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date: 26 November 2020



Paul Ashby is Lecturer in Security Studies with the National Security Studies Institute at the University of Texas at El Paso. He researches U.S. foreign policy and grand strategy, specializing in North American regional security and U.S. security assistance. His upcoming book examines U.S. policy efforts to improve regional security in North America and recent developments concerning the future of the North American Free Trade Agreement. He received a PhD from the University of Kent at Canterbury (UK).

Rodney Bent held several positions in Washington over the past thirty-five years, including being the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General’s representative, a senior executive adviser in the U.S. Department of State, and an executive adviser at Booz Allen Hamilton. Mr. Bent was the Deputy Chief Executive Officer and acting CEO of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) from 2006 to 2009. Before the MCC, he was a professional staff member at the House Appropriations Committee, working on international affairs. From 2003 to 2004, he served as the senior adviser to the Iraqi Ministry of Finance and the Iraqi Ministry of Planning for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad, Iraq. Mr. Bent spent twenty years at the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, where his final position was deputy associate director for the International Affairs Division as a member of the Senior Executive Service. He received an MBA from Cornell University, an MA from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and an AB in History from Cornell University.

Douglas M. Brattebo is Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the James A. Garfield Center for the Study of the American Presidency at Hiram College. He teaches courses on Ethics in U.S. Foreign Policy; American Government; the American Presidency and the Executive Branch; the U.S. Congress; Political Parties and Interest Groups; The Virtues, Leadership, and Legacy of Abraham Lincoln; and Engaged Citizenship. He also leads study away courses to Australia, New Zealand, and the ancient forests of the U.S. Pacific Coast. He is coeditor of five books, most recently the two-volume set published in 2015, A Transformation in American National Politics: The Presidential Election of 2012 and Culture, Rhetoric and Voting: The Presidential Election of 2012.

Risa Brooks is Allis Chalmers Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of Undergraduate Studies at Marquette University and a Non-Resident Fellow in Security Studies at the Abu Dhabi based think-tank TRENDS. For the 2017/2018 year she was an adjunct scholar at the Modern War Institute at West Point. Professor Brooks’s research focuses on issues related to civil-military relations, military effectiveness, and (p. xii) militant and terrorist organizations; she also has a regional interest in the Middle East. Professor Brooks is the author of Shaping Strategy: The Civil-Military Politics of Strategic Assessment (Princeton University Press, 2008) and editor (with Elizabeth Stanley) of Creating Military Power: The Sources of Military Effectiveness (Stanford University Press, 2007), as well as many articles in the field of international security.

George Cadwalader Jr. is an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy. As a career officer in the Marine Corps, his military assignments included serving as a member of the faculty at the Naval War College and the Naval Justice School as well as deployments to Afghanistan and Iraq. He now teaches emergency management, homeland security, and national security courses. He holds a Juris Doctorate, cum laude, from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and a Master of Arts in National Security and Strategic Studies, with distinction, from the Naval War College.

Derek Chollet is Executive Vice President and Senior Adviser for Security and Defense policy at The German Marshall Fund of the United States. He served in senior positions during the Obama administration at the White House, State Department, and Pentagon, most recently as the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs. He is a contributing editor to Foreign Policy, where he coedits “Shadow Government,” and is a regular contributor to Defense One. He is also an advisor to Beacon Global Strategies, an Adjunct Senior Research Scholar at Columbia University’s Saltzman Institute of War and Peace Studies, and a Visiting Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perry World House. His most recent book is The Long Game: How Obama Defied Washington and Redefined America’s Role in the World.

J. P. Clark is a strategist currently serving as the joint concepts branch chief at the U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center. His previous assignments include service with tank battalions in Georgia and in the Republic of Korea; teaching history at West Point; and staff duties in Iraq, the Pentagon, and as an exchange officer with the British Army. He is the author of Preparing for War: The Emergence of the Modern US Army, 1815–1917. He holds a B.S. from the U.S. Military Academy and an MA and PhD from Duke University.

Jonathan M. DiCicco (PhD, Rutgers University) is Associate Professor of Political Science at Canisius College in Buffalo, New York, where he teaches courses on national security, American foreign policy, leadership in international politics, and war. DiCicco is co-author of Presence, Prevention, and Persuasion (Lexington, 2004) and co-editor of International Relations: Introductory Readings (Kendall Hunt, 2017). His work related to rivalries and national security has been published in Political Research Quarterly, Foreign Policy Analysis, International Studies Perspectives, and Journal of Conflict Resolution.

Ambassador Stuart Eizenstat heads Covington’s international practice. His work focuses on resolving international trade problems and business disputes with theU.S. and foreign governments as well as international business transactions and regulations on behalf of U.S. companies and others around the world. During a decade and a (p. xiii) half of public service in three U.S. administrations, Ambassador Eizenstat has held a number of key senior positions, including chief White House domestic policy adviser to President Jimmy Carter (1977–1981); U.S. Ambassador to the European Union, Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade, Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs, and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury in the Clinton Administration (1993–2001).

Eleni G. Ekmektsioglou is a PhD candidate and an adjunct instructor at American University’s School of International Service. Her PhD dissertation seeks to explain variation in state reactions to military innovation. She is a nonresident fellow at Pacific Forum CSIS and previously worked at the European Union Institute for Security Studies and the European Institute for Asian Studies. She holds a Master’s from the King’s College London War Studies Department.

Amitai Etzioni is a university professor and Professor of International Relations at The George Washington University. He served as a Senior Advisor at the Carter White House; taught at Columbia University, Harvard University, and University of California, Berkeley; and served as president of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (SASE). A study by Richard Posner ranked him among the top 100 American intellectuals. Etzioni is the author of many books, including Security First (2007), Foreign Policy: Thinking Outside the Box (2016), and Avoiding War with China (2017). His most recent book, Happiness is the Wrong Metric: A Liberal Communitarian Response to Populism, was published by Springer in January 2018.

Christopher J. Fettweis is Associate Professor of Political Science at Tulane University where he teaches courses on U.S. foreign policy, international relations, and national security. His most recent books are Pathologies of Power: Fear, Honor, Glory, and Hubris in US Foreign Policy and Making Foreign Policy Decisions. He received his PhD from the University of Maryland.

Jennifer M. Harris is a non-resident senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). Prior to joining CFR, she was a member of the policy planning staff at the U.S. Department of State, where she was responsible for global markets, geoeconomic issues, and energy security. In that role, Harris was a lead architect of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s economic statecraft agenda. Before joining the State Department, Harris served on the U.S. National Intelligence Council staff, covering a range of economic and financial issues. Harris is coauthor, with Robert D. Blackwill, of War by Other Means: Geoeconomics and Statecraft. A Truman and Rhodes scholar, she holds a BA from Wake Forest University, an MPhil from Oxford University, and a JD from Yale Law School.

Anna Hayes is a senior lecturer in Politics and International Relations in the College of Arts, Society and Education at James Cook University, Australia. She specializes inhuman security, HIV/AIDS as a nontraditional threat to security, and human insecurity in the People’s Republic of China. Hayes’s recent publications have explored heightened (p. xiv) insecurity in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and she conducted fieldwork in the region in 2012. She is coeditor of three recent books: Inside Xinjiang: Space, Place and Power in China’s Muslim Far Northwest (Routledge, 2016) with Michael Clarke, Migration and Insecurity: Citizenship and Social Inclusion in a Transnational Era (Routledge, 2013) with Niklaus Steiner and Robert Mason, and Cultures in Refuge: Seeking Sanctuary in Modern Australia (Ashgate, 2012) with Robert Mason.

Joan Johnson-Freese is a professor in and former Chair of the National Security Affairs Department at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Prior to coming to Newport in 2002, she was at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii, the Air War College in Montgomery, Alabama, and the University of Central Florida in Orlando. Her research areas include space security, focusing especially on the Chinese space program, women’s issues, and professional military education. She is the author of ten books and numerous articles, has testified before Congress on space issues on multiple occasions, and is a frequent media consultant. Her latest book is Space Warfare in the 21st Century: Arming the Heavens.

General James L. Jones (USMC, ret.) served as President Barack Obama’s National Security Advisor in 2009–2010. As a career officer, he served as the commander of U.S. European Command and as supreme allied commander, Europe and the 32nd commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps. He graduated from the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service and was commissioned into the Marine Corps in January 1967. He served in Vietnam as rifle platoon and company commander. On returning home, he pursued a career in the Marines, attending the Amphibious Warfare School in 1973 and the National War College in 1985, as well as serving as Marine Corps liaison officer to the U.S. Senate. Upon retirement in February 2007, Jones became the President and CEO of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce’s Institute for 21st Century Energy and, in 2008, served as the State Department’s special envoy for Middle East regional security. He is presently the Interim Chairman of the Atlantic Council and is President and Founder of Jones Group International.

Robert B. Kahn is an economic consultant and Adjunct Professorial Lecturer in the School of International Service at American University, with expertise in macroeconomic policy, finance, and crisis resolution. Previously, he was the Steven A. Tananbaum Senior Fellow for International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He also was a senior strategist with Moore Capital Management, served as a senior adviser in the financial policy department at the World Bank, held staff positions at the International Monetary Fund, was head of the Office of Industrial Nations at the U.S. Treasury and a senior economist at the Council of Economic Advisers and Federal Reserve Board, and held various senior-level positions at Citigroup. He received his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Nicholas Khoo is a senior lecturer in the Department of Politics, University of Otago in New Zealand. He is author of Collateral Damage: Sino-Soviet Rivalry and theTermination of the Sino-Vietnamese Alliance (Columbia University Press, 2011), and (p. xv) Return to Power: China in East Asia since 1976 (manuscript in progress). He received a PhD from Columbia University and an MA from Johns Hopkins University.

Tom Lansford is a professor of Political Science at the University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast and previously served as Academic Dean. He is a current member of the governing board of the National Social Science Association and a state liaison for Mississippi for Project Vote Smart. His research interests include foreign and security policy and the U.S. presidency. He is the author, coauthor, editor, or coeditor of more than fifty books and more than a hundred essays, book chapters, encyclopedic entries, and reviews. Recent sole-authored books include: A Bitter Harvest: U.S. Foreign Policy and Afghanistan, The Historical Dictionary of U.S. Diplomacy since the Cold War, and 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Chronology and Reference Guide. He has served as the coeditor of the journal White House Studies since 2010 and the editor of the Political Handbook of the World since 2012.

Damian Leader is a professor of practice in the Program in International Relations at New York University. He was a U.S. Foreign Service officer from 1985 until 2013 and focused largely on European security issues. He served as the deputy in both Russian Affairs and Nordic-Baltic Affairs. His overseas assignments included Deputy Chief of Mission in Lithuania, Chief Arms Control Delegate for the U.S. Mission to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in Vienna, political-military officer in London during the beginning of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, and Chargé d’Affaires at the Embassy of the United States to the Holy See. He was a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office as an exchange officer, and also worked on the efforts to bring negotiated peace to Angola, Burundi, and Mozambique. Leader earned his BA from the University of Notre Dame and his MA and PhD from the University of Toronto. He was a visiting fellow of St. Edmund’s College, Cambridge; has delivered lectures at Columbia University, Cambridge University, and St. Petersburg State University; and was a member of Council on Foreign Relations Task Force on Northeast Europe. He wrote the first volume of the official History of the University of Cambridge and has published articles and reviews on history and diplomacy.

Kathleen A. Mahoney-Norris is Professor Emeritus, USAF Air Command and Staff College, Air University, having retired from full-time faculty status in 2015. She continues to teach online and develop a national security–focused curriculum for military officers and civilian professionals through Air University. She also served as an adjunct family member at the Air War College, teaching electives and the Latin American Regional Security Studies course—including serving as academic adviser for four student trips to the Latin American region. Her latest book is Human and National Security: Transnational Challenges. She received a PhD from the University of Denver and an MA from the University of Southern California.

Ryan C. Maness is an assistant professor of Cyber Conflict and Security in the Defense Analysis Department of the Naval Postgraduate School. His current research explores cyber strategy and coercive effects and how the tactic fits within overall military (p. xvi) strategies for various countries. His research is based on the collection of cyber events through quantitative methods and is currently constructing a cyber incidents dataset that will not only encompass state actors, but non-state actors as well. He is coauthor of the forthcoming Cyber Strategy: The Changing Character of Cyber Power and Coercion (Oxford University Press), Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy: Energy, Cyber and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), and Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System (Oxford University Press, 2015). He received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2013.

Gale A. Mattox is Professor/former Chair, Political Science Department, U.S. Naval Academy and Wilson Center Global Fellow; Adjunct Professor, Strategic Studies Program, Georgetown U.; and Senior Fellow, AICGS, Johns Hopkins U. In 2017 she was a Scholar, Woodrow Wilson International Center, DC; Fulbright Scholar, NATO Security Studies, Brussels. She served on the State Department Policy Planning Staff, Office of Strategic and Nuclear Policy; Congressional Research Service; and was President/Vice President of Women in International Security; a Bosch Young Leader; Fulbright Distinguished Chair, Netherlands; and received the ISA Northcutt award 2015. Publications include Coalition Challenges in Afghanistan: the Politics of Alliance (Stanford University Press, 2015). Mattox received her PhD from the University of Virginia.

Michael W. Miller is a partner at the Kyle House Group, a Washington, DC–based consultancy and an adjunct associate professor at the Duke Global Health Institute. Prior to joining the firm, he was Republican Policy Director for the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations for Senator Bob Corker, where he oversaw policy and legislative initiatives globally. From 2001 to 2009, Michael held several senior policy positions in the executive branch and the White House, including Senior Advisor in the office of the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services; Deputy Assistant Administrator for Global Health at the U.S. Agency for International Development; and Director for Africa on the National Security Council at the White House. Michael began his career with the International Republican Institute as a democracy and governance adviser in Africa, traveling and working extensively across the continent. He received his bachelor’s degree with honors in geography from the University of Tennessee and his master’s degree in political geography from the University of South Carolina.

Pauline Moore is a PhD candidate at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her research focuses broadly on understanding why nonstate groups use particular strategies of contention during violent and nonviolent conflict, and her dissertation investigates the effect of foreign fighters on armed group behavior toward local civilian populations. She is the coauthor of The Politics of Terror (with Erica Chenoweth). She holds an MA from Johns Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies and a BA from Middlebury College.

Jeffrey Stevenson Murer is a senior lecturer in Collective Violence and a Research Fellow to the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence atthe University of St. Andrews. He is also a research fellow to the Scottish Institute for Policing Research, (p. xvii) was Principal Investigator for the European Study of Youth Mobilisation, funded by the British Council, and is a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. Prior to coming to the University of St. Andrews, Dr. Murer received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago, and was an assistant professor of Political Science at Swarthmore College.

Shoon Murray is an associate professor at the School of International Service at American University where she specializes on issues of U.S. Foreign Policy and National Security. She is the author of Anchors against Change: American Leaders’ Beliefs after the Cold War and The Terror Authorization: History and Politics of the 2001 AUMF. She coedited (with Gordon Adams) Mission Creep: The Militarization of US Foreign Policy? She received her PhD from Yale University.

Henry R. Nau is a professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University. His latest book is Conservative Internationalism: Armed Diplomacy under Jefferson, Polk, Truman, and Reagan. From January 1981 to July 1983, he served on President Reagan’s National Security Council as senior staff member responsible for international economic affairs. Among other duties he was the White House sherpa for the Annual G-7 Economic Summits at Ottawa (1981), Versailles (1982), and Williamsburg (1983) and a special summit with developing countries at Cancun, Mexico (1982). He also served, in 1975–1977, as Special Assistant to the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs in the Department of State. In 2016, the Japanese Government awarded him The Order of the Rising Sun, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon acknowledging his efforts as director from 1989 to 2016 of the U.S. -Japan-South Korea Legislative Exchange Program. He holds a BS degree in Economics, Politics and Science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and MA and PhD degrees from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies.

Thomas M. Nichols is a professor of National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval War College and a professor at the Harvard Extension School. He is also an adjunct professor in the U.S. Air Force School of Strategic Force Studies. He served as personal staff for defense and security affairs in the United States Senate to the late Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and was a Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC. He was also a fellow in the International Security Program at the John F. Kennedy School at Harvard University. He is the author of several books, including Eve of Destruction: The Coming of Age of Preventive War, No Use: Nuclear Weapons and U.S. National Security and The Death of Expertise: The Campaign against Established Knowledge and Why It Matters. He holds a PhD from Georgetown, an MA from Columbia University, the Certificate of the Harriman Institute for Advanced Study of the Soviet Union at Columbia, and a BA from Boston University.

Mackubin T. Owens is the Dean of Academics and Professor at the Institute of World Politics and Editor of Orbis. He is the author of Abraham Lincoln: Leadership and Democratic Statesmanship in Wartime (2009) and US Civil-Military Relations after 9/11: Renegotiating the Civil-Military Bargain (Continuum Press, 2011) and coauthor of US Foreign and Defense Policy: The Rise of an Incidental Superpower (Georgetown (p. xviii) University Press, 2015). From 1987 to 2014, he was a professor of national security affairs at the Naval War College. Previous to that, he served as National Security Advisor to Senator Bob Kasten, Republican of Wisconsin, and Director of Legislative Affairs for the Nuclear Weapons Programs of the Department of Energy during the Reagan administration. He is also a Marine Corps veteran of Vietnam, where as an infantry platoon and company commander in 1968–1969, he was wounded twice and awarded the Silver Star medal. He earned his PhD in Politics from the University of Dallas, an MA in Economics from Oklahoma University, and a BA from the University of California at Santa Barbara.

Norrin M. Ripsman is Monroe Rathbone Distinguished Professor in the International Relations Department at Lehigh University. He has held prestigious fellowships at the Mershon Center at Ohio State University (1998–1999) and the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Kennedy School at Harvard University (2010–2011). His research interests include: democracy and national security, postwar peacemaking, constructing regional stability, the political economy of national security, neoclassical realism, and the impact of globalization on national security. He is the author/coauthor of five books, most recently Top-Down Peacemaking, Bottom-Up Peace: Why Regional Peacemaking Begins with States and Ends with Societies; a coeditor of four books, most recently (with Steven E. Lobell) The Political Economy of Regional Peacemaking; and the author of over twenty-five peer-reviewed articles. He received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania.

Joshua Rovner is Associate Professor in the School of International Service at American University. He is the author of Fixing the Facts: Intelligence and the Politics of National Security (Cornell University Press, 2011). Some of his other recent work on intelligence includes “Intelligence in the Twitter Age,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (Summer 2013); “Is Politicization Ever a Good Thing?,” Intelligence and National Security (Spring 2013); and “Does the Internet Need a Hegemon?” with Tyler Moore, Journal of Global Security Studies (Summer 2017).

Kori Schake is Deputy Director General of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the author of Safe Passage: the Transition from British to American Hegemony (Harvard, 2017). She is a contributing editor at both The Atlantic and War on the Rocks. She is the editor, with Jim Mattis, of the book Warriors and Citizens: American Views of Our Military. She has served in various policy roles including at the White House for the National Security Council; at the Department of Defense for the Office of the Secretary and Joint Chiefs of Staff; at the State Department for the Policy Planning Staff; and as Senior Policy Advisor on the 2008 McCain presidential campaign. She received a PhD from the University of Maryland and teaches in War Studies at King’s College, London.

Kaija E. Schilde is Assistant Professor at the Boston University Pardee School of Global Studies. Her primary research interests involve the political economy of security and transatlantic security. Her book, The Political Economy of European Security (Cambridge University Press, 2017) investigates the state-society relations between the EU and (p. xix) interest groups, with a particular focus on security and defense institutions, industries, and markets. Her research interests span multiple dimensions of the historical institutionalism of security organizations, including the causes and consequences of military spending; the relationship between spending, innovation, and capabilities; defense reform and force transformation; the politics of defense protectionism; and the international diffusion of internal and border security practices. She has published articles in the Journal of Common Market Studies, European Security, and the Journal of Peace Research.

Nina M. Serafino is an independent researcher who during her career has explored a wide range of war and peace issues. She worked thirty-five years at the Congressional Research Service (CRS), beginning in 1981 as an analyst in Latin American affairs specializing in the conflicts and peace processes in Central America. After serving four years as head of the Asia/Latin America section of CRS’s Foreign Affairs division, she began working in 1993 on U.S. military operations other than war, in particular, peacekeeping. Subsequently, her work expanded to issues related to the use of force, stabilization and reconstruction missions, security assistance, and interagency reform for missions abroad. Prior to joining CRS, she worked as a journalist in New England, Argentina, and Chile. She holds a master’s degree in International Affairs from Columbia University.

Ambassador John A. Simon is the founder of an impact investing firm, Total Impact Capital, the Vice Chair of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis, and a member of the Trade Advisory Committee for Africa. Prior to launching Total Impact Capital, Ambassador Simon was a visiting fellow at the Center for Global Development, where he coauthored More than Money, a report on impact investing as a development tool. Previously, Ambassador Simon held several posts in the U.S. government, including serving as the United States Ambassador to the African Union, the Executive Vice President of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Relief, Stabilization, and Development at the White House. He started his federal government service as Deputy Assistant Administrator in the Program and Policy Coordination Bureau of the United States Agency for International Development. He holds a masters degree from the Harvard Kennedy School.

Ray Takeyh is Hasib J. Sabbagh Senior Fellow for Middle East Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). His areas of specialization are Iran, political reform in the Middle East, and Islamist movements and parties. Prior to joining CFR, Takeyh was senior adviser on Iran at the Department of State. He was previously a fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Takeyh is the coauthor of The Pragmatic Superpower and is the author of three previous books, Guardians of the Revolution, Hidden Iran, and The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine. He has also written more than 250 articles and opinion pieces in many news outlets including Foreign Affairs, the New York Times, and the Washington Post. (p. xx)

Jordan Tama is Associate Professor in the School of International Service at American University. His research examines the politics and process of U.S. foreign and national security policy. His books include Rivals for Power: Presidential-Congressional Relations, 6th ed. (coedited with James Thurber); Terrorism and National Security Reform: How Commissions Can Drive Change during Crises; and A Creative Tension: The Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress (coauthored with Lee Hamilton). He has also served as a senior congressional foreign policy aide and as a national security adviser to a presidential campaign.

Jakana L. Thomas is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Michigan State University. Her research focuses on conflict resolution in civil war and the characteristics of violent nonstate groups, including their tactical choices and gendered recruitment strategies. Recent projects examine the relationship between terrorism and conflict resolution (concessions and negotiations), the determinants of women’s participation in violent political organizations, the impact of women’s participation on conflict outcomes, and explaining the size and effect of rebel demands. She received her PhD from Pennsylvania State University.

Brandon Valeriano is the Donald Bren Chair of Armed Politics at the Marine Corps University. He also serves as a senior fellow in cyber security for the Niskanen Center. His three most recent coauthored books are Cyber War versus Cyber Realities, Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy, and Cyber Strategy. His ongoing research explores creating comprehensive cyber conflict data, external threats and video games, biological and psychological examinations of the cyber threat, and repression in cyberspace. He received a PhD from Vanderbilt University.

Marc C. Vielledent serves as a strategist and the strategic planner to the Commanding General of the U.S. Army Pacific. He was commissioned through the United States Military Academy in 2005. He holds a bachelor’s degree in American legal studies and a master’s degree in strategic public relations from the University of Southern California. He is a graduate of the Field Artillery Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the Army Command and General Staff College, and the Basic Strategic Arts Program at Carlisle Barracks.

Rosella Cappella Zielinski is an assistant professor of Political Science at Boston University who specializes in studying the political economy of security. Her research interests include the mobilization of resources for war, defense spending, and conflict dynamics. She is the author of How States Pay for Wars (Cornell University Press, 2016), winner of the 2017 American Political Science Association Robert L. Jervis and Paul W. Schroeder Best Book Award in International History and Politics. Her other works can be found in the Journal of Peace Research, Conflict Management and Peace Science, and the Air and Space Power Journal.

(p. xxi)