Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 02 June 2020

(p. 809) Index

(p. 809) Index

Figures, notes, and tables are indicated by f, n, and t, following the page number.

Abdel-Malek, Anouar, 722, 722n3
abolition of private property, 44
absolute commodity, 181–182, 184
absolute rent, 266, 388, 388n4, 547, 550, 681–683, 683f, 683n9, 695
absolutism, 57, 65, 589
abstraction, power of, 48, 224, 237, 363, 607
abstraction and verification, 93–95
abstraction of competition, 261–262, 271
abstraction of extension, 99, 101, 104
abstraction of level of generality, 100
abstraction of vantage point, 99, 101, 104
abstract labor, 31, 133–134, 236, 363–364, 375, 382, 429–433, 434, 607, 761, 762, 768
abstract social totality, 87n9
accumulation, 15, 27
capital accumulation, 21, 203–205, 226, 287, 308–309, 314, 326–327, 581
climate change and, 622
contradictory process of capital accumulation, 21
by dispossession, 690–691
environmental effects of, 624 (see also environmental degradation/depletion)
fishing industry and, 655
Fordist regime of, 540–544, 596, 600–609
functional vs. dysfunctional, 28, 586, 597–602, 600–601
in Latin America, 29
merchant capitalism (1500–1800) and, 64–65
of money, 164
post-Fordist regime of, 530, 610–616
primitive (see primitive accumulation)
regime of accumulation, 526–529, 531, 567–568, 582, 591, 598, 700
regulation theory and, 528–529(see also regulation theory)
social structures of, 559–579
South Asia, capital accumulation in, 679
stages of (see Stages Theory)
urbanization process and, 544–545
Achcar, Gilbert, 30, 721
Adler, Paul S., 253, 255
Adorno, Theodor, 151
Afghanistan, 684t, 732
Africa. See also Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
anti-colonialism in, 72
Blackness and, 428
peasant-led guerrilla insurrections in, 411
slavery and, 426
agency, 795–796
age of revolutions (1789–1848), 66–67
agglomeration economies, 530, 700
Aglietta, Michel, 246, 586
A Theory of Capitalist Regulation: The U.S. Experience, 566
agrarian revolution, 464, 471, 679, 710
agrarian transition, 30, 58
agriculture
agribusinesses, 634
agricultural land, privatization of, 549, 633, 634, 702
concentrated animal feeding operations, 654
fertilizers, 654
in Ireland, 468
life cycles of plants and animals, 654–655
Marx’s critique of capitalist agriculture, 653, 671
(p. 810)
in relation to capitalism and entropy, 618, 620
soil productivity and soil nutrient cycle, 653–654
in South Asia (see South Asia)
Soviet five-year plans and collectivization of agriculture, 776
Ahmad, Aijaz, 722
Albert, Michael, 799n6
Parecon, 781–782
Algeria, 72, 714, 730
alienation, 9, 17–18, 23, 111–127, 361–377
in 1844 Manuscripts and the Grundrisse, 106, 117, 361, 366, 774–775
alienated socialization, 112
autonomy of workers and, 369–370
capitalist control and, 799
of capitalist property, 159
contemporary phenomena explained by, 369–374
division of labor and, 245
emancipation and, 374–376
in The German Ideology, 457, 774–775
labor and, 361–365
Marx’s later dismissiveness of idea of, 366, 368
metabolic rifts and, 371–372
from nature, 371
politics and, 372, 375
as relation of relationlessness, 368
state as alienated form of political organization, 302
teleology and, 368
alliance building, 485–486
Al-Qaida, 732–733
Althusser, Louis
critical of reduction of ideology to “pure illusion,” 115
on fetishism, 116
on Hegel-Marx relationship, 366
on humanism vs. anti-humanism, 366
“Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses,” 330–331
Marxist theory of the state and, 21, 314–315
materiality of ideology and, 111, 112, 124
Poulantzas and, 315
regulation theory and, 525, 565
on repressive and ideological apparatuses, 313
‘Amel, Mahdi, 722
American Committee on United Europe, 590
American informal empire, 504–506, 512–514
American Puritanism, 486
American Revolution, 119
American Socialist Union, 412n10
Amin, Samir, 16, 59, 72, 702, 722
AMP (Asiatic mode of production), 30, 58–60, 79n2, 700–704, 725
Amsterdam school, 519, 528, 529, 531, 533
Analytical Marxism, 84n4
anarchists and anarchy, 68, 528, 665, 759, 762, 773, 781
Ancient Greece, 60–61, 197, 541, 701
Ancient Rome. See Roman Empire
ancient world’s system of surplus extraction, 48
Anderson, Kevin B., 15, 25, 463, 705
Anderson, Perry, 61, 63, 521, 524
antagonism
capitalism as antagonistic mode of production, 87t, 92–93
capital’s antagonistic relationship with labor, 251
class struggle and, 88–89
Communism as non-antagonistic mode of production, 87t, 93
between Irish proletarian and English proletarian, 470
League of Revolutionary Black Workers and, 452–457
modes of production (non-antagonistic and antagonistic), 87t, 87–93
national differences and, 463
socialism as non-antagonistic mode of production, 87t, 93
anthropology, 3, 58, 88, 94
anti-austerity protests, 416
anti-colonial movement, 25, 72, 707, 709
anti-enclosure movement, 64
anti-humanism, 367–369
anti-identitarian, 235, 239
Appalachia, 621
appropriation, concept of, 108
(p. 811) Arab-Israeli war (1948), 730
Arab Spring (2011), 30, 734–735
Argentina, 673, 674, 778
hyperinflation (1989), 169
Aricó, José María: Marx and Latin America, 666n8, 666–668
Aristotle, 197nn4–5, 215, 218, 725
Armstrong, Peter, 249, 251
Arrighi, Giovanni, 500–501
Arrow, K. J., 174
Arrow and Debreu (A-D) model, 174–176
Arruzza, Cinzia, 332
Arthur, Chris, 45, 221n13
artificial intelligence (AI), 396
Asia, 15, 16, 699–719. See also Asiatic mode of production; specific countries and regions
late industrialization of East Asia, 673
Marx’s analysis of societies in, 30, 699–704
Marx’s dialectic method and, 715–716
peasant-led guerrilla insurrections in, 411
R&D investment in, 353
significance for Marxism, 712–716
waterworks in, 703
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, 514
Asiatic mode of production (AMP), 30, 58–60, 79n2, 700–704, 725
Astarita, Rolando, 669
Aston, Trevor, 92n12
asylum-seekers, 436
asymmetrical regulation, 597
AT&T, 252
The Atlantic on Marxism’s relevance, 5
atomism, 223
Australia, 70, 308, 415–416
Austria, 67
Austria-Hungary, 68, 69, 465, 472
Austrian school of economics, 781–782, 785–786, 788
Austro-Marxists, 152
authoritarian statism, 315, 531
auto industry
automation and relocation of plants, 445, 452–453, 459
black workers’ protest and organization in, 444, 446 (see also League of Revolutionary Black Workers)
Daimler and Benz in Germany, 589
federal bailout of, 513
Ford Model-T system, 587
Fordism, 587–589
plant closures in Midwest states post-1980s, 513
role of the point of production, 446–448, 452, 454, 459
Toyota system, 257, 588
Treaty of Detroit (1950), 592
automation. See technology
autonomy of individual, 342
autonomy of state, 300, 301, 312, 703
autonomy of workers, 369–371
autopoiesis, 608, 611–615
Maturana and Varela’s views on application to society, 614–615
metabolism and, 615
self-boundedness and, 612–613
self-generation and, 613
self-perpetuation and, 613–614
Auvray, Tristan, 639n8
Aven, P., 744
average cost approach, 389, 396
al-’Azm, Sadik Jalal, 722, 722n4
Bain, Peter, 253
Bakir, Erdogan, 638n5
Bakunin, Mikhail, 13, 465
Balibar, Étienne, 437
Banaji, Jarius, 217
Bangladesh, 684t, 687, 689
distribution of land in, 689, 690t
bankruptcies, 584, 585, 734
banks and banking system, 561, 590, 592, 634. See also US Federal Reserve
Baragar, Fletcher, 635
Baran, Paul A., 290–291, 292f, 293, 637
Barba, Aldo, 634
Bardhan, Pranab, 688
Barrett, Michele, 328
barter economy, 282
Basole, Amit, 689
Basso, Luca, 760
Bastiat, Frédéric, 90–91
Basu, Deepankar, 21, 32, 279
Battle of Plassey (1757), 686
Bauer, Bruno, 7, 9
Bedaux system, 588
Belgium, 66, 67, 68
(p. 812) Bentham, Jeremy, 542
Berezovsky, Boris, 744, 747–749
Berger, John, 365
Berman, Marshall: Everything That Is Solid Melts Into Air, 540
Bernard, Allen Ray, 451
Bernier, Francois, 702
Bernstein, Eduard, 24, 407, 560
Beveridge Reforms, 590, 597
Bhattacharya, Tithi, 328–329, 331, 393
Bhutan, 684t
Biel, Robert, 617
Bilderberg Group, 528
Bismarck, Otto von, 407, 504, 728
Blackledge, Paul, 16, 37
Black Liberation Movement, 442, 445, 452
Blackness, 428–429, 435
black workers, 441–461. See also racial inequality
in Detroit auto plants, 444, 446
historical materialism and, 445
League of Revolutionary Black Workers, 24, 441–452
slavery and, 24, 426–429
Blair, Tony, 414
Blanqui, Auguste, 465
Bloom, Solomon: World of Nations, 463–464
Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen von, 152
Bois, Guy, 50, 51, 62, 63
Bolivar, Simón, as Latin American “liberator,” 664, 664n5
Bolivia, 72, 778
Bolshevik Revolution. See Russian Revolution (1917)
Bolsheviks, 52, 70, 152, 313, 408n4, 714, 739
Bonaparte III. See Napoleon III
Bonapartism, 30, 301, 301n1, 305–307, 314, 315, 468, 667, 728–730
Bonefeld, Werner, 520–521
Boothman, Derek, 476
borders, 437
Borodin, P., 747
Bortkiewicz, Ladislaw von, 152, 162, 288
Bourdieu, Pierre, 116
bourgeois horizon, 19, 212, 214–215
bourgeoisie, 21
class power of, 68, 542
early modern mercantile bourgeoisie, 541
industrial bourgeoisie and capitalist cities, 541
political and social combativeness of, 57
productive forces created by, 343n2
role in capitalism, 724
in Russia (post-Soviet), 31, 744–746
bourgeois revolution, 65–66
Boyer, Robert, 527, 566–567, 596
Regulation Theory: The State of the Art (with Saillard, eds.), 568
Brady, David, 572
branding, 24, 244, 428–432, 435
Braverman, Harry, 245–248
Labor and Monopoly Capital, 241–242, 412–413
Bray, John, 762
Brazil, 673, 674, 778
Brecht, Bertolt, 151
Brenner, Robert, 49–50, 51–52, 65, 157
Brenner Thesis, 92n12
Bretton Woods system, 504–506, 508, 513, 521, 532, 590–591, 595, 597
Brexit, 514
Britain/England. See also United Kingdom
agriculture in, 653
capitalism and industrialization in, 68
capital mobility in, 434–435
China and, 707–710, 715
Civil War, 48–52, 65
class and class struggle in, 57
Egypt and, 726
empire (see colonialism; specific colonies)
exploitation of Ireland, 308
Factory Acts, 238
financialization in, 582, 596
Fordist accumulation regime in, 591–592, 594f, 595
High Middle Ages in, 63–64
India and, 308, 472, 685–687, 707–710, 715
Ireland and, 467–471
labor unions and worker protests in, 405–407
labor unrest (1898–1945) in, 70
left-wing parties and politics in, 417
military intervention in Mexico, 665
(p. 813)
modes of production in, 587–588, 700
as nation-state model, 67
opium trade and trade deficit of, 705–706
organization of working classes in, 470
Polish emancipation and, 466
public estate, sale to private investors, 633
shop steward networks in, 415, 587
societal development in, 301
US Confederacy’s support from British government, 468, 470
working-class revolution in, international effect of, 465, 469
British East India Company, 685–686
British Empire. See colonialism; specific colonies
British Labour Party, 417
British Socialist Workers Party (SWP), 416
Brosses, Charles de, 116
Brown, Andrew, 631
Brunnhof, Suzanne de, 182n11
Bukharin, Nicolai, 476, 502, 522, 559, 560, 572, 662
compared to Hilferding, 563
The World Economy and Imperialism, 563–564
Bunker, Stephen, 616–617
Burawoy, Michael, 20, 248–253, 434
Burch, David, 634
Burke, Edmund, 725
Butterfield, Herbert: “The Whig Conception of History,” 160n9
butterfly effect, 608
buybacks of shares, 632, 639n8
Byres, Terence J., 679–680
Cafruny, Alan W., 597
Caldentey, Esteban, 175n2
Caligaris, Gastón, 672, 672n13
Callinicos, Alex, 50–51
camera obscura, 112–113, 116
Cammack, Paul, 330
Campbell, Martha, 223, 226, 227
Canada, 67, 70
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), 410–411
Irish Fenians and, 469
Japanese transplant in, 252
CAP (Common Agricultural Programme), 530
capital, 19, 191–210
accumulation of, 21, 203–205, 226, 287, 308–309, 314, 326–327
antagonistic relationship with labor, 251
capitalism and, 191–192, 198–199
centralization of, 205, 219
circulation process of, 192, 193, 343–344, 344f
class and, 224–226, 237
commercial capital, 206, 261n1
competition and, 20–21
composition of, 205
constant capital, 206–208
as crisis prone, 226–227
critical concept of, 211–229
as dead labor, 362
definitions of, 193
destructive influence of, 706
dual character of, 193–199
fictitious capital (see fictitious capital)
finance as organizer of, 167–169
financial capital, 206
fixed capital, 205
fluid capital, 205
global nature of, 425
in Grundrisse, 263–264
historical specificity of, 194
hybrid forms of, 222
indifference toward labor in, 430, 433, 434
industrial capital, 206
interest-bearing capital, 206, 261n1, 379
mainstream conception of, flaws in, 213
Marx’s understanding of, 191–192, 212, 213–216, 761–762
organic composition of, 285–289, 327n5, 593, 595, 682–683
productive capital, 261n1
productive forces (PFs) and, 92
qualitative sociological dimensions of, 222–226
real capital, 206
reproduction of, 203–205
return to, 19, 208–209
Rosdolsky’s interpretation of Marx’s distinction between capital in general and competition, 274
(p. 814)
“self-expanding” value of (see value)
as a social relation, 303
subsumption and (see subsumption)
technological change within circuits of, 344–347
urbanization of (see urbanization)
as use value as well as commodity, 166
valorization process and (see valorization)
value-composition vs. technical composition of, 326–327
zombie capital, 354n13
Capital (Das Kapital), 111. See also Marx, Karl, works by, for preliminary versions published under different titles
100th anniversary of publication of, 501
“Afterword to the Second German Edition,” 8, 103
Appendix of first edition Volume I, 117
basis of laws of capitalist development as subject of, 454, 671
criticism of, 111, 239, 249
dialectics and, 17 (see also dialectical method)
Engels quoted in, 9
Engels’s Preface to Volume III, 101
first edition, 129–130, 132t
first sentence of, 214, 231–234
grammar of in-against-and-beyond in, 236
on historic development of modes of production, 701
Irish issues and, 468
logical structure of three volumes, 262–263
as major critique of political economy, 191, 215, 232, 662, 663
Marxist economists’ study, flaws in, 152
omitted topics from, 136, 192, 463
order and plan of Marx’s writings of and for, 11, 107, 131, 132t, 192, 264, 300, 313
popularity of, 5
Preface (1859), 121
Preface (1867), 501
Preface to Volume I, 108, 199
purpose of writing, 100, 103, 106–107
“reactionary,” use of term in, 158
second edition (1872), 117, 132t, 762
“subsumption,” use of term in, 220n11
Teutonic vs. Romance words in, 235
capitalism
aim of capitalists, 130
alternatives to, 800
as antagonistic mode of production, 87t, 92–93
Bonapartism and (See Bonapartism)
capital and, 191–192, 198–199
capitalist crises and, 72–73, 503–504, 583–586
capitalist mode of production, 154–158, 197–198
capitalist social reproduction, 333–336
Capital’s limited treatment of, 192
China’s transition to, 5, 741
climate change and, 797
compared to Communism, 785
contradictions of, 20, 243–244, 793–794, 800–801
as crisis prone, 279–280, 592, 796
definition of, 617
described as “immense collection of commodities,” 159
dynamic nature of, 529
empirical trajectory of, 796–798
eroding and aging of, 32, 602–603, 804–806
exploitation in, 241–262 (see also exploitation)
financialization and (see financialization)
harms of, 367–368, 799, 799n6
internationalization of state and, 506–507
longevity of, 502
Marxian first wave of response to, 27
Marxian second wave of response to, 27
Marxism’s relationship to, 3–4, 9, 100–101
Marx’s pure theory in Capital Volume I, 630
merchant capitalism (1500–1800), 64–65
money in contemporary capitalism, 184–189
origins of, 64
peasants transforming into capitalists, 692n18
(p. 815)
political structures securing dominance of, 158
postwar capitalism and new American empire, 504–506
Russia’s transition to and “shock therapy,” 741–743
sociopoiesis and, 617–622
stagnationist tendencies of, 583–586
strategic logic for transcending, 801–806
transcending, 32, 793–807
value of labor in, 760–761
variegated, 803
capitalist crises, 21, 26, 72–73, 281–283, 499–517, 796
Capra, Frijof, 611
Caputo Leiva, Orlando, 669
carbon dioxide emissions, 622
Caribbean
late industrialization of, 674
slavery in, 663
Carling, Alan, 84, 89
cartels. See mergers and cartels
Castro, Fidel, 543
censorship, 8
Central America, 72, 674
Central Europe, 467
Centre for Research as Practical Criticism, 669
Chandler, Alonzo, 450, 451–452
chaos theory, 608–609
Chartists, 405, 467, 699
Chatterjee, Partha, 433, 690
Chavez, Hugo, 773, 778–779
Chechnya, 746, 748, 749
Chernomas, Robert, 635
Chernyshevsky, Niclai, 711
Chesnais, François, 189n19, 639
Chicago Haymarket riot (1886), 542
child labor, 312
Chile, 673, 741, 778
China. See also Asiatic mode of production
anti-colonial resistance to British, 472
anti-imperial revolutions in, 25, 69
British imperialism in, 67, 308, 472, 705–706
cheap Chinese imports, 598, 707
class and class struggle in, 57
Cold War and, 71, 704
communal forms in, 764
competition with Europe, 702–703
Cultural Revolution, 716
financial controls in present-day economy in, 168
globalization and, 571
Marx’s expectation of revolution and socialism in, 713
Marx’s mythical view of long isolation of, 707–708
national innovation system in, 352n11
nationalism and, 514
opium trade, British role in, 705–706
opium wars and, 706
peasant revolts in imperial period in, 60
R&D investment in, 353
Red Army in, 71
revolution in, 709, 714–715
self-image as world power, 514
Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864), 67, 308, 472, 707–708, 707–709
transition to capitalism in, 5, 741
Treaty of Nanking (1842), 706
Treaty of Tientsin (1858), 706
US dependence on cheap Chinese imports, 598
WTO admission of, 513
Chinese People’s Army, 152
Chinese revolution, 714–715
Christophers, Brett, 633
Chubais, A., 744
cities. see also urbanization
megalopolises of twenty-first-century capital, 544
as revolutionary space, 540–544
slum cities, 544, 635
waste in, 552
civil society, 302, 476–477, 483, 485–486, 667
Civil War (US), 152, 158, 158n6, 466, 470, 665
Clark, Brett, 28–29, 32, 651
Clarke, Simon, 211, 219n10
class and class struggle, 16, 18, 57–76
age of revolutions (1789–1848) and, 66–67
antagonistic society and, 88–89
Asiatic mode of production and, 58–60
bourgeois revolution and, 65–66
capital and, 224–226, 237
(p. 816)
capitalism’s origins and, 64
capitalist crisis (2008) and, 72–73
in cities, 540–542
class analysis, 152
class formation, 89
class recomposition in knowledge age, 414–415
Cold War (1945–1991) and, 71–72
Communism (1939–1949) and, 71
feudalism and, 61–62
financial sector’s dominance and, 169
general rate of profit and revenue of classes, 162–164
historical materialism and, 57
industrial revolution and, 66
international phenomena of capitalism and class resistance, 491
intra-class differences, 413
late medieval crisis and, 62–63
Marxian theory of class in capitalist society, 225–226
merchant capitalism and, 64–65
middle class, 151
money-lending classes, 164–165
monopoly capitalism and imperialism (1848–1914) and, 67–69
nation-states and, 67–68
neoliberalism and, 72
politics of alliance and compromise and, 486
positive class compromise, 801n8
primitive communism and, 58
revolution and counter-revolution (1898–1945) and, 69–71
slavery and, 60–61
state as instrument of class rule, 300–301
tributary mode of production and, 59–60
value and, 18, 151–171
vocabulary Marx used to describe political class relations, 307
worker consciousness and, 20
class consciousness, 24, 68, 443, 449, 453
Clegg, Sue, 46–47
climate effects/climate change, 13, 100, 312, 607, 622–624, 651, 655, 659, 797
climate summits, protests at, 553
Clinton, Bill, 414, 746n9
Clinton, Hillary, 372–373
Cluniac monks, 62
Coalition Provisional Authority (Iraq), 732–733
Cochran, Bert, 412n10
Cochranites, 412, 412n10, 413
cognitive capitalism, 23
Cohen, G. A., 80, 82, 83n4, 83–84, 86
Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence, 50–51
Cold War (1945–1991), 58, 71–72, 410, 519, 704
collateralized debt obligations, 635
Cologne Communist Trial (1852), 704
colonialism. See also anti-colonial movement
Britain and, 468, 706, 727 (see also China; India)
British mission in, 707, 727
colonial extraction, 686, 686n10, 710
cost of, 707
fulfilling historically progressive role of development, 723
Marx’s perspective on, 662, 687, 687n11, 722–723, 723–724
slavery and, 426–427, 448
Spanish colonialism in the New World, 663
urban uprisings and, 542
weaknesses of, 530
“color line,” 433
Comintern, 70, 476, 484
commercial capital, 206, 261n1
commercial profit, 269
commodities
capital treating labor as, 244, 247, 304
dual character of use value and exchange value of, 762
financialization and, 634
labor as commodity, 760
not necessarily products of labor, 218n8
primary commodities boom in Latin America, 673
production economics of, 451–452
profit requirements and, 244
social significance of, 364
usefulness of, 133–134, 244
commodity fetishism, 19, 117–118, 195, 195n3, 313, 395
Common Agricultural Programme (CAP), 530
(p. 817) Common Market, 519, 521–522, 532, 590, 591
the commons, 28, 125, 643
common sense, 488–489
Communism
1939–1949 high tide of, 71
abolition of private property and, 759
alienation and, 368–369, 372, 374, 457
bourgeoisie and, 724, 732
in China, 715
compared to capitalism, 785
economic planning and, 785, 790–792
fascism in struggle with, 71
in The German Ideology, 457
higher stage of, localization of provisioning and work in, 791
labor unions and, 410
League of Revolutionary Black Workers and, 442, 457–459
as non-antagonistic mode of production, 87t, 93
in post-Soviet Russia, 741, 742
primitive, 58
relationship to Marxism, 425, 758, 774
socialism and, 757–759, 776
urbanization and, 543
Communist Correspondence Committee, 9
Communist Labor Party, 452
Communist League, 10–11, 452, 704
The Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels, 1848), 5, 10, 25
bourgeoisie and, 405, 617–618, 724, 731
capitalist crisis and, 279
class struggles and, 57, 58, 311
gravedigger thesis and, 250, 795
Hegelian conception of history and, 724
historical materialism and, 40, 67
on historic relations between Communists and class struggle, 458
instrumentalist view of the state derived from, 300
misreadings of, 10, 463–464
nationalism and, 25, 463–464
popularity of, 5, 10
on post-capitalist society, 758–759
preface to Russian edition (1882), 712
productive forces (PF)-production relations (PR) relationship and, 78–79
productivity, critique of, 618
universal appeal to workers of all countries, 425, 437
Communist parties, 70–71, 414, 416
Communist Party
French, 367
labor unions and, 410, 411, 416
in post-Soviet Russia, 743, 745–746
in Soviet Union, 739–740
competition
abstraction of, 21, 261–262, 271
competitive primacy of productive forces (PFs), 84–85
EU and depoliticization of economic relations and, 520
maximizing profit due to, 199
in post-Fordist restructuring, 596
complexity sciences, 608–609, 619
concepts in, 609–612
concrete labor, 133, 235, 363, 375, 430, 761
Confederacy (US), 464, 466, 468, 470
conscious life activity, 9, 235
consciousness, 17–18, 20, 114–115
class consciousness, 24
obstructions to developing working-class consciousness, 250
in relation to material conditions of production, 249
social form in language of, 114
workers’ revolutionary consciousness, 409
consent, 248–251
conservatism of trade unions, 405n1, 407–408
constant capital, 206–208
containerization, 100
contradictions
capital accumulation and, 21
capitalism and, 20, 243–244, 793–794, 800–801
democratic constitution and, 305
dialectical method and, 102–103
intensification of contradiction between management-as-coordination vs. management-as-discipline, 256–257
internal contradictions of capital production, 584–585
(p. 818)
League of Revolutionary Black Workers and, 452–457
of management and socialization of labor, 253–256
of the labor process, 242–249, 252–253
modes of production and, 87, 87t, 89, 92
money and, 19
between production and social reproduction, 321–340
theoretical stages in world history and, 17
transhistorical, 244
Cooney, Brendan M., 203n11
cooperation as stage of growth, 245
Corbyn, Jeremy, 151, 417
corporate structure, 500, 561, 619, 621
correspondence principle, 80
corruption, 31, 744–752
cotton trade, 470
Cox, Oliver, 24
creativity, 20, 256
credit, 164, 226, 354
banks and, 561
expansion of, 355
zombie capital and, 354n13
credit default swaps, 635
Credit Suisse, 751
Cressey, Peter, 247–248
crisis, 15, 279–319, 499–517
American capitalism post-financial crisis of 2007–2008, 512–514
capital as crisis prone, 226–227
capitalism as crisis prone, 279–280, 583–586, 796
capitalist crises, 21, 26, 72–73, 281–283, 458, 503–504
climate change as (see climate effects/climate change)
crisis of 1970s (see Stagflation)
current crisis of political rule, 511–512
of deficient surplus value, 283–289
Euro crisis, 511, 514
Eurozone crisis, 531–532, 573–574
of excess surplus value, 289–295
of Fordism, 593–595
general theory of, 281–283
of global neoliberalism, 570 (see also Great Recession (2007–2008))
internationalization and, 506–507
late medieval crisis (1300–1450), 62–63
Liberal Social Structure of Accumulation (SSA) and, 569
Marxist crisis theory, 501–503
neoliberalism and, 413–416
nested crises of national and regional economic dynamics, 570–577
of overproduction, 281–282
Regulated Social Structure of Accumulation (SSA) and, 569–570
roots of present crisis, 509–511
sociopoiesis and, 607–628 (see also sociopoiesis)
theorizing structural crisis, 500–501
crony capitalism, 735
crowding out thesis, 633
Cuba, 69, 72
Cultural Revolution (China), 716
Cummins, Ian, 468
Curtis, Michael, 725, 725n7
Czechoslovakia, 71
Daniels, Roland, 652
Dark Ages, 61, 92n11
Darwin, Charles: The Origin of Species, 12–13
Darwinian theory of biological evolution, 84, 114n2
Das, Debarshi, 30, 679
Das Volk (journal), 39
Davis, Aeron, 633
Deane, Phyllis, 175–176
Debord, Guy, 395, 551
Debray, Regis, 662
Debreu, G., 174
debt-led growth, 585–586, 603
debt peonage, 663
decolonization, 410
deforestation, 13
de Gaulle, Charles, 523
de Genova, Nicholas, 24, 425
Delors, Jacques, 523
demand gap, 290–292
democracy, 315, 773, 775–776. See also democratic socialist planning (p. 819)
Poland and, 465–467
political democracy, 783–785, 784f
radical democracy, 415
union democracy, 413
democratic-egalitarianism, 32, 799n6, 800, 803–805
democratic socialist planning, 773–792
criticism and response, 788–790
democracy and planning, 775–776, 791
economic planning and, 785–788, 786f
market socialism, 773, 780–781
Marx’s own view of post-capitalist economy, 773–775
Parecon model, 32, 773, 781–782, 790
participatory democratic planning, 782–783
political democracy and, 783–785, 784f
Soviet model of administrative command planning, 776–777
twenty-first century socialism, 778–779
Yugoslav model of worker self-management, 777–778
Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), 417
Denmark, 67
deportability, 436
Depression of 1873–79, 500, 501–502, 508, 559
depressions, economic. See also Depression of 1873–1879; Great Depression
in present day, 294, 500
descriptive accounts of history, 47
deskilling, 245–248, 254, 346n6, 795
Destutt de Tracy, Antoine: Mémoire sur la faculté de pense, 111
deterministic arguments on new historic possibilities, 795–796
Deutsche Brüsseler Zeitung, 664, 665
Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (Franco-German Yearbooks), 8, 9
Devine, Pat, 31, 773
Democracy and Economic Planning: The Political Economy of a Self-governing Society, 776
dialectical method, 8, 12, 17, 97–110
abstraction, process of, 99–101, 607
Asiatic mode of production and dialectics of historical development, 704, 715–716
of class and race, 448–450, 459
complexity and, 608–609
conceptual progress of Marx, 131
dialectics of money in Marx, 178–184
external relations, philosophy of, 98
financialization and, 630
Iñigo Carrera and, 669
inquiry (or research), 103–105
internal relations, philosophy of, 17, 98–99, 101, 104
Marx’s dialectical laws, 101–103
presentation (or exposition), 106–107
relation between objective conditions and human agency, 456
relation between theory and practice, 107–109
self-clarification, 105–106, 274
Dickinson, James, 329–330
differential rent, 388, 681
dispossession, 64, 309, 393, 431, 432n2, 455, 549, 552, 690–691, 739
disproportionality, 583, 584–585
dissipative structures, 610–611
distortion and inversion, 112, 115, 118–119
distribution
according to actual labor time, 769
political economy and, 153–154
splitting from production, 216
division of labor, 244–246, 257, 309, 671, 706, 776, 784
Djurfeldt, Göran, 683
Dobb, Maurice, 49, 62–63, 92n12, 159n8, 285, 559, 786
Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement (DRUM), 444
domination, 239, 302, 362, 799
Dos Santos, Paulo L., 634–635
Dos Santos, Theotonio, 634, 668
Draper, Hal, 300, 413, 416, 729
Du Bois, W. E. B., 426, 427, 432n3, 433
The Souls of Black Folk, 428
Dunaway, Wilma, 621
Dunayevskaya, Raya, 412n9, 759
Durand, Cédric, 639n8
Dussel, Enrique, 668–669
Dutch Revolt (sixteenth century), 65
(p. 820) Eagleton, Terry, 51, 113, 114
East Asia, 673, 702
Eastern Europe
alienation in “Communist” regimes of, 366
imperialist reoccupation of, 72
labor unions merged into party-state apparatus in, 410
market socialism in, 780
neoliberalism and, 531
Prague as most economically part in, 51
serfdom in, 50
East India Company, 685–686, 706
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), 520, 531, 532, 597
Economic Cooperation Administration, 589, 590
economic crises, omission from Capital, 192
economic crisis (2008), 72–73
economic planning, 455. See also democratic socialist planning
economic reductionism, 499
economics, definition of, 212n2
economies of learning, 527
economies of scale, 245
economism, mistakes of, 478, 481, 486
Ecuador, 778
Edholm, Felicity, 333
education of working class, 255, 450–452, 455–456, 458
Edwards, Paul, 242, 251
Edwards, R.: Contested Terrain, 247–248
efficiency
definition of, 342n1
gains from technology, 29, 342
marginal efficiency schedule, 163
Egypt, 72, 701, 726, 730, 732
Eidlin, Barry, 23, 403
electronic socialism, 782, 790
Elger, Tony, 247, 248
Elster, Jon, 218, 221n11
emancipation, 374–376
Ireland and, 467–468
Poland and, 464–466
popular mobilization and struggle required for, 801
eminent domain, 549, 550
employee involvement, 252
employment model, transition in, 596
empowerment, 20
of labor, 129, 136, 141, 147, 374
“Empty Chair Crisis” (1965), 523
EMS (European Monetary System), 520, 521
enclosure movement, 653, 710
anti-enclosure movement, 64
Engels, Friedrich
on British rule of India, 686
Capital, Engels as editor of volumes II and III, 131, 142
on class struggle’s stalemate, 301
on concept of ideology as part of critical theory of the state, 123–124
on despotism, 703
dialectical method and, 97
on economic crisis in mid-1800s, 501
ethnocentric and racist sentiments of, 472
Eurocentric viewpoint of, 667
on global capitalist development, 581
Gramsci and, 313
historical materialism and, 37, 40–41, 46, 213–214, 322
on human consciousness in relation to material conditions of production, 249
interaction and, 122
on Ireland, 467
on labor unions, 404–406
on Lyon Canut revolts (1830s), 542
materialist dialectic connecting theory and practice and, 109
omission of political parties in writings of, 300
on Orientalism, 721
on Polish exiles’ role in Paris Commune, 467
on prerequisites for overthrow of capitalism, 77
on revolutionary processes, 721
on Sepoy Uprising (1857–1858) in India, 708
on slavery, 61
on social reproduction theory, 321–322, 330
(p. 821)
on state’s role as “ideal collective capitalist,” 312
state-theoretical reflections of, 111–112
on Teutonic word use in Capital, 235
on urbanization of capital, 541
on use value, 218
Engels, Friedrich, works by. See also The Communist Manifesto; The German Ideology
The Condition of the Working Class in England (1892), 404, 468
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (review, 1859), 37, 39, 101
Herr Eugen Dühring’s Revolution in Science (1880), 79
Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886), 123–124
The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (1892), 124
“Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy” (1844), 8, 9
Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880), 40–41, 79–80
England. See Britain/England
English Civil War, 48–52, 65
Enlightenment, 92n11, 224, 699
entropy, 610, 616–617, 618, 621
environment, conditioned by, 609
environmental degradation/depletion, 347–348, 617, 621–624, 623n2, 651. See also climate effects/climate change
biodiversity, collapse in, 656
soil degradation, 653–654
workers’ health impacted by, 715
equation of exchange, 177
essentialism, 48, 49, 53, 725
ethnicity, 73, 329, 337, 372, 405, 463, 471, 708, 796
Eurocentric viewpoint, 59, 667, 723, 728
“Eurocommunism,” 410
Euro crisis, 511, 514
Europe. See also European Union; specific countries
bourgeoisie in, 701, 705
Bretton Woods system and, 508
class and class struggle in, 57
depletion of nature’s materials in, 621
emergence of capitalism in, 81, 313
financialization in, 632–633
High Middle Ages in, 62–64
imperialism and, 712, 726
integration of (see European integration)
Poland and, 466
R&D investment in, 353
revolutions of 1848 in, 699, 711
shop steward networks in, 415
trade competitiveness with United States, 505, 574
European Central Bank (ECB), 520, 574
European Coal and Steel Community, 532, 590
European Commission, 574
Cecchini Report, 527
“Empty Chair Crisis” (1965), 523
European Common Market. See Common Market
European Court of Justice, 520
European integration, 26, 519–537. See also European Union
accumulation strategies and, 528–529
American Challenge as part of, 522
core-periphery hierarchy and, 530
Europe 1992 project, 527
Fordism and, 590
interiorization and, 523–525, 528
Marxism and, 519, 532
mergers and cartels in, 521, 522, 524
neoliberalism and, 514
Open Marxism and, 519–521
regulation theory and, 525–527
supranationality and, 521–523, 527
US hegemony and, 590
European Monetary System (EMS), 520, 521
European Payments Union, 590
European Roundtable of Industrialists, 529
European Union, 15, 26–27. See also European integration; specific countries
accumulation regime and internal conflicts in, 582–583
competition and Open Marxism and, 520–521
eastern enlargement of, 597
Euro crisis and, 511, 514
financial challenges of, 570–571, 598
future of, 515
(p. 822)
Maastricht Treaty (1992), 597
Marxist works seeking to understand nature of, 532
negative integration of, 598
neoliberalism in, 597
post-Fordist liberalization in, 603
regulation theory and, 532
subordinate status to America, 533
uneven development of, 530–533
US hegemony and, 590
Eurozone crisis, 531–532, 573f, 573–574
evolutionary socialism, 407
executive power, 302
exploitation, 17, 20, 241–262. See also labor
of Amerindians, 663
analysis and planning to eliminate, 450
capitalist control and, 254, 799
elasticity of rate of, 286–287, 285
modes of exploitation, 90
responsible autonomy and, 247–248
slavery and, 24
super-exploitation of labor as distinguishing mark of national societies in, 669
traditional management control strategies and, 248–251
urbanization of capital and, 541
external relations, philosophy of, 98
Facebook, 395
falling-rate-of-profit theory, 19, 28, 208, 227, 282, 502, 583–585, 637–638, 706, 794
false consciousness, 17–18, 112, 113, 115–116, 120, 125, 487
far-from-equilibrium systems, 608, 610–611
fascism, 70–71, 313, 315, 316
Fausto, Ruy, 179n8, 382, 383n2
Federal Reserve, US. See US Federal Reserve
Federici, Silvia, 329
feminists. See Marxist feminists
feminization of poverty, 337
Fenian Brotherhood (Irish), 468–469, 470
Ferguson, Susan, 329, 331, 333
FESSUD (Financialization, Economy, Society and Sustainable Development), 631
fetishism, 20, 111, 116–120, 123, 195, 195n3, 223, 249, 630, 670. See also commodity fetishism
fettering, 82, 122
feudalism, 16, 48, 51–52, 804
class struggle and, 57, 59, 61–62, 157
decline of, 63, 65, 431
end of, 62–63, 804
in Japan, 699
mode of production (MP) and, 87t, 89–91
origins of, 704
serfdom replacing slavery in, 61–62, 197
technofeudalism, 357
tributary mode of production and, 702
Feuerbach, Ludwig, 9, 44–45, 113, 117, 314n4, 758
fiat money, 185, 311, 316, 354
fictitious capital, 166, 186–189, 206
fictitious theory, 116
finance as organizer of capital, 167–169
finance-led accumulation, 585, 633
financial capital, 206
financial crisis (2007–2008), 294, 499, 509–511, 532, 573, 603
financial fragility, 21, 294–295
financial intermediation, 632
financialization, 28, 72, 186–189, 355–357, 509, 572, 574, 582, 597, 603, 629–650
appearances of, 631–636
characteristics of, 631, 642–643
commodities and, 634
definition of, 631
education and, 635
essences of, 636–640
falling profit and, 637–638 (see also falling-rate-of-profit theory)
future research needs on, 643
historical materialism and, 630, 642
lack of coherent global theory of, 630
long cycle and, 636–640
Marxist theory of financialized capitalism, development of, 640–642
neoliberalism and, 638
pensions and, 636
public debt and, 633, 733
urbanization and, 633
use of term to obfuscate, 643
(p. 823) financial speculation, 168
Financial Times on Marxism’s relevance, 5
Fine, Ben, 631
FIRE (financial intermediation, insurance, and real estate), 631, 633
First International (International Workingmen’s Association/IWA), 68, 407, 466
“Confidential Communication” (Marx, 1870) and, 469–470
Irish national liberation cause and, 468–469
Marx’s Inaugural Address for, 13, 466
Fleischaker, Gail, 611, 614
flexible production, 246, 257, 588–589
Foley, Duncan, 186, 188, 279, 284n2, 297, 290, 389–390
forces of production. See productive forces
Ford, Cassandra “Cass,” 448
Fordism, 26, 28, 246, 256–257, 382, 500, 525–527, 528, 532, 568, 586–602. See also post-Fordism
Atlantic Fordism, 582, 589–593, 596–602
blocked Fordism in United Kingdom, 591
classical Fordism, 587
crisis of, 593–595
European integration and, 590
flexible Fordism in Germany, 588–590
golden years of, 603
liberal Fordism in United States, 591
nonliberal Fordism in Germany, 591
reluctant Fordism in United Kingdom, 588
in United States, 486, 587–588
foreign direct investments, 521
foreignness, 435–436
form analysis, 116, 300
Foster, John Bellamy, 28–29, 634, 651, 665
Foucault, Michel, 116, 242, 475, 635
fractals, 608
France. See also Bonapartism; French Revolution; Napoleon III; Paris Commune
agricultural sector in, 685
capitalism and industrialization in, 68, 728
civil wars in, 152, 301, 302, 313
Communist Party in, 71
India and, 685–686
labor unions in, 405
labor unrest (1898–1945) in, 70
left-wing parties and politics in, 417
Marx’s interest in, 306
military intervention in Mexico, 665
nation-state of, 67
New Left in, 411n8
peasant revolutions (1820s) in, 66
Polish emancipation and, 466
profit rate in (post-World War II), 595
revival of interest in the state in, 314
revolutionary initiative of, 66, 471
rural life in, 701
serfdom in, 50
Socialisme ou Barbarie? group in, 412
societal development in, 301
unions in, 407
Franco, Carlos, 667
Franco-Prussian War (1870), 729
Frankfurt School, 111, 151n1, 367, 395, 411
Frederick William IV, 7
freedom of individual citizens, 21–22, 119
freedom of market exchange, 21
Freeman, Alan, 18, 151, 638
free market ideology, 249, 780
free trade, 706
French Communist Party, 367
French Marxists, 246
French Revolution, 57, 65–66, 111, 119, 122, 301, 302, 313, 542
Friedman, Andrew: Industry and Labor, 247–248
Friedman, Milton, 176, 177
Fromm, Erich, 367
Fuchs, Christian, 390, 392–393, 395, 396, 396n5
full employment, 505, 508
fundamentalism, 331–332
G7, 508, 509, 742
G20, 512
Geary, Dick, 559–560
gender and social reproduction, 15
gender inequality, 4, 115, 116, 329, 333, 337, 455
general equilibrium theory, 174–175
German Bundesbank, 520
(p. 824) The German Ideology (Marx and Engels, 1845), 9, 39, 41–44, 48, 111, 112–116, 123–124, 134, 307, 312–313, 314n4, 366, 457, 700, 765, 774–775
Germany
Anti-Socialist Law (1878–1890), 407
Asian mode of production, traces found in, 701
Basic Law, 590
Bremen Agreement (1956), 592
capitalism and industrialization in, 728
dropping of labor share of national income, 599, 600–601, 602
economic boom (1850–1870) in, 68
economic integration with United States, 514, 524
Euro crisis and, 514
European integration role of, 525
fascism in, 71
flexible Fordism in, 588–590
Fordist-Taylorist division of labor in, 257
Hegelian ideas’ dominance in, 366
integration between finance and industry in, 592
Marx’s feelings toward, 724
nonliberal Fordism in, 591–592
peasant revolts (mid-1800s) in, 57, 67
Polish emancipation and, 466
post-Fordist regime in, 602
profit rate in (post-World War II), 593–595, 595f
revisionism in, 560
revolutionary movement (early 1900s) in, 70
societal development in, 301
SPD, 408
state derivation debate in, 314
surplus economic status of, 574
welfare state in, 314
Works Councils Act (1952), 589
Giddens, Anthony, 463
gig economy, 19, 222
Gill, Stephen, 529
Gimenez, Martha E., 15, 22, 321
Gindin, Sam, 26, 32, 499, 524
global finance, 509–510. See also financial crisis (2007–2008)
globalization, 72, 330, 425, 458, 459, 571–572, 574, 581
hyper-nationalist sentiment against, 511, 513, 514
Global North, 541, 549, 623, 633, 654
global production networks, 633, 639, 642–643
Global South, 71–72, 308, 543, 549, 623, 633, 635
global value chain (GVC) analysis, 639n6, 639–640
global warming. See climate effects/climate change
gold standard, 184, 188, 504, 508
Google, 395
Google Scholar on citations to Marx, 5
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 740
Gordon, David, 567
Segmented Work, Divided Workers (with Edwards & Reich), 568
Gorz, André, 246, 381, 382, 385
Graham, Laurie, 252
Grahl, John, 524
Gramsci, Antonio, 21, 24
alliance building and compromise and, 485–486
battle for mass consent and, 484–490
Burawoy and, 248
civil society and, 483, 485–486
common sense and, 488–489
conditions of hegemonic struggle, 478–480
Engels and, 313
on European integration, 525
hegemony and, 25–26, 112, 250–251, 313, 315, 475
on homogeneous social group and development of common sense, 488–489
ideological strategy and, 487–488
influences on, 475–477
on integral state, 124
labor unions and, 408–409
leadership and dynamic equilibrium required by, 489–490
Lenin and, 313, 315, 475–476
linguistics interest of, 476
Marxist state theory developed by, 111, 313–314
on organic crises, 52
organic intellectuals and, 482–483
(p. 825)
on passive revolution, 68–69
on philosophy of praxis, 113
Prison Notebooks (Quaderni del carcere, 1929–1935), 123, 313–314, 475–480, 482, 484–492
relations of force and, 478–480, 529
Reproduction of Capitalism, 315
traditional intellectuals and, 484
war of position and, 484–485, 805n10
grand theory, 6, 14
gravedigger thesis, 250, 795
Great Britain. See Britain/England
Great Depression, 26, 70, 500, 504, 559, 567, 592
in Britain, 588, 593
Great Recession (2007–2008), 26, 354n13, 571, 571f
Great Turn (1929–1933), 740
Greece, 66, 67, 71, 72
European Community and, 530
left-wing parties and politics in, 417
greenhouse gases, 622, 651
Grinevald, Jacques, 651
ground rent, 155, 388, 671n12, 671–673, 672n13, 680–681, 733. See also rent, theory of
growth theory, 245
The Guardian on Marxism’s relevance, 4–5
Guatemala, 72
Gueuder, Maxime, 639n8
Guevara, Che, 543
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 632, 727, 733
Gunn, Richard, 232
Gusinsky, V., 748, 749
Haddad, Fernando, 393
Hahn, Frank, 175
Hahnel, Robin, 781, 799n6
Haila, Anna, 546
Haldon, John, 59–60
Hall, Stuart, 111, 113, 435, 492
Hamilton, Clive, 651
Hamilton, Roberta, 328
Hamlin, Mike, 444
handicraft sectors of agrarian nations, 706
Hanieh, Adam, 632
Hansen, Bent, 176
Hardt, Michael, 381–382, 385
Harman, Chris, 51–52, 63
Harris, Donald J., 290
Harris, Olivia, 333
Harvey, David, 501, 539, 544, 550, 551, 585, 633, 690
Haug, Frigga, 114n2
Hayek, Friedrich A., 781
health care costs, 599
Hegel, G. W. F.
doctrine of the state of, 302
on Germanic world as spirit of new world, 724
historical materialism and, 45–46, 721–722
influence on Marx, 7, 8, 21, 99, 173, 188, 197n5, 215, 224, 262, 362, 700, 723, 758
Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, 721–723
Logic, 41
Marx’s break from or inverted Hegelianism, 131, 666–667, 700
Marx’s criticism of, 262, 302, 366
Phenomenology of Spirit, 197n5
Philosophy of Right, 302
Wirklichkeit and, 182n12
hegemony, 25–26, 112, 475–495
alliance building and compromise and, 485–486
alternative hegemonic culture based on working class, 69
apparatus of, 480–484
battle for mass consent and, 484–490
capitalist hegemony, 250–251, 532–533
civil society and, 483, 485–486
common sense and, 488–489
conditions of hegemonic struggle, 478–480
definition of, 477
Gramsci and, 313, 315, 475 (see also Gramsci, Antonio)
ideological strategy and, 487–488
leadership and dynamic equilibrium required by, 489–490
long wave perspective and, 567
as nation-state concept, 491
organic intellectuals and, 482–483
(p. 826)
sources influencing themes of Gramsci, 475–477
as theory of national-popular class politics, 477
traditional intellectuals and, 484
war of position and, 484–485
Heinrich, Michael, 263, 275–277, 279
Heller, Henry, 16, 57
Herkommer, Sebastian, 123
hierarchy-of-abstraction approach, 95
High Middle Ages (1300–1450), class struggle in, 62–63
Hilferding, Rudolf, 502, 522, 559, 565, 572, 637
Finance Capital, 502–503, 560–564
Hirsch, Joachim, 314
historical materialism, 15–16, 22, 30, 37–56, 213–214
basic methodology of, 39–45
Bonapartism and, 306–307
class struggles and, 57
English Civil War and, 48–52
financialization and, 630, 642
Hegel and, 45–48, 721–722
ideological concept and, 112, 487
Orientals and, 723
practical materialism and, 45
race and, 445
reproduction as premise of, 322–324, 333–336
Ho Chi Minh, 543
hoarding, 177, 181, 184, 187
Hobbes, Thomas, 42
Hobsbawm, Eric, 53, 704
Hobson, John A.: Imperialism, 502
Hodgskin, Thomas, 161, 663n3
Holland, 57, 67, 68, 582, 687
Holloway, John, 19–20, 231, 375
Hopkins, Terence K., 619
Horkheimer, Max, 519
household debt, 634–635
Hudis, Peter, 31, 757, 771
human agency, 456
human capital, 428
humanism, 367–368
human nature, 16, 41–42, 368–369
Hungary, 67, 70, 780
hunter-gatherer societies, 58
hydraulic despotism, 703
Hymer, S. H., 641, 642
identity and difference, 102
ideological apparatuses, 17–18
ideological distortion, 113
ideology as alienated socialization, 111–127
fetishism and, 111, 116–120
neutral concept of ideology, 121–123
state as first “ideological power,” 123–125
ideology-critique, 111–112, 118, 119, 121, 124–125
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 169, 508, 528, 570, 572, 574, 742, 745, 748
immaterial labor, 23, 379–383, 382n1
immigration effects, 515, 796
imperialism. See also specific countries
blowback of imperial ambition, 706
later Marxists on, 662
Marxist theory of the state in contrast to, 499
Marx’s reaction to, 705
in Middle East, 30, 726–728
neo-imperialism, 351–352
revolution against (1848–1914), 67–69
as stage of capitalism, 563
of strong state, 563
Import Substituting Industrialisation (ISI) phase, 672
incentive, coercion, and control (ICC) systems, 86–93
inconvertible money, 186–189
Independent Socialist Clubs, 413
India. See also Asiatic mode of production
agrarian revolts in, 60
agricultural sector in, 685
anti-colonial movement in, 25, 472
Battle of Plassey (1757), 686
British extraction of taxes in, 686
British imperialism in, 308, 472, 685–687, 706–708, 710
(p. 827)
British mission as two-part in, 707
capitalist nature of agriculture in, 679
caste system in, 157
characteristics of, 684t
class and class struggle in, 57, 60, 715
Cold War ideology and, 704
conversion to capitalism in, 5
cotton trade and, 702
Delhi Sultanate, 685
distribution of land in (present day), 689, 690t
farmers’ dislike of farming in, 693
Fifth Five Year Plan (1974–1979), 688
First Indian War of Independence, 308
food production, state as major purchaser of, 692
imperialist rent from, 714
lack of robust accumulation in agriculture in, 680
land tenure system in, 687
manufacturing sector in, 693
Marx’s references addressing, 662, 687, 687n11, 699, 722–723, 764
Mughal era (1526–1707) in, 60, 685–686, 702
plunder of, 426
Sepoy Uprising (1857–1858), 686, 708–709
suicide rate of owner farmers and agricultural laborers in, 694
terms of trade of agricultural sector in, 693, 694f
Indian Mutiny (1857), 30, 708
individual autonomy, 342
Indo-China, 72
Indonesia, 764
industrial capital, 206
industrialization, 68
large-scale industry, 245–246, 307–308, 382
in postwar Soviet economy, 776
industrial pluralism, 410
Industrial Revolution, 57, 66, 195
industrial sector. See manufacture
inequality
attempt to retain consumption levels in US environment of rising inequality, 634
inherent in capitalism, 5, 22
in land distribution in South Asia, 688
Occupy movement and anti-austerity protests against, 416
rising income inequality in present day, 796–797
rising in post-Fordist era, 603
urbanization and, 540
in workplace, effect on risk of illness, 370
Iñigo Carrera, Juan, 29, 669, 672n13
innovation, 342
intangible assets, growth in, 632
intellectual property rights, 354–355, 356, 389, 393
intellectual subordination of labor to capital, 382
intensity of labor, 129, 134, 139, 147
intentional primacy, 83
interest, 270
low interest rates following financial crisis (2007–2008), 512–513
as return to capital, 208–209
Volcker shock of Fed’s increase in interest rates, 508, 509
interest-bearing capital, 206, 261n1, 379
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 622
inter-imperialist rivalry, 27, 71, 502, 507, 508
interiorization, 523–525, 528, 533
internal relations, philosophy of, 17, 98–99, 101, 104
International Chamber of Commerce, 528
internationalization, 490, 505, 506–507, 515
international law, 665
International Monetary Fund (IMF), 169, 508, 528, 570, 572, 574, 742, 745, 748
international politics, 72, 491, 665
International Workingmen’s Association. See First International
Internet, 782
intersectionality theory, 53, 634
Interstate Commerce Commission, 504
inter-state system, 533
investment
in external securities, 632
fixed, 632–633
function, 296, 572
investment-led regimes, 585, 633
Iran, 69, 72, 721, 730, 733
Iraq, 72, 730, 732–733, 749
Iraqi Islamic Party, 732
Ireland, 67, 308, 464, 570–571
British exploitative rule of, 715
Celtic Tiger period, 576
global neo-liberalism crisis in, 574–577, 575f
Industrial Development Authority (IDA), 576
Marx in support of national emancipation of, 467–471, 707
potato famine (1846) and labor migration, 434–435, 468
property bubble in, 574
Irish Financial Services Centre, 576
Islam, 722
Islamic Dawa Party, 732
Islamic fundamentalism, 30, 732–733
Islamic State, 733
Italian Communism, 70
Italian Fascism, 316
Italy
Communist Party in, 71
economic transformation in, 69
fascism in, 313, 316
Gramsci criticizing Italian bourgeoisie, 481
labor unrest (1898–1945) in, 70
peasant revolts (1848) in, 67
profit rate in (post-World War II), 595
societal development in, 301
workerism (operaismo) in, 411n8, 412
Ivanova, Maria N., 638
Jacobin Party, 481–482, 490
Jaeggi, Rahel, 368
James, C. L. R., 52, 412n9
Jameson, Fredric, 395
Japan, 67, 68, 69
blending tributary and feudal modes of production in, 702
Bretton Woods system and, 508
economic integration with United States, 514
feudalism of, 699
lean production in, 257
profit rate in (post-World War II), 595
trade competitiveness with United States, 505
Jeon, Heesang, 390
Jessop, Bob, 21–22, 299, 568, 582, 603
Jevons, William Stanley: The Coal Question, 655
Johnson-Forest Tendency, 412, 412n9
joint-stock companies, 561
Jones, Gareth Stedman, 705
Jones, Richard, 702, 725
junk bonds, 636
Kaldor-Verdoorn effects, 527
Kalecki, M., 290, 296, 637, 639n7, 640
Kalmanovitz, Salomón, 669
Kant, Immanuel, 608
Karkov, Nikolay, 367
Katz, Cindi, 329
Katz-Fishman, Walda, 24–25, 441
Kauffman, Stuart, 608
Kautsky, Karl, 116, 121, 153, 407, 560, 679, 691n15, 693, 765
Kemal, Mustafa, 730
Keynes, John Maynard, and Keynesian thinking, 19, 163, 164
classic Keynesian downward spiral of rising unemployment and falling demand, 576
on consumer debt as driver of short-term profits and rising inequality, 635
demand-management and, 597
financial regulation and, 167
full employment objectives of, 505
General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, 177
investment function and, 296
Keynesian (or post-Keynesian) approaches to study of capitalism, 297, 532
long wave perspective and, 567
Russian return to capitalism and, 741
theory of monetary economy and, 177–178
underconsumption and, 290
welfare state and, 543, 581, 586, 592
Khodorkovsky, M., 744, 749–750, 752
Klamer, Arjo, 177
(p. 829) Kliman, Andrew, 19, 32, 191, 638
knowledge-commodification, 23, 379–399
cognitive capitalism and immaterial labor hypothesis, 380–383
implications of, 396–397, 414
knowledge-rents and, 383–389, 393–395
recent literature on, 380, 389–396
zero marginal cost of knowledge, 394
knowledge economy, 343, 356
knowledge-lords, 380, 385, 387
knowledge-rents, 23
Kolko, Gabriel, 503
Koopmans, Tjalling, 786
Korea, 72, 390, 514
Kosik, Karel, 761
Kotz, David M., 569–570, 572
Kovalevsky, M. M.: Communal Landownership, 663
Krakow uprising (1846), 465
Kramer, Marian, 446, 458
Krätke, Michael R., 310
Krippner, Greta R., 631
Kronrod, Yakov, 740
Kugelmann, Dr., 17, 107, 663, 674
Kuhn, Rick, 151n1
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 131
labor. See also abstract labor; concrete labor; migration and labor mobility; surplus labor; wage labor; working conditions
alienation and, 361–365
antagonistic relationship with capital, 251
capital as dead labor, 362
capital’s assault on to recover profits out of wages, 598–599
as commodity, 760
core theory, 251–253
in Critique of the Gotha Program (1875), 767–771
declining demand for, 327
deskilling (see deskilling)
division of (see division of labor)
empowerment of, 129, 136, 139–141, 147
human potential and, 23
human transformation due to, 41
intensity of, 129, 134, 139, 147
multiskilled workers, 246
in post-capitalist society, 763–767
productive power of, 18, 84, 86, 129, 134–136, 139–141, 144–145, 147–148, 220, 227
reproduction of labor power, 324–328
responsible autonomy of workers, 247–248
Smith on, 12
socialization of, 253–256
socially necessary labor-time, 134, 244, 346n6
social value in form of commodities created by, 136–137, 304
state intervention in labor market, 312
technology’s effect on, 345, 345n4, 348–349, 354
upskilling (see upskilling)
weakened role of, 572
labor aristocracy theory, 407
labor market contract, 204
labor process theory, 20, 241–257, 638–640
labor productivity, 134. See also labor; production relations; productive forces
labor unions, 24, 403–423
capitalist class in opposition to, 562–563
Cold War’s effect on, 410
conservatism of, 405n1, 407–408
decline of (starting in 1970s), 414, 513
employer- and state-led assault on, 414
leadership issues of, 415
Marx and Engels on, 404–406
merged into party-state apparatus in Eastern Bloc countries, 410
neoliberal crisis and “death of class,” 413–416
Occupy movement and anti-austerity protests, relationship with, 416–417
plant closures and layoffs, effect of, 416
post-Marx and Engels status of, 406–409
postwar period, 409–413
renewed milit ary as key to future of, 417
shop steward networks in, 415, 587
strikes in United States and Europe, 417
wildcat strikes, 444, 446–448
Labriola, Antonio, 113, 121
Lafarge, Paul, 106
Laibman, David, 16–17, 77, 94
landless workers, 549, 688
landlordism, 470–471, 681, 687, 688, 700, 702
land rents. See rent, theory of
land tenure system
in Asia, 702
in India, 687
Lange, Oskar, 773, 780
Lapavitsas, Costas, 185, 188, 632
large-scale industry, 245–246, 307–308, 382
Larrain, Jorge, 665
Lassalle, Ferdinand, 765, 767
Latin America, 16, 661–678. See also specific countries
accumulation in, 29, 668–674
anti-imperalism revolutions (1898–1945) in, 69
Bolivarian Revolutions in, 778–779
controversy over Marx’s views on, 666–668
cycling between nationalistic populist and/or developmentalist regimes and neoliberal ones in, 29
disconnection as term used by Aricó to describe Marx’s relationship with, 666, 666n8
“Discovery and Conquest” and, 663
global restructuring of labor and, 674
“Gold and Silver” and, 663
ground rent in, 671n12, 671–673, 672n13
Import Substituting Industrialisation (ISI) phase in, 672
“Independence” and, 662–663
“Indigenous America” and, 662–663
“Intervention in Mexico” and, 664
Marx’s texts on, 662–666
peasant-led guerrilla insurrections in, 66, 411
peonage or Latifundia system in, 156–157, 663
Pink Tide in, 673n14
primary commodities boom in, 672–673
“Slavery in the Americas” and, 663
socialism in, 32, 773
state and state power in, 666–667
total social capital in, 669–673
uneven development in, 668–674
law
as ideological power, 123–124
Marx’s concept of, 154
law of value, 29, 92, 224, 661, 668, 670, 763
Lawrence, Geoffrey, 634
laws of motion, 100, 103–105, 168, 794, 799, 802
layoffs and downsizing, 599
Lazzarato, Maurizio, 381–382, 385
Leach, Nicole, 332
League of Arab States, 721
League of Revolutionary Black Workers, 24, 441, 445–457
class replacing race and gender as focus of today’s struggle for, 455
from contradiction to antagonism, 452–457
current political moment and former members of, 458–459
dialectics of class and race and, 448–450, 459
education of working class and, 455–456, 458–459
longevity of, 450–451
proletarian intellectuals and, 450–452, 455
role of the point of production and, 446–448, 452, 454, 459
wildcat strikes, 444, 446–448
Lebanon, 730
Leborgne, Danielle, 527
Lebowitz, Michael, 770–771
Lefebvre, Henri, 41, 553, 554, 633
left-wing parties and politics, 414, 417
legislative power, 302
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 99
Leidner, Robin, 253
Lenin, Vladimir I., 24, 52, 70, 116, 121–122. See also Marxism-Leninism
Althusser and, 565
Bukharin and, 563
elitism of, 408, 408n4, 480
on European labor unions, 407–408, 408n4
Gramsci and, 313, 315, 475–476
Hilferding and, 563
Hobson and, 502
(p. 831)
Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 563–564
Lassalle and, 765
misinterpreting Marx, 770
nationalism and, 485
participatory democracy and, 776
response to capitalist recovery after Great Depression, 560
revolution and, 714
on revolutionary theory and movement, relationship of, 441
on stages of capitalism, 563–564
theory of imperialism and, 522, 559, 662
Leninist ideology, 111, 476, 713
Leopold II (king of Belgium), 158
level of generality, 100
Levien, Michael, 690–691
liberalism, 43
abandonment of, 563
“Third Way” liberalism, 414
Libya, 730
Liebig, Justus von, 28–29, 653
Lieven, A., 751
Lin, Chun, 14, 15, 30, 32, 699
Lincoln, Abraham, 466
Linera, García, 663n3, 665–666, 667
Lipietz, Alain, 527
Lisbon Agenda (2000), 597
Littler, Craig R., 248, 253
Locke, John, 42, 234
Long Depression. See Depression of 1873–1879
Longo, Stefano B., 28–29, 651
Lorenz, Edward, 608
Louis Bonaparte. See Napoleon III
Löwy, Michael, 464
Lucas, Robert, 176
Luhmann, Niklas, 613
Lukács, Georg, 37–38, 44, 111, 121, 239
History and Class Consciousness, 116
Lumpenproletariat class, 307
Lumumba, Patrice, 543
Luther, Martin, 122
Luxembourg Compromise (1966), 532
Luxemburg, Rosa, 24, 296, 408, 502, 636n3, 662
Luzhkov, Yury, 747–748
Lyon Canut revolts (1830s), 542
Maastricht Treaty (1992), 597
Machiavelli, 476, 489
The Prince, 481, 490
MacInnes, John, 247–248
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 51, 52
macroeconomics, 133, 293, 296, 528, 532, 569, 596–602
Maduro, Nicolas, 779
Maldives, 684t
Mallet, Serge, 246
Malthus, Thomas Robert, and Malthusian thought, 13, 88, 120, 703
management, 20
contradictions with socialization of labor, 253–256
intensification of contradiction between management-as-coordination vs. management-as-discipline, 256–257
Manchester Peterloo massacre (1819), 542
Mandel, David, 30–31, 739
Mandel, Ernest, 26, 220n11, 393, 413, 519, 521–523, 525, 532, 564, 570, 680n2
Late Capitalism, 565–566
long wave theory, 564, 565–566
Marxist Economic Theory, 565–566
Mandelbrot, Benoit, 608
Mannheim, Karl, 122
Manning, Brian, 49
manufacture. See also Fordism; post-Fordism
decline of US jobs in, 513
global outsourcing of, 596
in India, 693
vs. machinofacture, 196
price of production in, 682, 683f
as stage of growth, 245
Maoism, 713
Mao Zedong, 44, 71, 543, 716
Marcuse, Herbert, 411, 413
marginal efficiency schedule, 163
Margulis, Lynn, 612, 615, 616
Marini, Ruy Mauro: Dialectics of Dependency, 669
market exchange vs. market forces, 787
market socialism, 773, 780–781
Marmot, Michael, 370
Marshall Plan, 566, 589, 590
Martineau, Jonathan, 364
Marx, Jenny von Westphalen (wife), 7, 10
(p. 832) Marx, Karl
biography of, 7–15
birth of, 7
“Confidential Communication” (1870), 469–470
deterministic approach of, 795n1
education of, 7
Engels, relationship with, 9
expulsion from Paris and move to Brussels, 9
Hegel’s influence on (see Hegel, G. W. F.)
as his own main critic, 132, 148
move to London, 10, 704–705
move to Paris, 8
as perfectionist, 106
Russia as significant subject of interest of and possibility of Russian revolution for, 711–712
Marx, Karl, works by. See also Capital (Das Kapital); The Communist Manifesto; The German Ideology
“The British Rule in India” (1853), 722–723
“Chinese Affairs” (1862), 705
citations to, 5–6
Civil War in France (1871), 729
Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859), 13, 17, 39, 79, 97, 107, 111, 118, 184, 453, 661, 662
Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (Preface, 1859), 442–443, 453, 700, 773–774
Critique of the Gotha Programme (1875), 316, 767–769, 774
“Debates on the Law on Thefts of Wood” (1842), 116
Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (Franco-German Yearbooks, 1844), 8, 9
“The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature” (dissertation, 1841), 7
“A Draft Plan for a Work on the Modern State” (1844), 302
Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, 9, 17, 105–106, 117, 361, 366–369,