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date: 18 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides a new typology of clientelist methods of manipulating voters based on three characteristics: the nature of the inducements to voters, the broker providing the inducements, and the voters receiving the inducements. The chapter postulates two types of inducements (positive and negative), three types of brokers (bureaucrats, partisans, and employers), and three types of voters (supporters, undecided, and opposed). Combining the types of brokers and the types of voters with the types of inducements leads to twelve possible methods of manipulation that patrons (i.e., politicians) may use to influence their clients (i.e., citizens). These subcategories are illustrated with empirical cases from the large and rapidly growing literature on clientelism around the world. Developing such typology may bring conceptual clarity to a series of important phenomena that hinder the proper functioning of elections in many new and old democracies, and which have been collectively labeled “clientelism.”

Keywords: clientelism, vote buying, vote coercion, menu of manipulation, persuasion, democracy, elections, fraud, corruption

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