Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

Subscriber: null; date: 13 August 2020

Aging, Gender, and the Body

Abstract and Keywords

In this chapter, the author considers some of the theoretical and methodological conundrums that she encountered in her qualitative research that has focused on later life experiences of the aging body as a site of inequality. Western culture is replete with deeply entrenched ageist stereotypes, which position old bodies as inherently asexual, dependent, frail, obsolete, senile, unproductive, and undesirable. Negative cultural constructions of old bodies are further reflected in and buttressed by masculinity and femininity ideals as well as societal assumptions concerning personal responsibility for health. Collectively, these cultural norms shape research in powerful ways as they lead to the avoidance of certain topics, taken-for-granted assumptions that are difficult to elicit or interrogate, and complex power dynamics between researchers and study participants. Reflecting on the intricacies of researching later life body image and embodiment, I offer some suggestions about how the challenges might be reframed as opportunities.

Keywords: aging, ageism, body image, later life embodiment, gender, femininity, masculinity, healthism, qualitative methods, in-depth interviewing

Population aging is dramatically changing the demographic make-up of societies around the world (World Health Organization 2015). As an unprecedented number of individuals are living longer than ever before, ageism has become a ubiquitous social problem that delimits the lives of older adults, particularly in Western countries (Calasanti 2016; Nelson 2002). In this chapter, the author explores how ageism influences the research encounters and examines the methodological complexities of studying older bodies.

Ageism, Gender, and Body Image in Later Life

Defined as “the systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against older adults because they are old” (Butler 1975, 12), ageism arises from and is legitimated by the use of age as an organizing principle of society. The resultant age relations privilege young and middle-aged adults and disadvantage the old, who face increasing social exclusion and cultural invisibility (Calasanti and Slevin 2001). Ageism is manifested in the discrimination that older adults face in the workplace (Harris et al. 2018; Stypinska and Turek 2017), the health care system (Ben-Harush et al. 2017; Chrisler, Barney, and Palatino 2016), and their everyday interactions with others (Hurd Clarke and Korotchenko 2016; Vincent 2015), as well as in the way that are underrepresented and negatively portrayed in the media (Hurd Clarke 2017/2018). The body is central to older adults’ marginalization as cultural narratives of later life decline are expressed in and reinforced by ageist stereotypes that equate old bodies with obsolescence, loss of productivity, poor health, senility, dependence, asexuality, and diminishing romantic appeal (Gullette 1997; Hurd Clarke and Korotchenko 2011; Laws 1995). In contrast, bodies in young adulthood are assumed to be the epitome of physical attractiveness, health, sexual desirability, happiness, innovation, and social engagement (Calasanti and Slevin 2001).

Age-based discrimination is not just a social problem. Rather, ageism infiltrates and often confounds the research encounter. To begin, researchers may shy away from topics they erroneously presume are of no interest or relevance to older adults as a result of their own internalization of ageist stereotypes. Certainly, in my doctoral research concerning older women’s body image, I was initially guilty of this myself, as I failed to ask my participants about their experiences of sexuality until one of the women in my study confronted me about my avoidance of the topic (Hurd Clarke 2003, 2012). Her challenge to me to ask older women about their perceptions and experiences of sex was an important turning point in my research career, leading me to consider not only societal ageism but also my own internalization of age-based discrimination. Other scholars have similarly noted that researchers often inaccurately assume that older adults are not sexually active or that they are uncomfortable and unwilling to discuss their sexual experiences (Gott and Hinchliff 2003; Hurd Clarke 2003, 2012; Thorpe et al. 2017). As well as reinforcing cultural norms that position sexuality as the sole purview of young and middle-aged adults, these assumptions are grounded in heterosexism and the equating of sexuality with partnered, heterosexual intercourse (Fileborn et al. 2015b; Thorpe et al. 2017; Thorpe, Fileborn, and Hurd Clarke 2017). Therefore, the experiences of single or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered older adults are largely absent from the existing research (Fileborn et al. 2015a; King et al. 2018; Peel and Harding 2016). Narrow definitions of what constitutes sex, combined with researcher discomfort with the topic, lead to a failure to consider how older adults perceive or experience masturbation and oral sex (Hurd Clarke 2006; Thorpe et al. 2017).

While later life sexuality remains a largely unexplored topic of theorizing and research, considerable literature has examined one of the most salient ways that ageism is established and maintained in Western society, namely cultural norms and ideals related to femininity and masculinity. Gendered body ideals emphasize the importance of being youthful, albeit by emphasizing different aspects of physicality in men and women. Men are prized for their physical and social accomplishments in their bodies as idealized masculinity is equated with youthful athleticism, strength, hypersexuality, leadership, political influence, and workplace productivity (Grogan 2017; Thompson and Langendoerfer 2016). In contrast, women’s social value is assumed to primarily derive from their appearance, specifically their approximation to the feminine beauty ideal of a young adult who is healthy, toned, slim, yet voluptuous (Bordo 2003; Grogan 2017). Sontag (1997) has argued that differing body ideals for men and women reflect and reinforce a gendered double standard. Men who look older are often considered to be distinguished rather than unattractive (Sontag 1997), and those who are wealthy and influential may continue to be seen as socially desirable in their later years through their accumulation and retention of economic and political power (McGann et al. 2016; Thompson 2006). Rather than inevitably undermining their cultural currency, aging, so long as it is not accompanied by poor health and disability, may augment a man’s status as an experienced, influential, and socially esteemed leader (Hurd Clarke, Bennett, and Liu 2014). Women, on the other hand, are perceived to become older at a younger age than their male counterparts and aging is especially detrimental to their social status. The onset of physical signs of aging such as age spots, wrinkles, sagging skin, increased weight, and gray hair progressively diminishes women’s erotic capital (Hakim 2011; Hurd Clarke 2011). The perceived loss of feminine beauty that is associated with aging has everyday consequences for older women who are less likely to secure and retain employment or promotions (Bowman et al. 2017; Duncan and Loretto 2004; Jyrkinen and McKie 2012; Walker et al. 2007) or to win and retain the affections of romantic partners (Fales et al. 2016; Hurd Clarke and Griffin 2008) as compared to younger women.

As well as resulting in social inequities in everyday life, gendered interpretations of the signs of aging shape men’s and women’s body image, which is defined as the ways that individuals perceive, feel about, and manage their aging bodies (Cash and Smolak 2011). Although studies that include or focus exclusively on older individuals continue to be relatively sparse, the existing body image literature reveals that many older adults view later life and their changing bodies with dissatisfaction, if not repugnance (Bytheway and Johnson 1990). That said, men’s and women’s body image dissatisfaction reflects cultural gender body ideals and norms. Related to the emphasis masculinity ideals put on the body as a tool for social action, older men identify the reduced muscularity, changes in health status, and declining physical and sexual abilities that often occur in later life as their primary sources of body image dissatisfaction (Kaminski and Hayslip 2006; Liechty et al. 2014; Meadows and Davidson 2006). Older men report that loss of strength, health, and functional abilities undermines their sense of masculine identity and cultural currency (Silver 2003; Spector-Mersel 2006; Thompson and Langendoerfer 2016). In contrast, and like their younger female counterparts, older women tend to express “normative discontent” (Rodin, Silberstein, and Striegel-Moore 1984, 267) with their appearances, specifically their weight (Allaz et al. 1998; Grogan 2017; Hurd Clarke 2002; Stevens and Tiggemann 1998). Studies have also found that older women are discontented with the signs of aging in their appearances, directing their displeasure primarily toward their wrinkles, sagging skin, and gray hair (Baker and Gringart 2009; Hurd Clarke 2011; Tiggemann 2004; Ward and Holland 2011).

A number of studies have considered how body image is related to sexual orientation in later life. Although some research has found that lesbian women report body image dissatisfaction that is similar to their heterosexual counterparts (Bergeron and Senn 1998; Heffernan 1999; Huxley, Clarke, and Halliwell 2011; Slevin 2006), other studies suggest that appearance norms in lesbian communities may differ from those associated with idealized femininity (Clarke and Turner 2007; Krakauer and Rose 2002). Some lesbian women embrace masculine or butch appearances as a means of making their sexual orientation more visible (Huxley, Clarke, and Halliwell 2014; Lev 2008). Similarly, older lesbian women may adopt short hairstyles to resist gender norms or because they consider gray hair to be a means of disrupting ageist stereotypes (Ward and Holland 2011; Winterich 2007). In contrast, older gay men tend to report greater body dissatisfaction than their heterosexual counterparts (Lodge and Umberson 2013; Slevin and Linneman 2010; Suen 2016). Older gay men’s heightened body image dissatisfaction has been linked to their internalization of subcultural norms in the gay community that emphasize the importance of youthful and muscular appearances (Drummond 2006; Jones and Pugh 2005). Consequently, older gay men are more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to use physical activity, dieting, hair dye, cosmetic surgery, and strategic clothing choices to approximate youthful body ideals and hide their advancing years (Ryan, Morrison, and McDermott 2010; Slevin and Linneman 2010).

Relatively few studies have considered the influence of race and ethnicity on body image in later life. Research with adolescent, young adult, and middle-aged African American women reveals that they collectively tend to have greater body satisfaction and acceptance of heavier body weights as well as a reduced drive for thinness (Franko and Striegel-Moore 2002; Fujioka et al. 2009; Granberg, Simons, and Simons 2009; Molloy and Herzberger 1998) as compared to Caucasian individuals. Dunkel, Davidson, and Qurashi (2010) found that older Muslim women living in the United States reported less concern for achieving the Western thin ideal than did their younger counterparts. Studies with older adults living in non-Western countries reveal similar results. A study exploring body image among Senegalese adults found that while men and women tended to be largely satisfied with their appearances, aging was associated with decreasing body satisfaction for women (Macia et al. 2017). Ando and Osada (2009) found that older women in Japan expressed body image dissatisfaction comparable to Western women, although the importance they gave to appearance declined with age.

Although there has been limited research concerning the influence of culture, ethnicity, and race on later life body image, there has been some consideration of the impact of masculinity and femininity norms and ideals more broadly on the gendered interactions between study participants and interviewers (Arendell 1997; Pini 2005; Sallee and Harris 2011). It has been noted that men are often more comfortable and willing to reveal their vulnerabilities with female interviewers (Williams and Heikes 1993; Yong 2001), perhaps because of women’s traditional nurturing roles or as a result of men’s sense that they do not have to compete for authority as a result of women’s relative disadvantage in the gender hierarchy (Oliffe and Mróz 2005; Sallee and Harris 2011). Certainly, it has not been uncommon for older men to cry during my interviews with them as they have described the loss of loved ones or revealed deeply personal anxieties about their sexual dysfunction or incontinence. In line with the literature (Arendell 1997; Gailey and Prohaska 2011; Pini 2005), I have also encountered situations where older male interviewees have enacted idealized masculinity by being openly flirtatious or overly emphasizing of their sexual prowess in response to interview questions. Finally, I have often found that older men have asserted their authoritative masculinity by offering unsolicited advice, expressing “fatherly interest” (Leontowitsch 2012, 116) in my career and interpersonal relationships, or highlighting their identities as business leaders by carrying briefcases, providing me with evidence that attests to their professional success, or preferring to be interviewed in their places of employment rather than their private homes.

My research interviews with older women have similarly been influenced by femininity norms and ideals both in terms of the ways female participants have interacted with me but also in terms of their responses to my questions. On the one hand, I have found that older women have often engaged with me as a confidant or expert authority, seeking advice or information about everything from personal relationships to vaginal dryness (Hurd Clarke 2003). Some have also positioned me as a granddaughter or daughter, particularly when I was younger, and have offered encouragement to me as a mother or conveyed pride in and esteem for my professional accomplishments. More notably, however, have been the ways that older women have struggled to answer some of my questions about body image. My queries about what they like about the way they look have often been met with astonishment, awkward silence, or suggestions that my questions are either humorous or absurd. While they have sometimes referred to personal qualities that they equated with inner beauty or indicated that they liked aspects of their bodies insofar as they had remained largely unchanged by the passage of time, older women have rarely conveyed pleasure with how their appearances have been altered by age. In other words, the social construction of physical attractiveness as increasingly unattainable with age renders older women unable to consider wrinkles, age spots, sagging skin, or other markers of oldness as acceptable bodily changes, let alone desirable exemplars of beauty.

Embodiment, Ageism, and Healthism in Later Life

Another way that researchers have considered how older adults make sense of their aging bodies is through the exploration of embodiment, which is defined as our experiences in our bodies as we move through the social and physical world (Hurd Clarke and Korotchenko 2011). The bulk of the later life embodiment research has focused on how bodily changes resulting from illness and disability impact older adults’ everyday lives and sense of self. This literature has highlighted how the onset of health issues in later life often brings the previously taken-for-granted body into a person’s awareness in unexpected and unpleasant ways (Williams 1996). In particular, the pain, functional losses, appearance changes, and/or alterations in life expectancy associated with various chronic illnesses such as arthritis (Gibbs 2008; Sanders, Donovan, and Dieppe 2002), cancer (Aoun, Deas, and Skett 2016; Hannum and Rubinstein 2016), osteoporosis (Barker, Toye, and Lowe 2016), Parkinson’s disease (Gibson and Kierans 2017; Stanley-Hermanns and Engebretson 2010), and stroke (Becker 1993; Kitson et al. 2013) may culminate in a “biographical disruption” (Bury 1982, 167). Bury (1982, 169) contends that “chronic illness involves a recognition of the worlds of pain and suffering, possibly even of death, which are normally only seen as distant possibilities or the plight of others.” In other words, the physical realities and social consequences of being ill threaten, if not displace, previously held assumptions about one’s body, self-concept, future plans and possibilities, and relationships with others (Bury 1982).

However, the concept of biographical disruption is not without controversy and has been the source of ongoing debate. Some scholars have challenged the assumption that illness is universally and inevitably disruptive in later life as they have emphasized older adults’ resilience and accumulated coping resources and strategies. For example, Faircloth et al. (2004, 242) have argued that while chronic illness may initially be physically disruptive, many older adults find ways to incorporate the physical and social impacts of their health losses into their personal narratives, thereby maintaining “biographical flow.” Many studies have found that although they may experience the physical symptoms and social consequences of illness to be challenging if not dismaying, older adults often perceive later life health losses to be natural and inevitable aspects of their personal biographies and of growing older more generally (Gignac et al. 2006; Hubbard, Kidd, and Kearney 2010; Hurd Clarke, Griffin, and the PACC Research Team 2008; Husser and Roberto 2009; Llewellyn et al. 2014; Sanders, Donovan, and Dieppe 2002). In this way, older adults and scholars alike reject the tragedy narratives often associated with aging and having an older body.

Whether or not aging and illness lead to biographical disruption or they are experienced in terms of biographical flow, there is much evidence to suggest that growing older challenges the relationship between the body and the self. Given the devaluation of oldness and the linking of health and gender ideals to youthfulness, it is perhaps unsurprising that older adults often distance themselves from aging and oldness as they suggest that their bodies’ appearances and physical abilities are increasingly unreflective of their identities (Hurd 1999; Minichiello, Browne, and Kendig 2000; Slevin 2006). Older women and men often point to their activities, vitality, and/or sense of purpose as evidence that they are different from those considered old by virtue of their poor health, social disengagement, or physical and social dependence on others (Hurd 1999; Minichiello, Browne, and Kendig 2000). Older individuals may also differentiate between their chronological and felt ages as they contend that they embody a youthful spirit and feel “young-at-heart” despite the passage of time (Choi, DiNitto, and Kim 2014; Furstenberg 1989; Weiss and Lang 2012). The increasing bifurcation of identity from the body over time is reinforced by cultural assumptions that being old is bad while remaining young, at least in attitude if not in appearance, health, and physical ability, is the ultimate goal. In Western culture, this sentiment is expressed in a myriad of taken-for-granted ways such as the ageist depictions of older people in the media and birthday cards or the assumption that it is a compliment to tell someone of advanced age that they look and act younger than their chronological years (Gendron, Inker, and Welleford 2018; Hurd Clarke 2017/2018).

Another social norm that increasingly challenges the relationship between the body and the self in later life is healthism, or the cultural assumption that health is both a personal responsibility and the product of individual effort (Crawford 1980, 2006). Healthism leads to the social construction of poor health as the result of moral laxity on the part of individuals who are assumed to have inadequately disciplined their bodies through proper diet, exercise, and the use of other health-promoting practices and products. Healthism positions health as an active status that individuals achieve rather than a passive status that results from a combination of genetics, luck, and/or one’s social position and access to resources. The social construction of health as a personal duty and accomplishment is amplified and entrenched by theorizing, research, and health practices grounded in the concept of successful aging (Rowe and Kahn 1997), a paradigm that dominates social gerontology and has led to the medicalization of aging (Katz and Calasanti 2015). Defined as low probability of disease and disability, high functioning, and active social engagement, successful aging is believed to be attainable “through individual choice and effort” (Rowe and Kahn 1998, 37) primarily related to lifestyle. Diverting attention away from the impact of health and social inequities accrued over the life course (Crawford 1980, 2006; Dworkin and Wachs 2009), ageism, healthism, and successful aging narratives collectively situate youthfulness and health as normal, while oldness and illness are constructed as forms of social deviance to be avoided at all costs.

In the context of research about later life embodiment, internalized ageism and healthism may augment the actual and perceived distance between study participants and researchers. Briggs (2003, 914) notes that the research encounter may “create and sustain power relations of modern society” and thereby mirror, if not heighten, the cultural vulnerability of study participants. For example, researchers may ask questions or behave in ways that reflect and reinforce the deeply engrained cultural assumptions that younger, healthy individuals are more socially valued than older, frail individuals (Calasanti and Slevin 2001). As a result, the rapport between interviewers and study participants may be undermined as the latter may feel compelled to respond to questions in ways that position themselves in the best possible light, thus managing potential stigma (Cook and Nunkoosing 2008). Thus, research participants may be reluctant to reveal that they dislike or avoid physical activity and other forms of health promotion for fear of being seen as morally suspect relative to their presumed social responsibility to individually manage and discipline their aging bodies. This issue is something I continually struggle against as a result of my academic location in a School of Kinesiology, an interdisciplinary department concerned with researching and promoting exercise and sport. Study participants invariably assume that I hold strong opinions about the importance of physical activity for health and thus often convey hesitance, at least initially, in disclosing negative or ambivalent attitudes about exercise and other forms of health promotion.

In addition to physical activity, social norms dictate that older adults should engage in a variety of gendered body management practices. Accordingly, older men may endeavor to shore up their masculine identities and respond to or prevent the health and sexual changes that come with age by turning to exercise or the use of pharmaceuticals such as Viagra and Cialis (Calasanti et al. 2013; Marshall 2010). Older women may turn to dieting, exercise, make-up, fashion, hair dye, and/or nonsurgical and surgical cosmetic procedures to mask their chronological ages and more closely approximate the youthful, feminine, beauty ideal (Brooks 2010; Hurd Clarke and Griffin 2008; Hurd Clarke, Griffin, and Maliha 2009; Muise and Desmarais 2010; Slevin 2010; Smirnova 2012; Ward and Holland 2011). In this way, older adults not only seek to sculpt and maintain idealized bodies but also to demonstrate the “will to health” (Higgs et al. 2009, 687). Higgs et al. (2009) argue that the pursuit of health through consumption has become as important as having good health itself in today’s youth- and health-focused society. In later life, body management practices both reflect and enable the expression of one’s membership in the third age, a stage of life equated with “an ageing youth culture” (Higgs and McGowan 2013, 22) characterized by health, choice, autonomy, leisure, self-expression, pleasure, and social engagement (Gilleard and Higgs 2013). The third age is juxtaposed against the social imaginary of the dreaded fourth age, which is associated with capitulation to ageist stereotypes of decline and decay (Higgs and Gilleard 2015, 116). In this context, body management practices not only enable older adults to retain their femininity and masculinity, they also are central to the demonstration of their agency, morality, and social citizenship. That said, the ability to use consumption to signify and maintain optimal health and aging is clearly delimited by social class and individuals’ access to financial and social resources (Calasanti et al. 2013; Calasanti and Slevin 2001). In other words, successful aging through body management practices is a privilege more readily available to the middle and upper classes.

Internalized assumptions about appropriate, if not requisite, gendered body management practices frequently influence interview dynamics. On the one hand, I have often found it difficult for participants to illuminate their reasons for engaging in their chosen body management practices. While they may easily identify that they shave, dress in particular ways, or use make-up and hair dye, study participants regularly struggle to articulate why they do those things beyond saying that the process as well as the product makes them feel presentable and more masculine or feminine. Twigg (2000) explains this research conundrum by noting that our perceptions of and motives for the things that we do to and with our bodies “exist at a level that is rarely brought into conscious articulation or review” (4). The challenge of researchers is to find ways to open up conversation about and reflections on the mundane aspects of corporeality in productive and nonleading ways. Similarly, the appearances and body practices of researchers may inadvertently enhance or threaten rapport. For example, it has not been uncommon for female participants to remark on my body weight and clothing choices, make comparisons of what they perceive to be my body management choices with their own, or question me as to my views on everything from cosmetic surgery to the use of hair dye. I have also had a cosmetic surgeon slip into conversation his assessment of my apparently numerous bodily imperfections that would benefit from his skillful attention. Finding a balance between being authentic and presenting as a safe, perhaps even neutral, person with whom participants may freely confide can be a tricky endeavor at times, especially in those moments when participants are openly critical of one’s appearance and body management choices. At the same time, those interactions are perhaps among the most illuminating of participants’ as well as our own perceptions, values, and taken-for-granted assumptions about bodies, gender, and age.

Moving Forward: Strategies and Avenues for Future Research

The literature points to a number of fruitful avenues by which researchers may turn the challenges of internalized biases and social distance into opportunities to enhance the exchanges between interviewers and participants. Much attention has been given to the importance and role of reflexivity or “critical self-reflection of the ways in which researchers’ social background, assumptions, positioning and behavior impact on the research process” (Finlay and Gough 2003, ix). Indeed, there is a wealth of literature that explores the topic of reflexivity (see, for example, Berger 2015; Kelly et al. 2017; Underwood, Satterthwait, and Bartlett 2010) and suggests that critical self-reflection may not only minimize the impact of internalized biases on the research encounter but is also “a crucial strategy in the process of generating knowledge” (Berger 2015, 219). Similarly, social distance between the interviewer and study participants may serve to enhance rapport as researchers are positioned and experienced as acceptable outsiders (Hurd Clarke 2003; Thorpe et al. 2017). For example, younger women interviewing older adults may be perceived as individuals lacking expertise on aging who have the potential to be taught by their more knowledgeable elders (Hurd Clarke 2003; Thorpe et al. 2017). In this way, age and gender differences may facilitate sharing and participant comfort during their interactions with researchers.

In the future, the research on later life body image and embodiment would benefit from greater attention to the diversity of older adults’ experiences. In particular, research is needed that more fully considers the perspectives of older lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adults, the experiences of members of racial and ethnic minorities, and the voices and perceptions of individuals from non-Western countries. Such research would enhance our understanding of the ways that culture, ethnicity, and race combine to influence older adults’ internalization and resistance of age and gender norms and how those norms simultaneously vary and remain the same over time and location in a globalized world. Finally, rethinking the way we report on our methods in academic journals would be helpful. Beyond writing about study design, recruitment, and analytic processes, greater attention to researcher reflexivity as well as the often messy backstage (Goffman 1959) interactions that occur and choices that are made would foster greater awareness of the social construction of knowledge as well as the role of bodies and embodiment in the research encounter.

References

Allaz, Anne-Françoise, Martine Bernstein, Patrick Rouget, Marc Archinard, and Alfredo Morabia. 1998. “Body Weight Preoccupation in Middle-Age and Ageing Women: A General Population Survey.” International Journal of Eating Disorders 23, no. 3: 287–294.Find this resource:

    Ando, Shimpei, and Hisao Osada. 2009. “Age and Gender Differences in Body Image over the Life Span: Relationships between Physical Appearance, Health and Functioning.” Japanese Journal of Health Psychology 22, no. 2: 1–16.Find this resource:

      Aoun, S. M., K. Deas, and K. Skett. 2016. “Older People Living Alone at Home with Terminal Cancer.” European Journal of Cancer Care 25, no. 3: 356–364.Find this resource:

        Arendell, Terry. 1997. “Reflections on the Researcher-Researched Relationship: A Woman Interviewing Men.” Qualitative Sociology 20, no. 3: 341–368.Find this resource:

          Baker, Lucie, and Eyal Gringart. 2009. “Body Image and Self-Esteem in Older Adulthood.” Ageing and Society 29, no. 6: 977–995.Find this resource:

            Barker, Karen L., Fran Toye, and Catherine J. Minns Lowe. 2016. “A Qualitative Systematic Review of Patients’ Experience of Osteoporosis Using Meta-Ethnography.” Archives of Osteoporosis 11, no. 33: 1–13.Find this resource:

              Becker, Gay. 1993. “Continuity after a Stroke: Implications of Life Course Disruption.” The Gerontologist 33, no. 2: 148–158.Find this resource:

                Ben-Harush, Aya, Sharon Shiovitz-Ezra, Israel Doron, Sara Alon, Arthur Leibovitz, Hava Golander, Yafa Haron, and Liat Ayalon. 2017. “Ageism among Physicians, Nurses, and Social Workers: Findings from a Qualitative Study.” European Journal of Ageing 14, no. 1: 39–48.Find this resource:

                  Berger, Roni. 2015. “Now I See It, Now I Don’t: Researcher’s Position and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research.” Qualitative Research 15, no. 2: 219–234.Find this resource:

                    Bergeron, Sherry M., and Charlene Y. Senn. 1998. “Body Image and Sociocultural Norms: A Comparison of Heterosexual and Lesbian Women.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 22, no. 3: 385–401.Find this resource:

                      Bordo, Susan. 2003. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. 10th anniv. ed. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Find this resource:

                        Bowman, Dina, Michael McGann, Helen Kimberley, and Simon Biggs. 2017. “‘Rusty, Invisible and Threatening’: Ageing, Capital and Employability.” Work, Employment and Society 31, no. 3: 465–482.Find this resource:

                          Briggs, Charles L. 2003. “Interviewing, Power/Knowledge, and Social Inequality.” In Postmodern Interviewing, edited by Jaber F. Gubrium and James A. Holstein, 243–254. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Find this resource:

                            Brooks, Abigail T. 2010. “Aesthetic Anti-Ageing Surgery and Technology: Women’s Friend or Foe?” Sociology of Health & Illness 32, no. 2: 238–257.Find this resource:

                              Bury, Michael. 1982. “Chronic Illness as Biographical Disruption.” Sociology of Health & Illness 4, no. 2: 167–182.Find this resource:

                                Butler, Robert N. 1975. Why Survive? Being Old in America. New York: Harper and Row.Find this resource:

                                  Bytheway, Bill, and Julia Johnson. 1990. “On Defining Ageism.” Critical Social Policy 10, no. 29: 27–39.Find this resource:

                                    Calasanti, Toni. 2016. “Combating Ageism: How Successful Is Successful Aging?” The Gerontologist 56, no. 6: 1093–1101.Find this resource:

                                      Calasanti, Toni, Ilkka Pietilä, Hanna Ojala, and Neal King. 2013. “Men, Bodily Control, and Health Behaviors: The Importance of Age.” Health Psychology 32, no. 1: 15–23.Find this resource:

                                        Calasanti, Toni M., and Kathleen F. Slevin. 2001. Gender, Social Inequalities, and Aging. New York: AltaMira.Find this resource:

                                          Cash, Thomas F., and Linda Smolak, eds. 2011. Body Image: A Handbook of Science, Practice and Prevention. 2nd ed. New York: Guildford.Find this resource:

                                            Choi, Namkee G., Diana M. DiNitto, and Jinseok Kim. 2014. “Discrepancy between Chronological Age and Felt Age: Age Group Difference in Objective and Subjective Health as Correlates.” Journal of Aging and Health 26, no. 3: 458–473.Find this resource:

                                              Chrisler, Joan C., Angela Barney, and Brigida Palatino. 2016. “Ageism Can Be Hazardous to Women’s Health: Ageism, Sexism, and Stereotypes of Older Women in the Healthcare System.” Journal of Social Issues 72, no. 1: 86–104.Find this resource:

                                                Clarke, Victoria, and Kevin Turner. 2007. “Clothes Maketh the Queer? Dress, Appearance and the Construction of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Identities.” Feminism & Psychology 17, no. 2: 267–276.Find this resource:

                                                  Cook, Kay, and Karl Nunkoosing. 2008. “Maintaining Dignity and Managing Stigma in the Interview Encounter: The Challenge of Paid-For Participation.” Qualitative Health Research 18, no. 3: 418–427.Find this resource:

                                                    Crawford, Robert. 1980. “Healthism and the Medicalization of Everyday Life.” International Journal of Health Services 10, no. 3: 365–388.Find this resource:

                                                      Crawford, Robert. 2006. “Health as a Meaningful Social Practice.” Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 10, no. 4: 401–420.Find this resource:

                                                        Drummond, Murray. 2006. “Ageing Gay Men’s Bodies.” Gay and Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review 2, no. 2: 60–66.Find this resource:

                                                          Duncan, Colin, and Wendy Loretto. 2004. “Never the Right Age? Gender and Age-Based Discrimination in Employment.” Gender, Work and Organization 11, no. 1: 95–115.Find this resource:

                                                            Dunkel, Trisha M., Denise Davidson, and Shaji Qurashi. 2010. “Body Satisfaction and Pressure to be Thin in Younger and Older Muslim and Non-Muslim Women: The Role of Western and Non-Western Dress Preferences.” Body Image 7, no. 1: 56–65.Find this resource:

                                                              Dworkin, Shari L., and Faye L. Wachs. 2009. Body Panic: Gender, Health, and the Selling of Fitness. New York: New York University Press.Find this resource:

                                                                Faircloth, Christopher A., Craig Boylstein, Maude Rittman, Mary E. Young, and Jaber Gubrium. 2004. “Sudden Illness and Biographical Flow in Narratives of Stroke Recovery.” Sociology of Health & Illness 26, no. 2: 242–261.Find this resource:

                                                                  Fales, Melissa R., David A. Frederick, Justin R. Garcia, Kelly A. Gildersleeve, Martie G. Haselton, and Helen E. Fisher. 2016. “Mating Markets and Bargaining Hands: Mate Preferences for Attractiveness and Resources in Two National U.S. Studies.” Personality and Individual Differences 88: 78–87.Find this resource:

                                                                    Fileborn, Bianca, Rachel Thorpe, Gail Hawkes, Victor Minichiello, and Marian Pitts. 2015a. “Sex and the (Older) Single Girl: Experiences of Sex and Dating in Later Life.” Journal of Aging Studies 33: 67–75.Find this resource:

                                                                      Fileborn, Bianca, Rachel Thorpe, Gail Hawkes, Victor Minichiello, Marian Pitts, and Tinashe Dune. 2015b. “Sex, Desire and Pleasure: Considering the Experiences of Older Australian Women.” Sexual and Relationship Therapy 30, no. 1: 117–130.Find this resource:

                                                                        Finlay, Linda, and Brendan Gough. 2003. Reflexivity: A Practical Guide for Researchers in Health and Social Sciences. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Find this resource:

                                                                          Franko, Debra L., and Ruth H. Striegel-Moore. 2002. “The Role of Body Dissatisfaction as a Risk Factor for Depression in Adolescent Girls: Are the Differences Black and White?” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 53, no. 5: 975–983.Find this resource:

                                                                            Fujioka, Yuki, Erin Ryan, Mark Agle, Melissa Legaspi, and Raiza Toohey. 2009. “The Role of Racial Identity in Responses to Thin Media Ideals: Differences between White and Black College Women.” Communication Research 36, no. 4: 451–474.Find this resource:

                                                                              Furstenberg, Anne-Linda. 1989. “Older People’s Age Self-Concept.” Social Casework 70, no. 5: 268–275.Find this resource:

                                                                                Gailey, Jeannine A., and Ariane Prohaska. 2011. “Power and Gender Negotiations during Interviews with Men about Sex and Sexually Degrading Practices.” Qualitative Research 11, no. 4: 365–380.Find this resource:

                                                                                  Gendron, Tracey L., Jennifer Inker, and Ayn Welleford. 2018. “‘How Old Do You Feel?’ The Difficulties and Ethics of Operationalizing Subjective Age.” The Gerontologist 58, no. 4: 618–624.Find this resource:

                                                                                    Gibbs, Lisa. 2008. “Men and Chronic Arthritis: Does Age Make Men More Likely to Use Self-Management Services?” Generations 32, no. 1: 78–81.Find this resource:

                                                                                      Gibson, Grant, and Ciara Kierans. 2017. “Ageing, Masculinity and Parkinson’s Disease: Embodied Perspectives.” Sociology of Health & Illness 39, no. 4: 532–546.Find this resource:

                                                                                        Gignac, Monique A. M., Aileen M. Davis, Gillian Hawker, James G. Wright, Nizar Mahomed, Paul R. Fortin, and Elizabeth M. Badley. 2006. “‘What Do You Expect? You’re Just Getting Older’: A Comparison of Perceived Osteoarthritis-Related and Aging-Related Health Experiences in Middle- and Older-Age Adults.” Arthritis Care & Research 55, no. 6: 905–912.Find this resource:

                                                                                          Gilleard, Chris, and Paul Higgs. 2013. Ageing, Corporeality and Embodiment. New York: Anthem.Find this resource:

                                                                                            Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Double Day and Co.Find this resource:

                                                                                              Gott, Merryn, and Sharon Hinchliff. 2003. “How Important Is Sex in Later Life? The Views of Older People.” Social Science & Medicine 56, no. 8: 1617–1628.Find this resource:

                                                                                                Granberg, Ellen M., Leslie Gordon Simons, and Ronald L. Simons. 2009. “Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization.” Youth & Society 41, no. 2: 256–277.Find this resource:

                                                                                                  Grogan, Sarah. 2017. Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                    Gullette, Margaret M. 1997. Declining to Decline: Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Midlife. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.Find this resource:

                                                                                                      Hakim, Catherine. 2011. Honey Money: The Power of Erotic Capital. New York: Allen Lane.Find this resource:

                                                                                                        Hannum, Susan M., and Robert L. Rubinstein. 2016. “The Meaningfulness of Time: Narratives of Cancer among Chronically Ill Older Adults.” Journal of Aging Studies 36: 17–25.Find this resource:

                                                                                                          Harris, Kelly, Sarah Krygsman, Jessica Waschenko, and Debbie L. Rudman. 2018. “Ageism and the Older Worker: A Scoping Review.” The Gerontologist 58, no. 2: e1–e14.Find this resource:

                                                                                                            Heffernan, Karen. 1999. “Lesbians and the Internalization of Societal Standards of Weight and Appearance.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 3, no. 4: 121–127.Find this resource:

                                                                                                              Higgs, Paul, and Chris Gilleard. 2015. Rethinking Old Age: Theorizing the Fourth Age. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                Higgs, Paul, and Fiona McGowan. 2013. “Aging, Embodiment and the Negotiation of the Third and Fourth Ages.” In Aging Men, Masculinities and Modern Medicine, edited by Antje Kampf, Barbara L. Marshall, and Alan Petersen, 21–34. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                  Higgs, Paul, Miranda Leontowitsch, Fiona Stevenson, and Ian Rees Jones. 2009. “Not Just Old and Sick—The ‘Will to Health’ in Later Life.” Ageing & Society 29, no. 5: 687–707.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                    Hubbard, Gill, Lisa Kidd, and Nora Kearney. 2010. “Disrupted Lives and Threats to Identity: The Experiences of People with Colorectal Cancer within the First Year Following Diagnosis.” Health 14, no. 2: 131–146.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                      Hurd Clarke, Laura. 1999. “‘We’re Not Old!’: Older Women’s Negotiation of Aging and Oldness.” Journal of Aging Studies 13, no. 4: 419–439.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                        Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2002. “Older Women's Perceptions of Ideal Body Weights: The Tensions between Health and Appearance Motivations for Weight Loss.” Ageing & Society 22, no. 6: 751–773.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                          Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2003. “Overcoming Ambivalence: The Challenges of Exploring Socially Charged Issues.” Qualitative Health Research 13, no. 5: 718–735.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                            Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2006. “Older Women and Sexuality: Experiences in Marital Relationships across the Life Course.” Canadian Journal on Aging 25, no. 2: 129–140.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                              Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2011. Facing Age: Women Growing Older in Anti-Aging Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2012. “Researching the Body and Embodiment in Later Life.” In Researching Later Life and Ageing, edited by Miranda Leontowitsch, 24–40. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                  Hurd Clarke, Laura. 2017/2018. “Women, Aging, and Beauty Culture: Navigating the Social Perils of Looking Old.” Generations 41, no. 4: 104–108.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                    Hurd Clarke, Laura, and Alexandra Korotchenko. 2011. “Aging and the Body: A Review.” Canadian Journal on Aging 30, no. 3: 495–510.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                      Hurd Clarke, Laura, and Alexandra Korotchenko. 2016. “‘I Know It Exists … But I Haven’t Experienced It Personally’: Older Canadian Men’s Perceptions of Ageism as a Distant Social Problem.” Ageing & Society 36, no. 8: 1757–1773.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                        Hurd Clarke, Laura, and Meredith Griffin. 2008. “Visible and Invisible Ageing: Beauty Work as a Response to Ageism.” Ageing and Society 28, no. 5: 653–674.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                          Hurd Clarke, Laura, Erica V. Bennett, and Chris Liu. 2014. “Aging and Masculinity: Portrayals in Men’s Magazines.” Journal of Aging Studies 31: 26–33.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                            Hurd Clarke, Laura, Meredith Griffin, and Katherine Maliha. 2009. “Bat Wings, Bunions, and Turkey Wattles: Body Transgressions and Older Women’s Strategic Clothing Choices.” Ageing and Society 29, no. 5: 709–726.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                              Hurd Clarke, Laura, Meredith Griffin, and the PACC Research Team. 2008. “Failing Bodies: Body Image and Multiple Chronic Conditions in Later Life.” Qualitative Health Research 18, no. 8: 1084–1095.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                Husser, Erica K., and Karen A. Roberto. 2009. “Older Women with Cardiovascular Disease: Perceptions of Initial Experiences and Long-Term Influences on Daily Life.” Journal of Women & Aging 21, no. 1: 3–18.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                  Huxley, Caroline J., Victoria Clarke, and Emma Halliwell. 2011. “‘It’s a Comparison Thing, Isn’t It?’: Lesbian and Bisexual Women’s Accounts of How Partner Relationships Shape Their Feelings About Their Body and Appearance.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 35, no. 3: 415–427.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                    Huxley, Caroline J., Victoria Clarke, and Emma Halliwell. 2014. “A Qualitative Exploration of Whether Lesbian and Bisexual Women Are ‘Protected’ from Sociocultural Pressure to Be Thin.” Journal of Health Psychology 19, no. 2: 273–284.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                      Jones, Julie, and Steve Pugh. 2005. “Ageing Gay Men: Lessons from the Sociology of Embodiment.” Men and Masculinities 7, no. 3: 248–260.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                        Jyrkinen, Marjut, and Linda McKie. 2012. “Gender, Age and Ageism: Experiences of Women Managers in Finland and Scotland.” Work, Employment and Society 26, no. 1: 61–77.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                          Kaminski, Patricia L., and Bert Hayslip. 2006. “Gender Differences in Body Esteem among Older Adults.” Journal of Women & Aging 18, no. 3: 19–35.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                            Katz, Stephen, and Toni Calasanti. 2015. “Critical Perspectives on Successful Aging: Does It ‘Appeal More Than It Illuminates?’” The Gerontologist 55, no. 1: 26–33.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                              Kelly, Martina, Joy de Vries-Erich, Esther Helmich, Tim Dornan, and Nigel King. 2017. “Embodied Reflexivity in Qualitative Analysis: A Role for Selfies.” Forum: Qualitative Social Research 18, no. 2: 1–21.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                King, Andrew, Almack, Kathryn, Suen, Yiu-Tung, and Sue Westwood, eds. 2018. Older Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans People: Minding the Knowledge Gaps. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                  Kitson, Alison L., Clare Dow, Joseph D. Calabrese, Louise Locock, and Asa M. Athlin. 2013. “Stroke Survivors’ Experiences of the Fundamentals of Care: A Qualitative Analysis.” International Journal of Nursing Studies 50, no. 3: 392–403.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                    Krakauer, Ilana D., and Suzanna M. Rose. 2002. “The Impact of Group Membership on Lesbians’ Physical Appearance.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 6, no. 1: 31–43.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                      Laws, Glenda. 1995. “Understanding Ageism: Lessons from Feminism and Postmodernism.” The Gerontologist 35, no. 1: 112–118.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                        Leontowitsch, Miranda. 2012. “Interviewing Older Men.” In Researching Later Life and Ageing: Expanding Qualitative Research Horizons, edited by Miranda Leontowitsch, 104–123. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                          Lev, Arlene I. 2008. “More than Surface Tension: Femmes in Families.” Journal of Lesbian Studies 12, no. 2–3: 127–144.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                            Liechty, Toni, Nuno Ribeiro, Katherine Sveinson, and Laura Dahlstrom. 2014. “‘It’s about What I Can Do with My Body’: Body Image and Embodied Experiences of Aging among Older Canadian Men.” International Journal of Men’s Health 13, no. 1: 3–21.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                              Llewellyn, Henry, Joe Low, Glenn Smith, Katherine Hopkins, Aine Burns, and Louise Jones. 2014. “Narratives of Continuity among Older People with Late Stage Chronic Kidney Disease Who Decline Dialysis.” Social Science & Medicine 114: 49–56.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                Lodge, Amy C., and Debra Umberson. 2013. “Age and Embodied Masculinities: Midlife Gay and Heterosexual Men Talk about Their Bodies.” Journal of Aging Studies 27, no. 3: 225–232.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                  Macia, Enguerran, Fatou B. Dial, Joann M. Montepare, Fatoumata Hane, and Priscilla Duboz. 2017. “Ageing and the Body: One African Perspective.” Ageing & Society. doi:10.1017/S0144686X17001313.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                    Marshall, Barbara L. 2010. “Science, Medicine and Virility Surveillance: ‘Sexy Seniors’ in the Pharmaceutical Imagination.” Sociology of Health & Illness 32, no. 2: 211–224.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                      McGann, Michael, Rachel Ong, Dina Bowman, Alan Duncan, Helen Kimberley, and Simon Biggs. 2016. “Gendered Ageism in Australia: Changing Perceptions of Age Discrimination among Older Men and Women.” Economic Papers 35, no. 4: 375–388.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                        Meadows, Robert, and Kate Davidson. 2006. “Maintaining Manliness in Later Life: Hegemonic Masculinities and Emphasized Femininities.” In Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking, edited by Toni M. Calasanti and Kathleen F. Slevin, 295–312. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                          Minichiello, Victor, Jan Browne, and Hal Kendig. 2000. “Perceptions and Consequences of Ageism: Views of Older People.” Ageing and Society 20, no. 3: 253–278.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                            Molloy, Beth L., and Sharon D. Herzberger. 1998. “Body Image and Self-Esteem: A Comparison of African-American and Caucasian Women.” Sex Roles 38, no. 7/8: 631–643.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                              Muise, Amy, and Serge Desmarais. 2010. “Women’s Perceptions and Use of ‘Anti-Aging’ Products.” Sex Roles 63, no. 1–2: 126–137.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                Nelson, Todd D., ed. 2002. Ageism: Stereotyping and Prejudice against Older Persons. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oliffe, John, and Lawrence Mróz. 2005. “Men Interviewing Men about Health and Illness: Ten Lessons Learned.” Journal of Men’s Health & Gender 2, no. 2: 257–260.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Peel, Elizabeth, and Rosie Harding, eds. 2016. Ageing and Sexualities: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pini, Barbara. 2005. “Interviewing Men: Gender and the Collection and Interpretation of Qualitative Data.” Journal of Sociology 41, no. 2: 201–216.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rodin, Judith, Lisa Silberstein, and Ruth Striegel-Moore. 1984. “Women and Weight: A Normative Discontent.” Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 32: 267–307.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rowe, John W., and Robert L. Kahn. 1997. “Successful Aging.” The Gerontologist 37, no. 4: 433–440.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rowe, John W., and Robert L. Kahn. 1998. Successful Aging. New York: Random House.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ryan, Travis A., Todd G. Morrison, and Daragh T. McDermott. 2010. “Body Image Investment among Gay and Bisexual Men over the Age of 40: A Test of Social Comparison Theory and Threatened Masculinity Theory.” Gay & Lesbian Issues and Psychology Review 6, no. 1: 4–19.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sallee, Margaret W., and Frank Harris, III. 2011. “Gender Performance in Qualitative Studies of Masculinities.” Qualitative Research 11, no. 4: 409–429.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sanders, Caroline, Jenny Donovan, and Paul Dieppe. 2002. “The Significance and Consequences of Having Painful and Disabled Joints in Older Age: Co-Existing Accounts of Normal and Disrupted Biographies.” Sociology of Health & Illness 24, no. 2: 227–253.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silver, Catherine B. 2003. “Gendered Identities in Old Age: Toward (De)Gendering?” Journal of Aging Studies 17, no. 4: 379–397.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Slevin, Kathleen F. 2006. “The Embodied Experiences of Old Lesbians.” In Age Matters: Realigning Feminist Thinking, edited by Toni M. Calasanti and Kathleen F. Slevin, 247–268. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Slevin, Kathleen F. 2010. “‘If I Had Lots of Money … I’d Have a Body Makeover’: Managing the Aging Body.” Social Forces 88, no. 3: 1003–1020.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Slevin, Kathleen F., and Thomas J. Linneman. 2010. “Old Gay Men’s Bodies and Masculinities.” Men and Masculinities 12, no. 4: 483–507.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Smirnova, Michelle Hannah. 2012. “A Will to Youth: The Woman’s Anti-Aging Elixir.” Social Science & Medicine 75, no. 7: 1236–1243.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sontag, Susan. 1997. “The Double Standard of Aging.” In The Other within Us: Feminist Explorations on Women and Aging, edited by Marilyn Pearsall, 19–24. Boulder, CO: Westview.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Spector-Mersel, Gabriela. 2006. “Never-Aging Stories: Western Hegemonic Masculinity Scripts.” Journal of Gender Studies 15, no. 1: 67–82.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stanley-Hermanns, Melinda, and Joan Engebretson. 2010. “Sailing the Stormy Seas: The Illness Experience of Persons with Parkinson’s Disease.” The Qualitative Report 15, no. 2: 340–369.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Stevens, Claire, and Marika Tiggemann. 1998. “Women’s Body Figure Preferences across the Life Span.” Journal of Genetic Psychology 159, no. 1: 94–102.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Stypinska, Justina, and Konrad Turek. 2017. “Hard and Soft Age Discrimination: The Dual Nature of Workplace Discrimination.” European Journal of Ageing 14, no. 1: 49–61.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Suen, Yiu Tung. 2016. “Older Single Gay Men’s Body Talk: Resisting and Rigidifying the Ageing Discourse in the Gay Community.” Journal of Homosexuality 64, no. 3: 397–414.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thompson, Edward H. 2006. “Images of Old Men’s Masculinity: Still a Man?” Sex Roles 55, no. 9–10: 633–648.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thompson, Edward H., and Kaitlyn B. Langendoerfer. 2016. “Older Men’s Blueprint for ‘Being a Man.’” Men and Masculinities 19, no. 2: 119–147.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thorpe, Rachel, Bianca Fileborn, and Laura Hurd Clarke. 2017. “Framing the Sexual Rights of Older Heterosexual Women: Acknowledging Diversity and Change.” In Addressing the Sexual Rights of Older People, edited by Catherine Barrett and Sharon Hinchliff, 29–41. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Thorpe, Rachel, Gail Hawkes, Tinashe Dune, Bianca Fileborn, Marian Pitts, and Victor Minichiello. 2017. “Hidden Boundaries and Shared Meanings: The Roles of Researcher Characteristics and Cultural Norms in Shaping Understandings of Sexuality in the Unstructured Interview Setting.” International Journal of Social Research Methodology 21, no. 2: 205–217.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tiggemann, Marika. 2004. “Body Image across the Adult Life Span: Stability and Change.” Body Image 1 (1): 29–41.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Twigg, Julia. 2000. Bathing—The Body and Community Care. London: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Underwood, Mair, Leonn D. Satterthwait, and Helen P. Bartlett. 2010. “Reflexivity and Minimization of the Impact of Age-Cohort Differences between Researcher and Research Participants.” Qualitative Health Research 20, no. 11: 1585–1595.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vincent, John. 2015. “Age, Ageism and Social Identity in Later Years.” In Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies, edited by Steven Vertovec, 33–42. New York: Routledge.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Walker, Helen, Diane Grant, Mark Meadows, and Ian Cook. 2007. “Women’s Experiences and Perceptions of Age Discrimination in Employment: Implications for Research and Policy.” Social Policy and Society 6, no. 1: 37–48.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ward, Richard, and Caroline Holland. 2011. “‘If I Look Old, I Will Be Treated Old’: Hair and Later-Life Image Dilemmas.” Ageing & Society 31, no. 2: 288–307.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Weiss, David, and Frieder R. Lang. 2012. “‘They’ Are Old but ‘I’ Feel Younger: Age-Group Dissociation as a Self-Protective Strategy in Old Age.” Psychology and Aging 27, no. 1: 153–163.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Williams, Christine L., and E. Joel Heikes. 1993. “The Importance of Researcher’s Gender in the In-depth Interview: Evidence from Two Case Studies of Male Nurses.” Gender & Society 7, no. 2: 280–291.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Williams, Simon J. 1996. “The Vicissitudes of Embodiment across the Chronic Illness Trajectory.” Body & Society 2, no. 2: 23–47.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Winterich, Julie A. 2007. “Aging, Femininity, and the Body: What Appearance Changes Mean to Women with Age.” Gender Issues 24, no. 3: 51–69.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      World Health Organization. 2015. World Report on Ageing and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186463/1/9789240694811_eng.pdf?ua=1.Find this resource:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yong, Vivian T. F. 2001. “Interviewing Men on Sensitive Issues.” Contemporary Nurse 11, no. 1: 18–27.Find this resource: