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date: 19 November 2019

(p. 771) Index

(p. 771) Index

A
acetylcholine
enhancing repetition sensitivity, 725
in neuromodulation of DCN, 134–135
acetylcholine receptors, and STDP, 230f
acoustic and nonacoustic stimuli, neuromodulatory activity and, 586–587
acoustic regularity, encoding in auditory midbrain, 707
acetylcholine, role of, 725
anesthesia, effects of, 726–727
classes of SSA neurons in inferior colliculus, 717–719
deviance detection, in auditory midbrain, 728, 729f, 730f
endocannabinoids, role of, 725–726, 727f
inhibition, role of in deviance detection, 721, 722f, 723–724
neuroanatomical features and SSA emergence, 715–720, 716f
predictive coding, future research on, 730–731
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), general properties, 709–715
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), origin of, 719–720
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), physiology of, 720–727
action potential generation, in MSO, 313
afferent input, brainstem injury and loss of, 689–693
age-related changes
in auditory brainstem and thalamus, xxx
cochlear nucleus and, 152–154
descending auditory pathways and, 631
in inferior colliculus, 533–536
to neurotransmitter systems, 533–535
physiological responses in inferior colliculus, 535–536
aging
cellular mechanisms of, 641–642
molecular changes during, 153
morphological and structural changes during, 152–153
rodent and non-human primate models of, 644
ultrastructural synaptic changes during, 153–154
aging, processes in the subcortical system, 639, 664, 664f
age-related hearing loss, significance of, 639–642
aging mechanisms in the auditory system, 642
auditory periphery, and age-related hearing loss, 642–644
and auditory thalamus, 660–664, 662f
cellular mechanisms of aging and related hearing loss, 641–642
and cochlear nucleus, 644–648, 649f
and inferior colliculus, 651–660
and superior olivary complex, 648–651
anesthesia, effects of, 726–727
astrocytes
and development of chick auditory brainstem pathways, 684–685
synaptic functions in auditory brainstem, 685–687
(p. 772) auditory brainstem, glial cells in, 681–682, 683f, 695
afferent input, brainstem injury and loss of, 689–693
birds and mammals, sound localization pathways in, 682–683
and brainstem development, 683–685
and brainstem injury, 689–694
chick auditory brainstem pathways, development of, 684–685
demyelination, brainstem injury and, 693–694
mammalian auditory brainstem, development of, 685
oligodendrocytes, and control of conduction time, 687–689
and synaptic functions of astrocytes, 685–687
auditory brainstem, introduction to, xxiif, xxx
age-related changes in, xxx
cochlear nucleus complex (CNC), xxiii–xxv
descending auditory pathways, xxix–xxx
glial cells in, xxx
higher auditory functions in, xxix
inferior colliculus, xxviii–xxix
innervation of the cochlea, xxii–xxiii
lateral lemniscus, nuclei of, xxviii
superior olivary complex, nuclei of, xxv–xxvii
auditory brainstem implant (ABI), 759, 766–767
cochlear nucleus, diagram of, 766f
device design, 761–762
history of development, 759–761
hypothesis of effectiveness, 763–766
outcomes of design and development, 762–767
auditory brainstem pathways, development of in chicks, 684–685
auditory function, MOC effect on, 75f
auditory information, filtering and processing, 707–709
auditory nerve (AN), changes after loss of activity, 166–167
auditory nerve fibers
connections with bushy cells, 101–106, 104f
D Stellate cells, connections with, 112
histogram of responses, 98f
octopus cells, connections with, 106–108, 107f
T Stellate cells, connections with, 108–111, 111f
auditory pathways, plasticity and, 611–612, 630–632
and brainstem modulatory systems, 624–628
cortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 617–624, 618f, 620f
neuronal loops and chains, 628–629
subcortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 612–617, 614f
VNTB as inhibitory hub in descending auditory system, 629–630, 630f
auditory periphery
and age-related hearing loss, 642–644
origin of tinnitus-related activity in, 198–199
auditory thalamus, aging and, 660–664, 662f, 664f
impact on calcium-binding proteins and neuromodulators, 661–662
impact on neurotransmitters, 660–661
impact on physiology, 663–664
aversion, neuromodulatory regulation of, 593
axon trajectories, 473–475, 491–492, 492f
ascending auditory axons, routes followed by, 475–486, 479f, 481f, 482f
brainstem commissures, 489–491
from cochlear nuclei to lateral lemniscus, 483–484
descending auditory axons, routes followed by, 486–489
descending pathways from auditory cortex, 486–487
descending pathways from inferior colliculus to superior olivary complex, 487–488
descending pathways from superior olivary complex to cochlear nucleus and cochlea, 488–489
dorsal acoustic stria, 476
intermediate acoustic stria, 476–477
lateral lemniscus and paralemniscal fibers, 480–483 (p. 773)
non-auditory inputs to auditory nuclei, routes followed by, 490–491
from superior olivary complex to lateral lemniscus, 485–486
ventral acoustic stria, 477–480
B
Beebe, Nichole L.
“Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity,” 611–638
“benign” noise exposure, changes in cochlear nucleus after, 173
Berger, Joel I.
“Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis,” 527–547
binaural processing, MNTB and, 274–275, 275f
birds and mammals, sound localization pathways in, 682–683
brain development, critical periods of, 78–80
brainstem
brainstem injury, 689–694
higher auditory functions in, xxix
reciprocal interactions with cochlea, 17–19
brainstem modulatory systems, and descending auditory pathways, 624–628, 626f
Brandebura, Ashley
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
brevican
impact on hearing, 436
role in synaptic transmission and organization of subsynaptic space, 434, 435f, 436
bursting activity, and tinnitus, 192–193, 194f
bushy cells
connections with auditory nerve fibers, 101–106, 104f
subtypes of, 101
C
calcium-binding proteins, impacts of aging on
auditory thalamus, 661–662
dorsal cochlear nucleus, 647
inferior colliculus, 656–657
superior olivary complex, 650–651
calyx of Held, 245–246
formation of, 248–250, 249f
neuron maturation, 247f
postsynaptic excitability during growth, 256–257
regulation of calcium during growth, 257–258
specifying competition and growth, 261–262
spontaneous activity during growth, 253–256
Cant, Nell Beatty
“Axon Trajectories in the Auditory Brainstem,” 473–502
Xiao-Jie Cao
“The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei,” 95–122
Carbajal, Guillermo V.
“Deviance Detection and Encoding Acoustic Regularity in the Auditory Midbrain,” 707–739
Caspary, Donald M.
“Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System,” 639–679
cell types, and descending auditory pathways, 630–631
central axons, development of, 11–15
channelopathies, and tinnitus, 206–208
chick auditory brainstem pathways, development of, 684–685
cholinergic nicotinic hair cell receptor, 65–68
cholinergic systems, and descending auditory pathways, 624–627, 626f
chondroitin sulfate side chains, impact on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, 433–434, 435f
cochlea
afferent and efferent innervation of, xxii–xxiii
cochlear innervation, 38f
cochlear trauma, changes following, 529–532
reciprocal interactions with brainstem, 17–19
(p. 774) cochlea, efferent innervation to, 59, 80
cholinergic nicotinic hair cell receptor, 65–68
critical periods of development, 78–80
efferent responses, summation of, 74f
efferent stimulation, hyperpolarization in response to, 73f
medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent synaptogenesis, 74–77
molecular actors at MOC-hair cell synapse, 68–71, 69f
olivocochlear innervation, 59–62, 60f
physiology of MOC efferents, 62–63
short-term synaptic plasticity, 71–74, 73f
synaptic responses at the MOC-hair cell synapse, 63–65, 65f
cochlear afferents, form and function of, 37–58
type I afferents, 38–42
type I afferents, frequency selectivity, 39f
type II afferents, 42–46, 44f
type II afferents, functional role for, 48–49
type II afferents, molecular specification of, 46–48, 47f
cochlear nuclei, 95–122
auditory nerve fibers and bushy cells, connections between, 101–106, 104f
auditory nerve fibers and D Stellate cells, connections between, 112
auditory nerve fibers and octopus cells, connections between, 106–108, 107f
auditory nerve fibers and T Stellate cells, connections between, 108–111, 111f
synaptic plasticity in VCN circuits and synapses, 95–97, 113–114
T and D Stellate cells, interconnections, 112–113
and tonotopic organization of VCN, 97–101, 98f
cochlear nucleus
age-related loss of temporal processing in DCN, 649f
aging and, 644–648
anatomy and function of, 143–145, 145f
changes after “benign” noise exposure, 173
comparative diagram of cat and human, 766f
effect of synaptic activity on, 145–146
multimodal integration in circuitry of, 225f
noise-induced hearing loss and synaptic changes in, 171–172, 172f
pathways innervating, 203f
cochlear nucleus, as generator of tinnitus-related signals, 189–190
and agents causing tinnitus in humans, 190–195
bursting activity, 192–193, 194f
channelopathies, 206–208
clinical implications, 210–211
descending pathways, role of, 209
dorsal vs. ventral cochlear nuclei, 209–210
and higher-order nuclei, 198–200
hyperactivity, 191–192, 192f
imaging studies, 197
issues, challenges, and controversies, 208–210
mechanisms underlying, 200–297
neural synchrony, 193–195, 195f
synaptopathies, 200–206
underlying activity changes, 195–197
cochlear nucleus, changes in response to hearing loss, 143, 154–155
effect of synaptic activity, 145–146
effects on contralateral side, 151–152
protective mechanisms, 154
structural and molecular age-related changes, 152–154
structural and molecular postsynaptic effects, 149–152
structural and molecular presynaptic effects, 146–149
cochlear nucleus, multimodal inputs to, 223, 237
alterations to DCN circuit in tinnitus, 232–234
CN neurons and tinnitus generation, 235
and disinhibition-mediated synchrony, 234–235
feed forward inhibition, role in STDP, 230–232
function of inputs, 229
fusiform cells, individual timing rules of, 227f
fusiform cells, mechanisms underlying STDP in, 229–230, 230f (p. 775)
fusiform cells, neural signatures of tinnitus in, 233f
fusiform cells, STDP of, 226f
fusiform cells in animal models of tinnitus, 236
and long-term plasticity in the DCN, 224–229, 225f, 226f, 227f, 228f
multimodal innervation of CN, 223–224
multimodal integration of CN circuitry, 225f
retrograde signaling, role in STDP, 230–232
transdermal stimulation, 228f
and treating tinnitus, 236–237
cochlear nucleus complex (CNC), xxiii–xxv
projections of SGNs in, 12f
targeting and synaptogenesis in, 15–17
conduction time, oligodendrocytes and control of, 687–689
congenital deafness, and synaptic changes in cochlear nucleus, 176–178
consonants, and encoding of speech sounds, 749–752
spectrograms of three consonant-vowels syllables, 752f
timing, 749–751
cortical and cholinergic inputs to auditory nuclei, 625, 626f, 627
cortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 617–624, 618f
AC projections to CN, 624
AC projections to IC, 620–623
AC projections to NBIC, 619, 620f
AC projections to SOC, 623–624
Cramer, Karina S.
“Glial Cells in the Auditory Brainstem, 681–706
D
deafferentation, peripheral, 642–644
demyelination, brainstem injury and, 693–694
descending auditory pathways, xxix–xxx
and neuromodulatory systems, 627–628
tinnitus, role in, 209
descending auditory pathways, plasticity and, 611–612, 630–632
and brainstem modulatory systems, 624–628
cortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 617–624, 618f, 620f
neuronal loops and chains, 628–629
subcortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 612–617, 614f
VNTB as inhibitory hub in descending auditory system, 629–630, 630f
desensitization, and short-term plasticity in DCN, 128
development, innervation of hair cells during, 61f
deviance detection, in auditory midbrain, 707, 728, 729f, 730f
acetylcholine, role of, 725
anesthesia, effects of, 726–727
classes of SSA neurons in inferior colliculus, 717–719
endocannabinoids, role of, 725–726, 727f
inhibition, role of, 721, 722f, 723–724
neuroanatomical features and SSA emergence, 715–720, 716f
predictive coding, future research on, 730–731
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), general properties, 709–715
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), origin of, 719–720
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), physiology of, 720–727
Di Guilmi, Mariano N.
“Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea,” 59–93
disinhibition-mediated synchrony, 234–235
dopamine, in neuromodulation of DCN, 133
dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN)
age-related loss of temporal processing, 649f
alterations to circuit in tinnitus, 232–234
function of multimodal inputs to, 229
fusiform cells, individual timing rules, 227f
fusiform cells, mechanisms underlying STDP in, 229–230, 230f
fusiform cells, STDP of, 226f
impact of aging on neurotransmitters, 645–647
impact of aging on physiology of, 647–648
impact of aging on structure of, 645
impacts of aging on calcium-binding proteins, glia, and trophic factors, 647
multimodal inputs and long-term plasticity, 224–229, 225f, 226f, 227f, 228f
(p. 776) dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), neuromodulation and plasticity in, 123–126, 136–137
long-term plasticity, 129–130
microcircuitry of DCN, 125f
neuromodulation, 131–136
short-term plasticity, 126–129
spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP), 130–131
D Stellate cells
auditory nerve fibers, connections with, 112
interconnections with T Stellate cells, 112–113
response to tones, 98f
E
efferent responses, summation of, 74f
efferent stimulation, hyperpolarization in response to, 73f
efferent transmitter release, facilitation of, 73f
electrophysiological maturation, of SGNs, 19–21
Elgoyhen, Ana Belén
“Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea,” 59–93
embryology, and origins of medial nucleus of trapezoid body, 246–248, 247f
endocannabinoids
in neuromodulation of DCN, 134
role in modulation, 725–726, 727f
Escera, Carles
“Deviance Detection and Encoding Acoustic Regularity in the Auditory Midbrain,” 707–739
F
Felmy, Felix
“The Nuclei of the Lateral Lemniscus,” 445–471
fiber patterns, and neuromodulatory inputs to inferior colliculus, 584–586
frequency-following response, and speech and music encoding, 743–745, 750f
frequency selectivity, 39f
Friauf, Eckhard
“Lateral Superior Olive: Organization, Development, and Plasticity,” 329–394
Fuchs, Paul Albert
“The Diversified Form and Function of Cochlear Afferents,” 37–58
fusiform cells
and animal models of tinnitus, 236
individual timing rules in vivo, 227f
mechanisms underlying STDP in, 229–230
neural signatures of tinnitus in, 233f
spike-timing-dependent plasticity of, 226f
G
glial cells
in auditory brainstem, xxx
impact of aging on, 647
neuron-glial cell interactions in MNTB, 293
during perinatal development of MNTB, 258–260
glial cells, in auditory brainstem, 681–682, 683f, 695
afferent input, brainstem injury and loss of, 689–693
birds and mammals, sound localization pathways in, 682–683
in brainstem development, 683–685
and brainstem injury, 689–694
chick auditory brainstem pathways, development of, 684–685
demyelination, brainstem injury and, 693–694
mammalian auditory brainstem, development of, 685
oligodendrocytes, and control of conduction time, 687–689
and synaptic functions of astrocytes, 685–687
globular bushy cell, responses to tones, 98f
glutamate, age-related loss in IC, 656f
Godfrey, D. A.
“The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals, 189–221
Gómez-Álvarez, Marcelo
“The Superior Paraolivary Nucleus,” 395–420
Goodrich, Lisa V.
“Wiring the Cochlea for Sound Perception,” 1–35
Grothe, Benedikt
“The Medial Superior Olivary Nucleus: Meeting the Need for Speed,” 301–328
H
(p. 777) hair cells
cholinergic nicotinic hair cell receptor, 65–68
inner hair cells and formation of peripheral synapses, 8–11, 9f
innervation by SGNs, 5f
innervation during development, 61f
outer hair cells and physiology of MOC efferents, 62–63
synaptic responses at MOC-hair cell synapse, 63–65, 65f
harmonics, and encoding of speech sounds, 749
hearing loss
auditory periphery and, 642–644
changes in cochlear nucleus in response to, 143, 154–155
effects on contralateral side, 151–152
of genetic origin, 176–178
physiological and anatomical changes after loss of AN activity, 166–167
postsynaptic effects in the cochlear nucleus, 149–152
presynaptic effects in the cochlear nucleus, 146–149
protective mechanisms, 154
hearing loss, age-related, 163–164, 173–176, 179–180
significance of, 639–642
structural and molecular changes, 152–154
synaptic changes, 174–176, 176f
system-level functional studies, 174
hearing loss, noise-induced, 163–164, 167–173, 179–180
“benign” noise exposure, changes in cochlear nucleus after, 173
sequelae of, 529–532
and synaptic changes in cochlear nucleus, 171–172, 172f
system-level functional studies, 169–171
and VCN neuroanatomy, 168–169
Heller, Daniel
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
high-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 286–288, 288f
Holcomb, Paul
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
Hurley, Laura
“Neuromodulatory Feedback to the Inferior Colliculus,” 577–609
hyperactivity, and tinnitus, 191–192, 192f
I
inferior colliculus, 503–504, xxviii–xxix
classes of SSA neurons in, 717–719
future research, 518–519
innervation of, 583–586
interactions with amygdala and modulatory systems, 595–596, 596f
plasticity of, 516–518
inferior colliculus, aging and, 651–660
impact on calcium-binding proteins and neuromodulators, 656–657
impact on metabolism in, 652, 654
impact on neurotransmitters, 654–655
impact on physiology, 658–660
impact on structure, 651–652
loss of glutamate, 656f
synaptic changes, 653f
inferior colliculus, changes associated with hearing loss, 527–528, 538–539
age-related changes, 533–536
cochlear trauma, changes following, 529–532
future research directions, 539
modulation of pathological activity, 536–538
noise-induced hearing loss, 529–532,
inferior colliculus, commissure of, 549–550, 569–570
anatomical organization of, 551–560, 552f, 561f
commissural fibers outside the IC, 554–556
commissural neurons, inputs and outputs of, 558–560
commissural projections, functional properties of, 560–569
connectivity of commissural fibers, 551–554, 555f
functional properties of commissural projections, behavioral studies, 567–568 (p. 778)
functional properties of commissural projections, in vitro studies of, 561–562
functional properties of commissural projections, in vivo studies of, 562–567, 564f, 566f
function of projections, 568–569, 569f
neurochemistry of commissural fibers, 556–557
neuronal morphologies contributing to connection, 557–558
inferior colliculus, intrinsic circuits, 514–516
future research into, 519
morphology of local circuits, 514–515
physiological properties of nearby neurons, 515–516
inferior colliculus, neuromodulatory activity in, 586–589
acoustic and nonacoustic stimuli, 586–587
internal state and experience, influence of, 587–589, 589f
measuring, 586
during social interaction, 587
inferior colliculus, neuromodulatory feedback to, 577–579
auditory and nonauditory integration, 596–597
auditory inputs to neuromodulatory neurons, 581–582, 582f
diverse inputs and integrative responses, 582–583
neuromodulation, behavioral functions of, 593–594
neuromodulators, functional reconfiguration of auditory circuitry, 589–592
neuromodulatory activity in IC and auditory brainstem, 586–589, 589f
neuromodulatory inputs, and diffuse projection, 583–584, 585f
neuromodulatory inputs, and fiber patterns, 584–586
neuromodulatory inputs and innervation of IC, 583–586
nonauditory inputs to neuromodulatory neurons, 582
sources of neuromodulatory input, 579–581
inferior colliculus, neuron types, 504–514
future research into, 519
intrinsic properties, 510–512
morphology, 504–507, 506f
neurotransmitter type, 507–508
response properties to sound, 512–514
synaptic organization, 508–510, 511f
inhibition, role in deviance detection, 721, 722f, 723–724
inner hair cells (IHCs)
and formation of peripheral synapses, 8–11, 9f
innervation by SGNs, 5f
innervation
cholinergic nicotinic hair cell receptor, 65–68
cochlear innervation, 38f
of hair cells during development, 61f
olivocochlear efferent innervation, anatomy of, 59–62, 60f
of VCN by spiral ganglion cells, 98f
interaural level differences (ILD)
center of detection in LSO, 329
fetal development of pathway, 353f
ILD coding of LSO neurons, 343f
and organization of LSO, 331f
prehearing and posthearing development of pathway, 358f
sensitivity of LSO principal neurons in vitro, 349f
interaural time difference (ITD)
coding of in MSO, 315f
computation of, 314–319
and medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), 302–304
nature of internal delays, 316–319
sensitivity of LSO principal neurons in vitro, 349f
intermediate-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 286
ion channel expression, diversity of, 279–282, 280f, 281f
J
Jackson, Dakota
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
K
(p. 779) Kaczmarek, Leonard K.
“Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels,” 273–300
Kaltenbach, J. A.
“The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals, 189–221
Kandler, Karl
“Introduction and Overview,” xix
Kasten, Michael R.
“Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss,” 163–188
Kolson, Douglas
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
Krächan, Elisa G.
“Lateral Superior Olive: Organization, Development, and Plasticity,” 329–394
Kraus, Nina
“Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans,” 741–757
L
lateral lemniscus, nuclei of, , xxviii, 445–446, 447f
cellular features, 453–456
cellular features, dorsal nucleus, 454–456
cellular features, intermedial nucleus, 454
cellular features, ventral nucleus, 453–454
functional aspects, 456–463, 462f
functional aspects, dorsal nucleus, 459–463, 462f
functional aspects, intermedial nucleus, 458–459, 462f
functional aspects, ventral nucleus, 456–458, 462f
structure and connectivity, 446–452
structure and connectivity, dorsal nucleus, 450–452
structure and connectivity, intermedial nucleus, 450
structure and connectivity, ventral nucleus, 446–450
lateral olivocochlea (LOC), firing behavior of neurons in vitro, 351f
lateral superior olive (LSO)
afferent projections to, 339–341, 340f
afferents to and efferents from, 340f
anatomical organization of, 332, 333f
biophysical adaptations, after onset of hearing, 365–366
biophysical adaptations, before onset of hearing, 357–360
circuit formation, 354–356
circuit refinement, after onset of hearing, 367–369
circuit refinement, before onset of hearing, 362–365
cytology of, 332–338, 337
development and plasticity after onset of hearing, 365–369
development and plasticity before onset of hearing, 356–365
efferent projects from, 340f, 341–342
fetal development, 351–356, 353f
firing behavior of neurons in vitro, 351f
functional properties of neurons in vitro, 347–351
functional properties of neurons in vivo, 342–347
ILD and ITD sensitivity of principal neurons in vitro, 349f
ILD coding of neurons, 343f
inputs in vivo, 345f
neurogenesis and differentiation of neurons, 352–354, 353f
neurotransmitter phenotype of input, 360–362
organization of, 329–351, 331f
perineuronal nets in, 424–425
postnatal development of synaptic parameters, 361f
prehearing and posthearing development of ILD pathway, 358f
short-term plasticity, before onset of hearing, 362
size, contour, and audible frequency across species, 334f
leak K+ channels, in MNTB, 285
Leibold, Christian
“The Medial Superior Olivary Nucleus: Meeting the Need for Speed,” 301–328
(p. 780) Llano, Daniel A.
“Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System,” 639–679
low-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 284–285
M
Magnusson, Anna K.
“The Superior Paraolivary Nucleus,” 395–420
Malmierca, Manuel S.
“Deviance Detection and Encoding Acoustic Regularity in the Auditory Midbrain,” 707–739
mammalian auditory brainstem, glial cells in development of, 685
mammals and birds, sound localization pathways in, 682–683
Manis, Paul B.
“Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss,” 163–188
Martel, David T.
“Multimodal Inputs to the Cochlear Nucleus and Their Role in the Generation of Tinnitus,” 223–244
Mathers, Peter H.
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB)
binaural processing, 274–275, 275f
and distribution of perineuronal nets in superior olivary complex, 423–424
lateral interactions among neurons, 289–291, 290f
neuron-glial cell interactions in, 293
potassium channels, mechanisms for establishing K+ levels, 291–293, 292f
structure and composition of perineuronal nets in, 431–432
types of potassium channels in, 284–289
medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB), perinatal development of, 245–246, 262
calyx of Held, formation of, 248–250, 249f
calyx of Held, postsynaptic excitability during growth, 256–257
calyx of Held, regulation of calcium during growth, 257–258
calyx of Held, specifying competition and growth, 261–262
calyx of Held, spontaneous activity during growth, 253–256
cell signaling, 250–253
embryonic origins of MNTB, 246–248, 247f
functional maturation of synaptic partners, 253–258
glial cells, 258–260
myelination, 260–261
neuron maturation, 247f
physiologic responses during embryonic and early postnatal ages, 254f
medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent innervation, 62–63, 68–71, 69f
medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent synaptogenesis, 74–77, 75f
medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system, 401–402
medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), 301, 303f
biophysical properties, 308–314
circuit and anatomical adaptations for speed, 304–308, 305f
definition and computations, 302–304
interaural time differences, coding of, 315f
interaural time differences, computation of, 314–319, 317f
maturation of anatomy after hearing onset, 306f
spatial code and dynamics of spatial processing, 319–321
medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO), biophysical properties, 308–314
dendrite morphology and synaptic distributions, 308–309
modulatory influences, 313–314
subthreshold channels, 311–313
synaptic and membrane properties, 310f
synaptic kinetics and integration, 309–311
medial superior olive, perineuronal nets in, 425
metabolism, and impact of aging on IC, 652, 654
midbrain, stimulus-specific adaptation in, 709–715, 711f, 712f
dynamics and sensitivity to stimulus history, 713–714 (p. 781)
means of measuring, [link]
mechanics and adaptation in narrow channels, 714–715
time course, 714
Milinkeviciute, Giedre
“Glial Cells in the Auditory Brainstem, 681–706
Morawski, Markus
“Perineuronal Nets in the Superior Olivary Complex,” 421–444
Müller, Nicolas I. C.
“Lateral Superior Olive: Organization, Development, and Plasticity,” 329–394
music sounds, brainstem encoding of, 741–743, 752–753
consonants, and encoding of speech sounds, 749–752
frequency-following response, 743–745, 750f
spectrograms of three consonant-vowels syllables, 752f
spectrum of speech sounds, 747f
voicing timing, 752
vowels, and encoding of speech sounds, 745–749
myelination, during perinatal development of MNTB, 260–261
N
neural phenotypes, influencing modulatory effects, 590
neural synchrony, and tinnitus, 193–195, 195f
neuromodulation, behavioral functions in inferior colliculus, 593–594
neuromodulation, in dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), 123–126, 125f, 131–136
acetylcholine, 134–135
dopamine, 133
endocannabinoids, 134
noradrenaline, 132
serotonin, 133–134
zinc, 135–136
neuromodulators, and functional reconfiguration of auditory circuitry, 589–592
functional outcomes of targeted effects, 591–592
neural phenotypes, influencing modulatory effects, 590
neuromodulator interactions, 592
receptors and modulatory effects, 589–590
subcellular targets, 591
neuromodulators, impact of aging on
auditory thalamus, 661–662
inferior colliculus, 656–657
superior olivary complex, 650–651
neuromodulatory activity, in inferior colliculus and auditory brainstem, 586–589
acoustic and nonacoustic stimuli, 586–587
internal state and experience, influence of, 587–589, 589f
measuring, 586
during social interaction, 587
neuromodulatory feedback, to inferior colliculus, 577–579
auditory and nonauditory integration, 596–597
auditory inputs to neuromodulatory neurons, 581–582, 582f
diverse inputs and integrative responses, 582–583
neuromodulation, behavioral functions of, 593–594
neuromodulators, functional reconfiguration of auditory circuitry, 589–592
neuromodulatory activity in IC and auditory brainstem, 586–589, 589f
neuromodulatory inputs, and diffuse projection, 583–584, 585f
neuromodulatory inputs, and fiber patterns, 584–586
neuromodulatory inputs and innervation of IC, 583–586
nonauditory inputs to neuromodulatory neurons, 582
sources of neuromodulatory input, 579–581
neuromodulatory systems
descending pathways and, 627–628, 631
feedback to auditory circuits, 594–596
interactions with inferior colliculus and amygdala, 595–596, 596f
(p. 782) neuronal death, and cochlear synaptic activity, 145–146
neuronal excitability, impact of chondroitin sulfate side chains on, 433–434
neuronal ion channels, modulation of, 273–274, 293–294
binaural processing and the MNTB, 274–275, 275f
high-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 286–288, 288f
intermediate-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 286
ion channel expression, diversity of, 279–282, 280f, 281f
lateral interactions among MNTB neurons, 289–291, 290f
leak K+ channels, in MNTB, 285
low-threshold potassium channels, in MNTB, 284–285
potassium channels, diversity of conductance, 281f, 282–284, 283f
potassium channels, effects of alteration, 276–279, 278f
potassium channels, mechanisms for establishing K+ levels, 291–293, 292f
potassium channels, operation of, 275–276, 277f
potassium channels, types in MNTB, 284–289
transient A-type potassium channels, in MNTB, 289
neuronal loops and chains, and descending auditory pathways, 628–629
neurotransmitters, impact of aging on
auditory thalamus, 660–661
dorsal cochlear nucleus, 645–647
inferior colliculus, 654–655
superior olivary complex, 650
neurotransmitter systems, age-related changes to, 533–535
Nicol, Trent
“Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans,” 741–757
N- methyl- D- aspartate acid (NMDA) receptors
and STDP, 230f
noradrenaline, in neuromodulation of DCN, 132
O
octopus cells
auditory nerve fibers, connections with, 106–108, 107f
responses of, 98f
Oertel, Donata
“The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei,” 95–122
oligodendrocytes, and control of conduction time, 687–689
olivocochlear efferent innervation
anatomy of, 59–62
olivocochlear reflex, 60f
physiology of MOC efferents, 62–63
Orton, Llwyd D.
“Unifying the Midbrain: The Commissure of the Inferior Colliculus,” 549–576
outer hair cells (OHC), and physiology of MOC efferents, 62–63
P
Palmer, Alan R.
“Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis,” 527–547
pathological activity, modulation of in inferior colliculus, 536–538
Pecka, Michael
“The Medial Superior Olivary Nucleus: Meeting the Need for Speed,” 301–328
perinatal development, of medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB), 245–246, 262
calyx of Held, formation of, 248–250, 249f
calyx of Held, postsynaptic excitability during growth, 256–257
calyx of Held, regulation of calcium during growth, 257–258
calyx of Held, specifying competition and growth, 261–262
calyx of Held, spontaneous activity during growth, 253–256
cell signaling, 250–253
embryonic origins of MNTB, 246–248, 247f (p. 783)
functional maturation of synaptic partners, 253–258
glial cells, 258–260
myelination, 260–261
neuron maturation, 247f
physiologic responses during embryonic and early postnatal ages, 254f
perineuronal nets, in superior olivary complex, 421–423, 437
brevican, role in synaptic transmission and organization of subsynaptic space, 434, 436
chondroitin sulfate side chains, impact on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, 433–434, 435f
development of, 427, 429–431, 430f
distribution of, 423–426, 427f, 428t
function of, 432–433
and lateral superior olive, 424–425
and medial superior olive, 425
and MNTB, 423–424
structure and composition of nets in the MNTB, 431–432
peripheral deafferentation, 642–644
peripheral synapses, formation of, 8–11, 9f
physiology, impact of aging on
auditory thalamus, 663–664
dorsal cochlear nucleus, 647–648
inferior colliculus, 535–536, 658–660
superior olivary complex, 651
physiology, of stimulus-specific adaptation, 720–727
acetylcholine, role of, 725
endocannabinoids, role of, 725–726, 727f
inhibition, role in deviance detection, 721, 722f, 723–724
plasticity
circuits underlying AC-driven, 624–627
and development in LSO after onset of hearing, 365–369
and development in LSO before onset of hearing, 356–365
distinct types of, 96
in dorsal cochlear nucleus, 123–126, 125f, 126–129
of inferior colliculus, 516–518
short-term plasticity in LSO, after onset of hearing, 366–367
short-term plasticity in LSO, before onset of hearing, 362
short-term synaptic plasticity, 71–74, 73f, 74f
plasticity, and descending auditory pathways, 611–612, 630–632
and brainstem modulatory systems, 624–628
cortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 617–624, 618f, 620f
neuronal loops and chains, 628–629
subcortical descending projections to auditory brainstem nuclei, 612–617, 614f
VNTB as inhibitory hub in descending auditory system, 629–630
plasticity, spike timing dependent (STDP)
in DCN, 130–131
feed forward inhibition, role of, 230–232
and fusiform cells, 226f
and NMDA and acetylcholine receptors, 230f
retrograde signaling, role of, 230–232
and transdermal stimulation, 228f
and treating tinnitus, 236–237
plasticity, synaptic
impact of chondroitin sulfate side chains on, 433–434
short-term synaptic plasticity, 71–74, 73f, 74f
in ventral cochlear nuclei, 95–97
potassium channels
diversity of conductance, 281f, 282–284, 283f
effects of alteration, 276–279, 278f
high-threshold channels, in MNTB, 286–288, 288f
intermediate-threshold channels, in MNTB, 286
leak K+ channels, in MNTB, 285
low-threshold channels, in MNTB, 284–285
mechanisms for establishing K+ levels, 291–293, 292f
operation of, 275–276, 277f
transient A-type channels, in MNTB, 289
types in MNTB, 284–289
predictive coding, in auditory midbrain, 730–731
(p. 784) prepulse inhibition, neuromodulatory regulation of, 594
prosodic information, early-level processing by SPON, 407–408
R
rebound spiking, 402–404
receptors, determining modulatory effects, 589–590
Recio-Spinoso, Alberto
“The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei,” 95–122
Rees, Adrian
“Unifying the Midbrain: The Commissure of the Inferior Colliculus,” 549–576
repetition sensitivity, role of acetylcholine in enhancing, 725
Ropp, Tessa-Jonne F.
“Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss,” 163–188
Rubio, Maria E.
“Molecular and Structural Changes in the Cochlear Nucleus in Response to Hearing Loss,” 143–162
S
Schofield, Brett R.
“Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity,” 611–638
sensory deprivation, resilience of SPON to, 406–407
serotonin, in neuromodulation of DCN, 133–134
Shannon, Robert V.
“The Auditory Brainstem Implant: Restoration of Speech Understanding from Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlear Nucleus,” 759–769
Shore, Susan E.
“Multimodal Inputs to the Cochlear Nucleus and Their Role in the Generation of Tinnitus,” 223–244
Shrestha, Brikha R.
“Wiring the Cochlea for Sound Perception,” 1–35
Sivaramakrishnan, Shobhana
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
social interaction, neuromodulatory activity during, 587
Sonntag, Mandy
“Perineuronal Nets in the Superior Olivary Complex,” 421–444
sound localization pathways, in birds and mammals, 682–683
spatial code and dynamics of spatial processing, of MSO, 319–321
speech sounds, brainstem encoding of, 741–743, 752–753
consonants and, 749–752
frequency-following response, 743–745, 750f
spectrograms of three consonant-vowels syllables, 752f
spectrum of speech sounds, 747f
voicing timing, 752
vowels and, 745–749
spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP)
in DCN, 130–131
feed forward inhibition, role of, 230–232
and fusiform cells, 226f
and NMDA and acetylcholine receptors, 230f
retrograde signaling, role of, 230–232
and transdermal stimulation, 228f
and treating tinnitus, 236–237
spiking, rebound, 402–404
spiral ganglion cells
innervation of VCN by, 98f
and tonotopic organization of the VCN, 97–101, 98f
spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), 1–2, 21
and central axons, development of, 11–15
development of, 2–3
electrophysiological maturation of, 19–21
and formation of peripheral synapses, 8–11, 9f
innervation of hair cells by, 5f
and interactions between cochlea and brainstem, 17–19
peripheral processes, outgrowth and targeting of, 4–8
production of, 3–4 (p. 785)
projections in the cochlear nucleus complex, 12f
type II cochlear afferents, 47f
Spirou, George A.
“Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body,” 245–272
spontaneous activity, and tinnitus, 191–192, 236–237
stimulation, hyperpolarization in response to, 73f
stimulus-driven activity, and tinnitus, 196
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), in inferior colliculus, 717–719
stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), in midbrain, 709–715, 711f, 712f
acetylcholine, role of, 725
anesthesia, effects of, 726–727
dynamics and sensitivity to stimulus history, 713–714
endocannabinoids, role of, 725–726
means of measuring, [link]
mechanics and adaptation in narrow channels, 714–715
neuroanatomical features and, 715–720, 716f
origin of, 719–720
physiology of, 720–727
time course, 714
subcortical descending projections, to auditory brainstem nuclei, 614f
cholinergic descending projections, 616–617
dopaminergic descending projections, 616
GABAergic and glycinergic descending projections, 615–616
glutamatergic descending projections, 613–615
subsynaptic space, role of brevican in organization of, 434, 436
subthreshold channels, of MSO, 311–313
summation, of efferent responses, 74f
superior olivary complex, perineuronal nets in, 421–423, 437
brevican, role in synaptic transmission and organization of subsynaptic space, 434, 435f, 436
chondroitin sulfate side chains, impact on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, 433–434, 435f
development of, 427, 429–431, 430f
distribution of, 423–426, 427f, 428t
function of, 432–433
and lateral superior olive, 424–425
and medial superior olive, 425
structure and composition of nets in the MNTB, 431–432
superior olivary complex (SOC), aging and, 648–651
impact on calcium-binding proteins and neuromodulators, 650–651
impact on neurotransmitters, 650
impact on physiology, 651
impact on structure, 649–650
superior olivary complex (SOC), nuclei of, xxv–xxvii
superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), 395, 408
connectome, 398f
electrophysiological responses of neurons, 403f
medial olivocochlear efferent system, role in, 401–402
monaural temporal information, receipt of, 397–399
presence in mammals, 395–397
processing of prosodic information, 407–408
properties compatible with precise spiking, 405–406
rebound spiking, 402–404
resilience to sensory deprivation, 406–407
superior olivary complex, schematic representation of, 396f
temporally precise information, relay of, 399–400
synapses, formation of peripheral, 8–11, 9f
synaptic activity
age-related changes in IC, 653f
effect on cochlear nucleus, 145–146
synaptic adaptation, modulation of, 720–727
synaptic depression, 100f
bushy cells and, 103–104, 104f
and short-term plasticity in DCN, 126–128
synaptic facilitation, and short-term plasticity in DCN, 128–129
synaptic functions, of astrocytes in auditory brainstem, 685–687
(p. 786) synaptic inputs, responses of model neurons to, 278f
synaptic kinetics and integration, of MSO, 309–311
synaptic plasticity
impact of chondroitin sulfate side chains on, 433–434
in ventral cochlear nuclei, 95–97
synaptic responses
at MOC-hair cell synapse, 63–65, 65f
synaptic transmission, role of brevican in, 434, 436
synaptogenesis
MOC efferent, 74–77, 75f
and targeting in CNC, 15–17
synaptopathies, and tinnitus, 200–206
anatomical changes, 201
chemical changes, 201–202
synchronous firing, and tinnitus, 195f
disinhibition-mediated synchrony, 234–235
and treating tinnitus, 236–237
T
temporal processing, age-related loss of, 649f
thalamus, age-related changes in, xxx
tinnitus, role of multimodal inputs in, 223, 237
alterations to DCN circuit in tinnitus, 232–234
and CN neurons, 235
and disinhibition-mediated synchrony, 234–235
and feed forward inhibition, role in STDP, 230–232
function of inputs to DCN, 229
fusiform cells, individual timing rules of, 227f
fusiform cells, mechanisms underlying STDP in, 229–230, 230f
fusiform cells, neural signatures of tinnitus in, 233f
fusiform cells in animal models of tinnitus, 236
and long-term plasticity in the DCN, 224–229, 225f, 226f, 227f, 228f
multimodal innervation of cochlear nucleus, 223–224
and multimodal integration of CN circuitry, 225f
and retrograde signaling, role in STDP, 230–232
and STDP of fusiform cells in DCN, 226f
transdermal stimulation, 228f
and treating tinnitus, 236–237
tinnitus-related signals, cochlear nucleus as generator of, 189–190
and agents causing tinnitus in humans, 190–195
bursting activity, 192–193, 194f
changes in tonotopic map representation, 190–191
channelopathies, 206–208
clinical implications, 210–211
descending pathways, role of, 209
dorsal vs. ventral cochlear nuclei, 209–210
and higher-order nuclei, 198–200
hyperactivity, 191–192, 192f
imaging studies, 197
issues, challenges, and controversies, 208–210
mechanisms underlying, 200–297
neural synchrony, 193–195, 195f
synaptopathies, 200–206
underlying activity changes, 195–197
tonotopic organization, of VCN, 97–101, 98f
tonotopic vs. non-tonotopic descending projections, 631
transdermal stimulation, and STDP in DCN, 228f
transient A-type potassium channels, in MNTB, 289
transmitter release, facilitation of, 73f
trophic factors, impacts of aging on, 647
Trussell, Laurence O.
“In Vitro Studies of Neuromodulation and Plasticity in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus,” 123–141
T Stellate cells, 98f
auditory nerve fibers, connections with, 108–111, 111f
interconnections with D Stellate cells, 112–113
V
(p. 787) ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), 95–122
cells of, 165–166
hearing loss, age-related and noise induced, 163–164, 179–180
innervation by spiral ganglion cells, 98f
neuroanatomy and noise-induced hearing loss, 168–169
synaptic plasticity in, 95–97
tonotopic organization of, 97–101, 98f
ventral nucleus of trapezoid body (VNTB), 629–630, 630f
voicing timing, and encoding of speech sounds, 752
vowels, and encoding of speech sounds, 745–749
pitch and fundamental frequency, 746–748
spectrograms of three consonant-vowels syllables, 752f
vowel identity, 749
vowels with changing pitch, 748–749
W
Wedemeyer, Carolina
“Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea,” 59–93
X
Ruili Xie
“Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss,” 163–188
Z
zinc, in neuromodulation of DCN, 135–136