Abstract and Keywords
The Viceroyalty of New Spain went from being the richest of the American territories of the Spanish Crown to becoming Mexico, one of the new countries that emerged from the crumbling of the Spanish empire in America. It was a very complex process. It did not start as an independence movement, it was extremely violent in its first phase and, paradoxically, the new nation obtained independence in a consensual way and with a document containing an article that offered the crown to Fernando VII, the Spanish King. This process also evinced significant differences regarding other processes for independence in Spanish America. Besides dealing with all these aspects, a final section is devoted to historiographic issues that are important to understand the aforementioned complexities and which are still present in contemporary debates on the social, political, and military processes that gave birth to Mexico.
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