, 282–283
Islamic State and 10, 282
natural gas and 692
natural resource rents in 699–700
oil and 11, 14, 29, 691–695
OPEC embargo of 1970s flouted by 302
UN sanctions (1990s) against 293, 695
Ireland 431, 434
Islamic State (ISIS) 10, 282
Israel
Arab world’s conflicts with 106
coal and 693, 702
electricity and 309, 311
energy consumption profile of 693
energy security and 254
Middle East and North Africa region and 689
natural gas and 691
nuclear power and 703
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and 690
Palestinians and 309, 311
renewable energy in 693
Straits of Tiran closure (1957) 298
Yom Kippur War (1973) and 3, 281, 302
Italy
carbon dioxide emissions and 432
energy consumption levels by fuel in 431–432
European Union and 435, 444
geothermal power and 134
import dependency by fuel in 434
nuclear power and 46, 58
renewable energy and 14–15
J
Japan
Act on Rationalizing Energy Use of 1979 and 576, 761
Arctic energy resources and 604
Asia-Pacific region and 592, 597
Atomic Energy Basic Law and 569–570
Atomic Energy Commission in 569
automakers in 577–578
Basic Act on Energy Policy and 576
climate change and 563–564, 574–576, 578, 580–581
coal and 58, 564–566, 580, 759
corruption in 568
decarbonization and 563, 580, 582
Democratic Party of Japan and 563, 568, 571, 575, 580
deregulation and 575, 582
electricity and 564–565, 568–569, 575, 577
(p. 795) Electricity Utility Industry Law and 575
energy conservation and 563–565, 576–578, 581–582, 762, 772
energy interdependence and 156
energy resource wars and 156
energy security and 266, 563–564, 567, 571, 576–577, 582
feed-in tariff system in 575, 580
fossil fuels and 563, 567, 580
Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) and 7, 44, 58–59, 62, 284, 515, 563–564, 567–575, 578, 580–582, 765–766
geothermal energy and 140, 581
global politics and 310
greenhouse gas emissions and 578–580
Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic attacks (1945) and 6, 564, 569–570, 574
hydropower and 565
Imperial Navy and 565
Japan Electric Power Generation and Transmission Company (Nippatsu) and 565
Kyoto Protocol and 564, 578
Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy and 576
Liberal Democratic Party and 563, 567–569, 571–572, 574–575, 577, 580
liquefied natural gas and 110
Meiji Restoration in 564
Meiji-Sanriku earthquake (1896) in 571
Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry in 568–569, 571–573, 575–576, 582
Ministry of Environment and 573, 575, 578
Ministry of International Trade and Industry and 568–569
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MLIT) and 577
Monju fast breeder project and 569
natural gas and 58, 307, 565–567
Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency and 572–573
Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and 573–574
Oil Crisis (1970s) and 3–4, 302, 565, 570, 577
renewable energy and 140, 142, 567, 569, 575, 578–582
Socialist Party in 568
solar power in 14–15, 580
South China Seas oil transport routes and 286
Tohoku earthquake (2011) in 571, 573
Top Runner program and 576, 762
Venezuela and 648
World War II and 276–277, 280, 283, 563–565, 567, 759