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date: 27 November 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is a grammar sketch of Chechen and Ingush, which form the Vainakh subbranch of the Nakh branch of the Nakh-Daghestanian family. The emphasis is on Chechen, since a reference grammar of Ingush exists. Attention is given to points of typological and theoretical interest. Chechen and Ingush distinguish themselves from the Daghestanian languages by having a much richer set of vowel phonemes, containing short and long diphthongs. Accompanied by extensive examples from existing texts, the chapter offers insight into features such as stress and tone, pharyngealization, verb classes, verb template, meanings of TAM categories, evidentiality, valence changing, the addressee dative construction, word order, clause chaining, clefting and the VIP demonstrative. A number of issues that need further research are outlined in the chapter, such as tone, intonation and schwa-zero alternations. Differences between Chechen and Ingush are identified, especially where they involve the semantics and pragmatics of morphological forms or syntactic constructions.

Keywords: Chechen, Ingush, Nakh languages, Nakh-Daghestanian languages, Caucasus, converb,, evidential

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