- Copyright Page
- About the Editor
- About the Contributors
- The Role of Lawyers in Education Reform
- Education in Context: Schools and Their Connections to Societal Inequalities
- Schooling for Democracy: Past, Present, and Future
- The Constitutionally Anomalous Right to Education
- Developing the Free Mind
- The Shifting Landscape of Education Governance
- Education Federalism: Why It Matters and How the United States Should Restructure It
- Fiscal Compliance Rules for Federal Funding of Elementary and Secondary Education: Transparency, Reason-Giving, and Agency Accountability
- How States Fund Education
- State Constitutional Analysis in School Finance Litigation
- Standards-based Reform and Accountability Law and Policy: History, Implementation, and Outcomes
- Contested Meanings of Equality: The Unrealized Promise of the Anti-Discrimination Principle and the Uncertain Future of a Right to Education
- The Past, Present, and Future of Race-Conscious Policies for Addressing Racial Segregation in K–12 Schools
- The Muddled Distinction Between De Jure and De Facto Segregation
- School District Boundaries: Consequences and Challenges
- The School-to-Prison Pipeline: How Federal Anti-Discrimination Law Fails to Protect Equal Educational Opportunity
- Closing Achievement Gaps through Socioeconomic Integration
- Educating English Learners
- Challenges Facing Immigrant Students
- Sex Discrimination and the Transformation of U.S. Education
- Transgender and Gender Expansive Students
- Students with Disabilities: A Half-Century of Progress
- Students with Disabilities and School Choice
- Least Restrictive Environment and the Education of Children with Disabilities
- Students’ Individual Rights Safety and Privacy
- Surveillance and Security Practices in Schools
- Student Privacy and the Law in the Internet Age
- Eighty Years of Students’ Free Speech in Public Schools
- School Jurisdiction over Online Speech
- Religion in the Schools
- School Vouchers and Student Rights: Trading Constitutional Protections for Contractual Obligations
- Education in Virtual Environments
- Universal Pre-Kindergarten: Supporting High Quality and Broad Access at a Time of Federal Disengagement and “School Choice”
- Parental Choice and the Future of Faith-based Schools
- Teacher Labor Market Reforms: A Look Ahead to the Next Decade
- Racial and Ethnic Equity in American Public Schools: Looking Ahead
- Equality, Liberty, and Education
Abstract and Keywords
In the United States, the vast majority of funding for K–12 education is provided through state and local governments to school districts. Throughout history, school districts have remained highly segregated both by income/wealth and by race, leading to reduced levels of funding available for higher need districts compared to wealthier districts. The purpose of this chapter is to analyze funding disparities within states and to determine differences between states with respect to funding equity. First, the chapter begins with a discussion of the sources of revenue for education at the state and local levels. Second, it explains the purpose and design of state aid formulas to reduce funding disparities between districts. Third, using data from the School Finance Indicators Database, the chapter calculates funding effort and progressivity indices for each state. Fourth, it provides case studies on two states with more progressive and less progressive funding, New Jersey and Illinois. Finally, the chapter concludes with policy recommendations on how states can improve their school finance systems to provide adequate levels of funding for higher need districts.
Ajay Srikanth is currently a doctoral candidate in the Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. His research interests include school finance for English Language Learners and high needs populations. Prior to his PhD program, Ajay served as a Spanish teacher in Chicago Public Schools.
Michael Atzbi is a doctoral candidate at Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. His research interests include the intersection of school finance, educational technology, and educational equity. He also serves as a Teacher Coach for the Woodbridge School District.
Bruce D. Baker is Professor in the Department of Educational Theory, Policy, and Administration at the Rutgers University Graduate School of Education. He is widely recognized as a leading scholar in the field of state education finance, authoring a multitude of peer-reviewed journal articles, books, and policy briefs. Other areas of focus are teacher and administrator labor markets and preparation pipelines, charter school funding, and higher education finance and policy.
Mark Weber is the Special Analyst for Education Policy at the New Jersey Policy Perspective, and an Instructor of Public School Finance at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, where he earned his PhD. Weber also works as a public school teacher in Warren Township, NJ.
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