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date: 17 October 2019

(p. 645) Index

(p. 645) Index

A-10 Warthog, 282–83
A2/AD (anti-access/area denial), 292–98, 300, 321, 572
Abe, Shinzo, 583
abstract representations, 550
Abu Ghraib prison, 536
accountability, 81, 123, 128, 206, 208–9, 212–13
Acemoglu, Darin, 213
Acharya, Amitav, 463, 469
Acheson, Dean, 113
Ackerman, Spencer, 430
Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA), 321
active engagement, 42
Adams, Gordon, 2, 167–68
Adams, John, 109
Adams, John Quincy, 22, 27
adaptive basing, 317–18
Addabbo, Joe, 282–83
Adkins, Heather, 425
adversaries, 292–94
advisers, 98
Africa, 205, 207, 210–11, 223, 466–68, 516–17. See also individual countries
African Americans, 192
African Development Bank, 210
Agamben, Giorgio, 498
Agriculture Department, 63
AH-56 Cheyenne helicopter, 283
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 242, 375–76
AID (Agency for International Development), 129
aircraft carriers, 317
Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), 583
airport security, 345
al-Abadi, Haider, 257
al-Assad, Bashar, 377
Albright, Madeleine, 30, 372
Aldrich, John H., 165–66
Alexander, Audrey, 520
Alexander, Grover Cleveland, 130
Algiers Accords, 367
alienation, 81
Al Jazeera, 403
Allende, Salvador, 619
all hazards, 336
Allison, Graham, 36, 277–78
Allsop, Dee, 510
All Writs Act (AWA), 432
al-Qaeda, 64, 135, 138, 257, 496, 510, 519, 529, 533, 566
ambassadors, 64, 190, 193
“America First” policy, 6, 8, 37, 259, 611, 625
American Civil Liberties Union, 345
Amphibious Readiness Group (ARG), 296
analysis, 138–41
anarchy, 17, 21, 27, 162, 580–81
Anderson, Martin and Annelise, 26
Annan, Kofi, 460–61, 482
Antarctica, 446
anti-air warfare (AAW), 279
anti-Communism, 23
anti-ISIS Coalition, 609
anti-money laundering (AML), 231–33
anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon, 441
anti-submarine warfare (ASW), 279
apartheid, 215, 501–3
apolitical professionalism, 78, 85–87
appropriations committee, 165, 220
(p. 646) Arab Spring, 119, 595, 605
Arbitral Tribunal of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), 586
Arctic Ocean, 485–86
Argentina, 372
Arizona v. Hicks, 427
armed diplomacy, 26–27
arms control treaties, 162–63, 446–47
Arms Export Control Act, 647
arms race in outer space, 568
arms sales, 238
Arrighi, Giovanni, 581
Art, Robert, 46–47, 362
Articles of Confederation, 20, 162
artificial intelligence (AI), 431
artificial islands, 583, 646
As, Berit, 510
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations), 582–83, 585
Ashby, Paul, 12
Ashcroft, John, 423
Asia, 12, 192, 239, 287, 308, 310, 517, 577
Asian Tigers, 207, 223
Assange, Julian, 425
assassinations, 70, 117, 530, 536–37
assertive multilateralism, 30
asset freezes, 234–36
asymmetry, 548
Atlantic Magazine, 335
attentionally overloaded, 547
attorney general, 135
Auerswald, David P., 162–63
Aum Shinrikyo, 529
austerity, 7, 252–54
Australia Group, 188
Austria, 321
autarky, 251
authoritarian states, 50, 506
Authorization for the Use of Force, 165
avian influenza, 203
AWACS, 286, 608–9
Azerbaijan, 646–47
B-36 strategic bomber, 284
Ba, Alice, 585
backdoors, 423, 428–31
backlash effect, 169, 486
Baines, Phil, 443
Baker, James, 104, 189
Baker, Stewart, 422, 425–26
balanced fleet, 299
balance of power, 17, 153, 307, 310, 579
Balas, Alexandru, 570
Balibar, Étienne, 495–96
Balkans, 194, 468
Balla, Steven J., 161
Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), 580
Baltic, 597, 608
Banco Delta Asia, 233
Ban Ki-moon, 476, 482
banks, 231, 237, 239–40
Bankston, Kevin, 423
Bannon, Stephen K., 104, 108, 113
Bantu homelands, 502
Bantz, David, 431
Barrons, Richard, 600
Base Force, 285–86
basing requirements, 130, 286, 308–9, 314–19, 321–23
basket funding, 209, 217, 219
Baum, Mathew, 169
Beaumont, David, 319
Beeson, Mark, 585
Belfer Center, 38
Belgium, 321
Bellamy, Paul, 466–67, 469
Bellavita, Christopher, 335–36
Bellovin, Steve, 431
Benghazi, 297
Benjamin, Walter, 496–98
Bennett, Richard, 200
Bent, Rodney, 11
Berko, Anat, 513
Best, Richard A., 102–3, 105
Best Military Advice, 85
Betts, Richard, 82, 582
Biddle, Stephen, 286
Biden, Joe, 422
big data, 140
Biko, Stephen, 501
bilateral assistance, 205, 208–9, 217, 221–22
bilateral programs, 204
bilateral relationships, 313
Binder, Sarah, 164–65
(p. 647) bin Laden, Osama, 70, 117, 373, 530, 537
bipolar system, 551, 579
black swans, 343
Blair, Dennis, 483
Blair, Tony, 601
BNP Paribas, 237, 240
Bolton, John, 447
Bond, Kanisha, 513, 516
bonds, 269
BOOB (bolt out of the blue), 383–84
Boot, Max, 200
“boots on the ground,” 39
Borah, William, 25
border security, 31, 629–31
borrowing, 256–57, 268
Bosnia, 8, 30, 40, 84, 112, 503–4
bottom-up policy, 278–79, 285–86
Bourdieu, Pierre, 499–501
Bratislava Fall summit, 602
Brattebo, Douglas M., 10
Braw, Elisabeth, 597
breakout espionage, 408–9
Bretton Woods institutions, 210
Brexit vote, 252, 259, 599, 602, 605
BRICS (Brazil/ Russia/ India/ China/ South Africa), 3, 193, 252
Brimley, Shawn, 301, 451
Brodie, Bernard, 381–82
Brooks, Deborah Jordan, 510
Brooks, Risa, 10
Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 476–77
Brussels Summit, 596
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 103, 112, 116, 118, 365
Buchanan, Pat, 21, 407
Buckley, William, 368
budget process
appropriations power, 267–68, 272
austerity, 7
BA (budget authority), 267–68
budget caps, 274–75
Budget Control Act of 2011, 6, 268–69
Budget Enforcement Act (1990), 268
Congressional polarization, 167
Congressional powers, 153
Congressional Research Service, 271
CRs (Continuing Resolutions), 273–74
debt ceiling, 269
Defense Guidance (DG), 281–82
deficit spending, 266, 275
Department of State, 129, 157, 167, 189–90, 195
development assistance, 209, 219–21
discretionary spending, 2, 266–68, 271
DoD (Department of Defense), 63, 129
dynamic basing, 316
earmarks, 272
emergency supplementals, 270–71
executive branch, 269
force planning, 289
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Balanced Budget Act, 268
mandatory spending, 271
military force planning, 277–79
for national security, 2, 62, 265
and the Navy, 298
nonproject assistance, 205
OCO (Overseas Contingency Operation fund), 265
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 126, 268
OL Total, 267–68
pass back, 270
paygo (pay-as-you-go), 268–69
Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution process (PPBE), 281–82
power of the purse, 156–58
president’s request, 219, 267, 269–71
regular order, 265
report language, 273
spend out rates, 268
surplus, 269
Trump administration, 64
U.S. Congress, 271–73
Veterans Affairs, 271
war financing, 270–71
bully pulpit, 68–69, 169
Bundy, McGeorge, 103, 114, 127
Burbach, David T., 81
bureaucracy, 2, 42–43, 61–63, 70, 79, 83, 133
Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations, 194–95
Bureau of Human Rights, 192
Burk, James, 83
Burke, Edmund, 131
(p. 648) Burke, John P., 105
Burns, Nicholas, 185, 195
Burns, William J., 40
Burr, Richard, 424
Bush (G.W.) administration
alliances, 3
arms control and space, 447
border security, 629
Cheney and the NSC, 112
climate change, 486
DoD reorganization, 281–82
enhanced interrogation, 530
financial sanctions, 233
Global War on Terror (GWOT), 529–30
and the HSC, 127
interagency process, 104
Iranian sanctions, 375
Iraq War, 70, 84
judical ruling on terrorism, 66
Kyoto Protocol, 59
LRP (local and regional procurement), 207
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) (2005), 210
multilateral or bilateral diplomacy, 187
nationalist foreign policy, 29
national security, 38, 106
National Strategy for Homeland Security, 331–32
9/11, 21
and the NSC, 114–15, 118–19
Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), 392–93
Office of Homeland Security, 331
PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), 203–4
policymaking, 117
public opinion, 169
Quadrennial Defense Review, 286
space weapons, 443
Strategic Planning and Institutional Reform, 119
strategic planning for military, 284–85
tax cuts, 269
“war czar,” 117
Bush, (G.H.W.) administration, 28–29, 38, 49, 59, 60, 101, 104–5, 126, 189, 195, 390, 648
business community, 11
business records, 344
“buy American,” 5
Byman, Dan, 371–72
C-130s Hercules, 297
cabinet appointments, 60, 108, 125–26, 158
Cadwalader, George, Jr., 11
Cambodia, 586
Cameron, David, 424, 600–601
campaign contributions, 67
Camp David Accords (1979), 190, 201
capitalism, 50
Capstone Concept for Joint Operations, 316
carbon emissions, 486–88
carbon sequestration, 203
Carson, Rachel, 475
Carter, Ashton, 298, 600
Carter, Ralph G., 166
Carter administration, 4, 26–27, 103, 105, 112, 118, 190, 201, 364–66, 387–89, 645, 648
Cartwright, James, 393
cash on delivery, 217
Caspian Sea, 4
Castro, Fidel, 619, 625, 645
CBO (Congressional Budget Office), 266
CBP (U.S. Customs and Border Protection), 329, 339
CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear), 328, 338, 340–41, 343
Cebrowski, Arthur K., 298, 301
censorship, 430–31
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 214
Center for Strategic and International Studies, 161, 433
Central America, 628
Central Asia, 42
Central Bank of Iran, 236
central banks, 251
Central Europe, 4
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). See CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)
centralization, 136
chain of command, 115
Charlie Hebdo, 604
(p. 649) Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, 512, 514
checks and balances, 152, 156, 215
chemical weapons, 18, 30, 644
Cheney, Dick, 60, 104, 106, 112
Chief of Mission, 63–64
Chilcot Report, 601
China
adversaries technology, 291
Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), 583
annual GDP, 252–53
ASAT (anti-satellite) test, 444, 449
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations), 582–83
Asian alliances, 579
authoritarian states, 50
censorship, 430–31
climate change, 485, 585–86
as currency manipulator, 59, 250
Declaration of Conduct on the South China Sea, 582
defense spending, 580
DF-21D “carrier killer,” 292
encryption, 430–31
espionage, 409
foreign policy, 584
and the grand strategy, 50
Great Firewall, 407
great power status, 250
hacking attacks, 50, 406–7
Handbook of International Rivalries, 566
international status, 252
maritime security, 307–8
military power, 50
national identity, 584
Nixon administration, 23, 117, 568
North Korean sanctions, 258
Paris Accords (2015), 489
People’s Republic of China, 549
satellites, 440, 442
South China Sea, 252, 322, 646
Spratly Islands, 293, 583
Taiwan Straits’ crisis, 581–82
territorial disputes, 577, 580, 582–86
trade with U.S., 581–82
Trump administration, 117
as U.S. creditor, 6, 257
U.S. relations, 578
choice of instruments, 205
Chollet, Derek, 10, 119
Chomsky, Noam, 19
Christensen, Thomas, 582
Christie, Ryerson, 463–64
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), 59, 61–62, 99, 133–35, 139–40, 144, 159, 530, 619
Cicero, 546
CISADA sanctions, 231–32
civil disobedience, 505
civilian agencies, 129
civilian-military power, 63–64
civil liberties, 11, 133, 414, 536
civil-military relations, 10, 77–80, 82, 85–86, 171, 283–84
civil rights, 344–45
civil servants, 62–63, 128–29
civil war, 22, 498, 509, 571
Clark, J. P., 11
Clarke, Richard, 126
classical liberals, 26–27
classical realism, 23
Clay, Henry, 27
Clements, Kevin, 469
Clifford, Clark, 114
climate change
Arctic Ocean, 485–86
backlash effect, 486
carbon emissions, 486–88
carbon sequestration, 203
China, 485, 585–86
Copenhagen Climate Change Summit, 487–88, 585
developing countries, 475–77, 481, 489
East Asian Summit (EAS), 585
environmental security, 476–80, 484, 490–91
and the EPA, 63
geoengineering, 489
global warming, 31
and homeland security, 343
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 475–76, 479, 487
Kyoto Protocol, 59, 486–87
national rivalry, 50
and national security, 12
natural disasters, 476, 480, 485, 490
(p. 650)
Obama administration, 488
Paris Accords (2015), 65, 479, 484, 488–89
sustainable development, 491
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), 476
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 486, 488
water resources, 481–83
World Meteorological Organization, 480
Clinton, Hillary, 30, 37, 60, 185, 193, 403, 451, 577
Clinton administration, 29–30, 38, 59, 70, 84, 100–101, 104, 112, 114–15, 186, 195, 210, 230–31, 269, 285–86, 372, 391–94, 422–23, 486, 529, 645, 647
Clipper Chip, 422–23
close air support (CAS), 282–83
Cloud, John A., 10
cloud computing, 412
coalition, 47–48
Cochran, Thad, 274–75
COCOMs (combatant commands), 64
code of conduct, 244–45
coercive diplomacy, 315
Cohen, Eliot, 78–79, 85–86
Cohen, William, 392
Colby, Elbridge, 448–49
Cold War, 4, 18, 28, 43, 62, 102, 134–35, 144, 152–53, 164, 167, 192, 381, 390, 463, 543, 548–50, 565, 618–20. See also Soviet Union
Coleridge, Samuel, 131
collaboration, 31
Columbia, 200, 223
Combatant Commands, 116
Combined Joint Taskforce-Horn of Africa, 466
Combined Maritime Forces, 47–48
Comey, James, 424
commander-in-chief, 58, 124, 154
Commission on Human Security report, 461
Commission to Assess United States National Security, Space Management and Organization, 446
Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), 210
commodity transfer programs, 206–7, 213
Common Defense, The, 277
common good, 35
common ground, 7
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), 423
communications network, 168–70, 293, 301, 308
Communism, 26, 28, 618–21
communitarianism, 426, 434, 463
Compact Agreements, 321
compellence, 361–62, 370–73
competition, 293, 561
Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act (1986), 215
Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT), 412
Confidence Building Measures (CBMs), 188
Congress of Vienna, 23
Congress Reconsidered, 164–65
Connelly, Richard L., 284
Conover, Pamela Johnston, 510
consensus, 123
conservative internationalism, 17–18, 26–27, 31
conservative isolationism, 19
conservative planning, 280
constituent interests, 283
containment strategy, 28, 43, 102
contested norms, 294–95
Continental Illinois, 202
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 458
conventional warfare, 293–94, 300
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 458
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 458
Cook, Tim, 429, 431, 433
Cooper, Joseph, 164
cooperative security, 45t
cooperative security locations (CSL), 316
Copenhagen Agreement, 504
Copenhagen Climate Change Summit, 487–88, 585
Corbett, Julian, 43
Corbyn, Jeremy, 601
Correlates of War Project, 564
corruption, 209, 237, 628
(p. 651) Corwin, Edwin, 154–55
cost-effectiveness, 222
cost-sharing, 243
Council on Foreign Relations, 151, 166, 431
Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (2017), 160
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE), 343–44, 537–38
counterinsurgency (COIN), 31, 86, 280, 300, 464, 515
counterproliferation, 252
counterspace, 443–44
counterterrorism strategy, 8, 31, 49–50, 62–63, 136, 138, 167, 232–33, 252, 257, 342, 515, 529–30, 535–39, 536t
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment tool (CPIA), 208
CPOST (Chicago Project on Security and Terrorism), 517–18
CrashOverride, 406–7
credibility, 311, 552
Crimea, 233–34, 252, 254
crisis management, 119
“Critique of Violence, The,” 496–98
cross-border payment, 231, 240
cross-border traffic, 230
Crovitz, Gordon, 432
CRs (Continuing Resolutions), 273–74
crusaders, 280
Crypto Wars, 421
Cuba, 24, 67, 117, 125, 362, 566, 568–69, 619, 645, 647
Cuban Missile Crisis, 39, 100, 619
cultural gap, 80
cultural violence, 501
Cunningham, Karla, 520
currency devaluation, 253
Cushman, Charles B., Jr., 158, 167, 170
Cutler, Robert, 114
cybersecurity, 50, 332, 408–10, 412, 571
cyberspace, 11, 403–8, 410–15, 421, 598–99
Daalder, Ivo, 126
Darknet, 407
Day After Tomorrow, The, 481
Dayton Peace Accords (1995), 112, 503–4
DC (Deputies Committe), 100, 104, 221
DCI (Director of Central Intelligence), 135
DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency), 63, 136
DeBlois, Bruce, 442
debt ceiling, 269
debt crisis, 202
debt relief, 210
de Callieres, Francois, 186
decision-making, 2, 9–10, 104–5, 126, 145, 159, 215, 220–21, 277, 312, 320. See also interagency process; policymaking
Declaration of Conduct on the South China Sea, 582
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 458
Deering, Christopher J., 161
defense contractors, 274–75
Defense Guidance (DG), 281–82
defense industry, 254–56
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), 134, 144
Defense Logistics Agency Law Enforcement Support Office, 345
Defense Planning Guidance (1992), 546
Defense Strategic Guidance, 595
Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA), 340
defensive realism, 23, 578, 580–81
deficit spending, 266, 275
de Gaulle, Charles, 603
degradations, 408–9
deindustrialization, 6
de Kruif, 598
demand-side participation in violence, 511, 513–15
De Martino, Ernesto, 498
Demchak, Chris, 406
demobilization, 133
Democratic Republic of the Congo, 201
democratization, 49
Democrats, 70, 81, 83, 403, 411
Dempsey, Martin, 543
(p. 652) Denfeld, Louis E., 284
Deng Xiaoping, 250
Department of Agriculture, 158, 189
Department of Commerce, 158, 189
Department of Defense (DoD). See DoD (Department of Defense)
Department of Energy (DOE), 134, 158, 331, 395
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 195, 331
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 11, 62, 101, 114, 127, 159, 328, 331, 333, 335–41, 344
Department of Justice (DOJ), 331, 339, 345
Department of State
budget for, 129, 157, 167, 189–90, 195, 270
Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations, 194–95
Bureau of Human Resources, 189
Bureau of Human Rights, 192
diplomatic mission, 188–89
diverse workforce, 191–92
embassies, 190–91
foreign policy, 62
hiring freeze, 191
homeland security budget, 331
interagency rivalry, 221
international assistance, 195
nation-building, 194
Office of Intelligence and Research, 134
Policy Planning Staff, 118
“Political Violence against Americans,” 495
Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), 193
S/CRS (State Department Office of the Coordinator for Stabilization and Reconstruction), 159
staffing, 63, 115, 128–29
terrorism, 528
Truman administration, 102, 129
See also diplomacy
Department of the Navy, 62
Department of Transport, 158
Department of Treasury, 63, 136, 158, 231, 233, 268
Department of War, 62
De Pauw, Linda Grant, 514
Deputies Committe (DC), 100, 104, 221
Dereliction of Duty, 84–85
de-risking channel, 237, 239
DeRouen, Karl, 161
Derrida, Jacques, 495
Desert Storm, 105, 319
detention centers, 49
developing countries, 475–77, 481, 489
devil’s advocate, 107
DHS (Department of Homeland Security). See Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
DIA (Defense Intelligence Agency), 144
DiCicco, Jonathan M., 12
Diehl, Paul F., 570
diplomacy
armed diplomacy, 18, 26–27
budget for, 63
climate change, 485–86
coercive diplomacy, 315
conservative internationalists, 18
definition, 186
development assistance, 204
DIME (diplomatic, information, military, and economic), 185
dollar diplomacy, 617, 619
financial sanctions, 242
Foreign Service, 10–11, 190–93
German reunification, 195
hardship posts, 193–94
international rivalry, 562, 568
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), 188
League of Nations, 186
liberal internationalism, 25
militarization of diplomacy, 194
and military power, 18, 186
multilateralism, 187–88
mutual gains, 186
National Security Strategy reports, 157–58
OPM hack, 409
partisanship, 166
(p. 653)
president’s role, 190
space security, 451
terrorism and, 193
in the Twenty-first Century, 192
direct hires, 128
Director of National Intelligence (DNI), 100, 104, 130, 136, 159
disarmament, 25
disaster relief, 334, 340
disinformation, 193, 409
disruption, 404, 408–9
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), 409
distributed lethality, 297–98
diverse workforce, 191–92
DoD (Department of Defense)
base closure, 130
budget for, 129, 157, 168
Climate Change Adaptation Roadmap, 490
Congressional oversight, 161–62
creation of, 99
Defense Guidance (DG), 281–82
Eisenhower administration, 126
foreign aid, 214
foreign policy, 83
Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP), 270
Goldwater-Nichols Act (1986), 38, 99, 103, 123, 281
homeland security, 331, 340–41
Insurrection Act, 340
interservice rivalries, 170
militarization of police, 345
and the National Guard, 341
National Military Enterprise, 159
National Photographic Interpretation Center, 134
National Security Act (1947), 62
national security definition, 332
nation-building, 194
and the NSC, 128–29
Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), 392–93
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), 313
Reagan administration, 254
space situational awareness (SSA), 450
staffing, 60, 63, 128
technology research, 256
Total Obligational Authority (TOA), 282
Dodd, Lawrence C., 164–65
Doing Business indicators, 208
dollar diplomacy, 617, 619
Dombrowski, Peter, 406
Dominican Republic, 620
Donilon, Thomas E., 127
Donnelly, Thomas, 80
donor countries, 202, 213–14, 217, 219, 221–22
Draper Richards, 211
Drezner, Daniel, 234, 257
Dropp, Kyle, 81
Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 63, 146
drug traffickers, 621–22, 626–29
dual-use space technology, 439, 441–44, 447–48, 453
Dubai, 236
Dulles, John Foster, 382–83
Dunford, Joseph F., Jr., 291
Du Rosier, Bernard, 186
Duterte, Rodrigo, 404
Dyadic Cyber Incident and Dispute Dataset, 408–9, 411
dynamic basing, 316
earmarks, 215, 272
Earth in the Balance, 478
EAS (East Asian Summit), 586
East Asia, 203, 577, 580, 584, 587
East China Sea, 577, 582–86
East Timor, 463
Echavarria, Antulio, 296
economic development programs, 201–2, 204
economic policy, 35, 170, 258
economic sanctions, 160, 362, 375, 377, 619, 643–44, 647–48
economy, 5, 57, 616–17, 621, 629, 631
efficiency, 123
Egypt, 8, 201, 300
18th Street Gang, 628
Eisenhower administration, 26, 61, 70, 102, 105, 114, 126, 155, 280, 383
Eizenstat, Stuart, 12
Ekmektsioglou, Eleni G., 10
elections, 58–59, 70, 84
(p. 654) Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP), 444
Elias, Norbert, 496
Ellis, James O., Jr., 393
embassies, 190–91
emergency supplementals, 270–71
Emerson, Stephen A., 466, 468
employment, 5
encryption, 11, 421–23, 426–34
End of History and the Last Man, The, 463
enduring internal rivalry (EIR), 571
energy security, 4, 43, 51, 99
enhanced interrogation, 59
Enigma encryption machine, 301
Enloe, Cynthia, 509
entitlement programs, 268
environmental insecurity, 12
environmental security, 476–80, 484, 490–91
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 63, 478
Epstein, Susan B., 158, 162
equality, 27
equilibrium, 23
Eritrea, 565
Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF), 512
espionage, 404, 407, 409–10
Estonia, 409, 596–99, 606
Ethiopia, 514, 565
ethnic cleansing, 47
ethnic conflict, 503
Etzioni, Amitai, 11
EU (European Union), 4, 49, 187, 236, 240, 253, 259, 602, 609, 645, 647–48
Evans, Gareth, 459
exceptionalism, 20
exchange rates, 236
executive branch, 64–65, 152–53, 157–59, 269, 274. See also presidents
expeditionary advanced base (EAB), 297, 300
expertise, 552–55
exports, 4, 251
extended deterrence, 384
extractive institutions, 213–14
F-35B aircraft, 297
Facebook, 193, 423
failing states, 200, 460–61, 466–67, 469–70, 483, 529
Fannon, Michael, 600
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia), 200, 512, 622
Farmer, Paul, 499–500
Farook, Syed Rizwan, 424, 428
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 63, 135, 339–40, 342, 344, 410, 421, 424–25, 432–33
F Bureau, 221
Feaver, Peter, 77, 79, 81
federal agencies, 330–31
federalism, 334
federalization, 338, 341
Federighi, Craig, 429
Feed the Future, 211
Feinstein, Dianne, 424–25
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), 328, 339
Fenno, Richard, 167
Ferguson After-Action Assessment, 345
Fettweis, Christopher J., 12
Financial Action Task Force (FATF), 231
financial crisis of 2008, 50, 210, 241, 252–53, 258–59, 269
financial sanctions, 229–46, 251, 258
Finci, Jakob, 504
fire-alarm oversight, 161
FireEye, 406
First Gulf War, 29, 39, 49, 287
FISA (Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act) (1978), 160, 344
Fisher, Louis, 154–56, 160
Fishstein, Paul, 464–66
Fitzwater, Marlin, 69
Flavell, Paula B., 443
fleet train, 317
Flexible Response, 280–81, 383–85
Florida, 22
Flournoy, Michèle, 127, 451
Flynn, Michael T., 108, 113
food aid, 208–9
force planning, 277–89, 298
Ford administration, 26, 103, 529
Foreign Affairs magazine, 50, 307
foreign debt, 251, 257
foreign direct investment (FDI), 255, 624
foreign investment, 5, 202
foreign policy
active engagement, 42
actors, 58f
agencies involved in, 63
and AID, 129
authorization process, 220
budget process, 7
Canada, 463–64
Carter administration, 388
Chief of Mission, 63–64
Chinese, 584
civil servants, 62–63
climate change, 476
conservative internationalism, 26–27
conservative isolationism, 19
cyber security, 411
and democracy, 17–18, 192
development assistance, 215
and the DoD, 83
East Asia policy, 587
exceptionalism, 20
financial sanctions, 229, 239
and foreign aid, 170
human insecurity, 463
internationalism, 17–18
international rivalry, 565
international terrorism, 41–42, 529–30
Iran, 18
Japan, 463
liberal internationalism, 24–26
liberal isolationism, 19
and the media, 68–69
militarization of diplomacy, 129, 167
and national interests, 35–37
nationalism, 20–23, 29
national liberalism, 47
national security strategy, 38
nondemocracies, 18
and the NSC, 10, 112
policymaking, 39–40
post-Cold War, 529
present world order, 295
president’s role, 57, 58t, 59–60, 70, 219, 646–47
pre-World War II, 1
public opinion, 169
Reagan administration, 26
realism, 23–24
Republican spending caps, 65
retrenchment, 42
soft power, 48
threat perception, 544, 552
traditions of, 17–18
Trump administration, 29, 38, 97
21st Century, 6
unpopular wars, 70
U.S. Congress, 64–65, 157, 160, 163
Foreign Service, 10, 64, 190–93
Forrestal, James, 113
forward-deployed, 3, 308
forward operating sites (FOS), 316
forward presence, 312, 314–15
Fourth Amendment, 426–29
Framework Nations, 596–97, 607–8
France, 8, 20, 244, 603–6
freedom, 22, 23, 26–27, 30
Freeman, Chas, 186
free market, 486
free speech, 433
free trade, 21, 23, 621, 624–25
Friedman, Benjamin, 338
Fukuyama, Francis, 463
fungability, 206
fusionist control, 79–80, 86
Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP), 270
Gaddafi, Muammar, 40, 258, 374
Gaddis, John Lewis, 3–4, 26
Galtung, Johan, 499–501, 506
Gamm, Gerald, 165
Gandhi, Mahatma, 500, 502
Gandhi, Rajiv, 518
Ganguly, Sumit, 571
gang warfare, 628
GAO (Government Accountability Office), 343
(p. 656) Gartzke, E., 406
Gates, Robert, 7, 60, 126, 190, 543, 610
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 48, 244
Gauck, Joachim, 607
Gavin, Francis, 549
Gazprom, 238
GDP (gross domestic product), 234–35, 253, 313
Gelb, Leslie, 37, 552
Geneva Conventions, 458, 530
genocide, 37
geoengineering, 489
George, Alexander, 105, 107
Georgia, 409
Germany, 6, 189, 607–10
Gholz, Eugene, 156
Gilpin, Robert, 250
Glenn, John, 647
global commons, 439–40, 444
Global Development Alliance, 224
Global Development Lab, 224
Global Fund, 205
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 204, 208–9, 222–23
Global Health Programs (GHP), 212
globalization, 4–5, 29, 36, 49, 252, 254–56, 259, 459, 581, 622
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, 467
global payment system, 231
global peace, 310
Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), 40
global public goods, 203
Global Strategy on Foreign and Security Policy, 602
Global Trends, 483
global warming. See climate change
Global War on Terror (GWOT), 6, 529–30, 532, 536
Global Zero, 394–95
Goertz, Gary, 570
Golby, James, 81, 83
Goldstein, Joshua S., 511
Goldwater-Nichols Act (1986). See DoD (Department of Defense)
Gompert, David C., 406
good governance, 460
Good Neighbor Policy, 618–19, 621
Google, 423–25
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 28, 189, 390
Gore, Al, 467, 478–79, 487
GPS (Global Positioning System), 439
Graham, Thomas W., 168–69
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Balanced Budget Act, 268
grand strategy, 35–37, 42–44, 45t, 46–50
grant funding, 212, 216, 337–39
Gray, Colin, 382, 485
gray zone approaches, 293
Great Britain, 20, 24, 546, 601
Great Depression, 62
Great Society, 62
Great White Fleet, 24
green activists, 476, 479
green energy, 31
Green Revolution, 207, 223, 225
Grenada, 66
Grenfell Tower, 500
Grossman, Marc, 186, 189–90, 195
Group of Governmental Experts (GGE), 412, 452
groupthink, 101–3, 105
Grumbine, Edward, 485
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, 59–60
Guinea-Bissau, 514
Gulf Cooperation Council, 567
Gulf War, 169, 188, 371, 439
guns and butter, 265–66
Guterres, António, 476
Gvosdev, Nikolas K., 9
hacking attacks, 403–4, 406–7, 409–11, 413
Hadley, Stephen, 116, 124, 127
Haiti earthquake, 195, 203
Hamas, 257, 372
Hamilton, Alexander, 17, 20
Handbook of International Rivalries, 566
Hanson, Peter C., 165
hard power, 535
hardship posts, 193–94
Harrell, Peter, 242
Harris, Jennifer M., 11
Hartz, Louis, 26
(p. 657) Hartzell, Caroline, 571
Hayden, Michael, 60–61
Hayes, Anna, 12
Haynes, Peter D., 298
healthcare, 208, 212
health systems, 203
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) (1996), 210
hedging, 286
hegemony, 3, 23, 45
Helms-Burton Act (1996), 67, 647
Helsinki Final Act (1975), 192
Henkin, Louis, 152
Henshaw, Alexis Leanna, 513, 516
Heritage Foundation, 345
Herrera, Natalia, 512
Herzegovina, 8, 503
Hewitt, Lara, 510
Hezbollah, 257, 367–68, 371–72
high ground school of thought, 446
high-low mix, 298–300
Hinckley, Barbara, 153
Hispanics, 192
Hitchens, Theresa, 452
HIV/AIDS, 203–4, 213, 223, 467–68
Holbrooke, Richard, 112
Hollande government, 603
homegrown violent extremist (HVE), 343
Homeland Security Council (HSC). See Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Homer-Dixon, Thomas, 478, 481
homosexuals, 84
horizontal fragmentation, 334–35
horizontal integration, 340
Hostage Crisis, 366–69
Host Nation Agreements, 321
Howell, William G., 169
Hudson Institute, 217
human development programs, 204, 464–66
Human Development Report, 459–61
human insecurity, 12, 457–63, 466–67, 544, 547, 553–54
humanitarian aid, 40, 64, 82, 206–7, 212–13
human rights, 3, 17–18, 192, 458, 504, 536, 539, 626, 645
human rights abuse, 66
Human Security Now, 461
human security paradigm, 458–64, 469–70
Huntington, Samuel, 78–79, 85–86, 118, 277, 283–84, 288, 362
Huntsman, Jon, 585
Hurricane Katrina, 332, 334, 337
Hurwitz, Roger, 412
Hussein, Saddam, 26, 49, 363, 367, 374, 479
Hutchings, Robert, 185–86
hybrid warfare, 293–94
Hyten, John, 445, 449–50
IC (intelligence community). See intelligence agencies
ICANN, 413
ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile), 387–88, 441
ICE (U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement), 329, 339
IDA (International Development Association), 207–8, 210
identity theory, 584–85
ideology, 17, 534–35
Ikenberry, John, 25, 46–47, 581
illegal immigration, 30
IMF (International Monetary Fund), 202, 210, 244
immediacy bias, 550
immigration, 19, 22, 66, 345, 500, 622, 628, 630–31
“imperial” presidency, 153
important interests, 39
imports, 5
Inconvenient Truth, An, 479
Index of Global Philanthropy and Remittances 2016, The, 217
India, 211, 223, 307, 489, 513, 563, 565, 571, 647
Indian Ocean, 47–48, 203, 308
indirect violence, 499–500
individualism, 462–63
Indo-Asia-Pacific region, 310
inflation, 236, 251
information asymmetries, 405
infrastructure, 330, 406–7, 413
(p. 658) Inhofe, James, 543
Inland Regional Center, 343
inoculation, 238–39
insecurity, 42
institutional presence, 83
Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, 213
insurgency, 7–8, 41, 465, 533
Insurrection Act, 334, 340
intellectual property security, 412
intelligence agencies
advocacy, 142–43
analysis, 138–41
centralization, 136
and Cold War, 144
DCI (Director of Central Intelligence), 135
Deputies Committe (DC), 221
DoD budget, 157
failure Types, 140–41
and financial sanctions, 241
IC (intelligence community), 134–35, 341–42, 483
Intelligence Authorization Act (2004), 136
intelligence briefings, 145
intelligence gathering, 133, 141, 344–45, 391, 515, 537–38, 603
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) (2004), 62–63, 136, 138, 341–42
interagency squabbles, 135
managers for, 144–46
National Security Act (1947), 153
opportunity analysis, 138
oversight, 134
Pearl Harbor, 133
plausible deniability, 138
and policymaking, 137–38, 143–45
politicization of, 141–43, 145
post-9/11, 135–36
post-Cold War, 134
post-Pearl Harbor, 135
post-World War II, 133
professionalism, 144
reforms, 136–41
self-deterrence, 142
staffing, 60–61
technology, 144
turf battles, 63
USA PATRIOT Act (2001), 136
See also individual agencies
Interagency Policy Committee (IPC), 100
interagency process, 97, 99–104, 108, 111–13, 116, 118, 123–27, 135, 211–13, 215, 220–21, 246
interagency rivalry, 214–15, 221, 289
interest groups, 67, 71, 166, 170–71
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), 458
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, 300
internal factors, 163–68
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 374
International Criminal Court, 59
International Finance Corporation, 208
internationalists, 17–18
International Monetary Fund (IMF). See IMF (International Monetary Fund)
international rivalry, 561–72
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), 47–48, 606
international terrorism. See terrorism
Internet, 414–15
interservice rivalries, 170
interstate rivalry, 577–87
interventions, 39, 42, 44, 49
investment, 230, 235, 237, 244, 255, 624
involuntary retirement, 191
Iran
Algiers Accords, 367
bankrolling Hamas and Hezbollah, 257, 292
Central Bank of Iran, 236
economic sanctions, 229–33, 235, 239, 242, 251, 362, 375, 644
financing for Syria, 257
Hostage Crisis, 364–66
Iran and Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA), 372
Iran-Contra scandal, 18
Iranian National Oil Company, 646–47
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), 188, 232–33, 376
Mykonos Incident, 371
negative security assurance, 395
nuclear proliferation, 258
nuclear weapons, 30, 144, 645
(p. 659)
Obama administration, 65
OPM hack, 409–10
Qom earthquake, 203
Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), 644–45
Stuxnet, 404, 407
and U.S. relations, 363–64
Iran-Contra scandal, 69, 103, 112, 366–69
Iraq
budget support for, 209
counterinsurgency (COIN), 31
democracy initiatives post war, 29
ethnic conflict, 504
female suicide bombers, 518
First Gulf War, 29
insurgency, 7
Iran-Contra scandal, 367
Iran-Iraq War, 366, 369–71, 373
Iraq War, 21, 29, 50, 70, 117, 141, 144, 169, 187, 193, 257, 287, 321, 533, 601
Islamic State, 6
Kuwait invasion, 26, 49, 70, 187–88, 294, 371, 648
no-fly zones, 254
U.S. invasion, 530
Iron Triangle, 83
irrigation, 478–79
Ishihara, Shintaro, 583
ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria). See Islamic State (ISIS)
Islamic charities, 257
Islamic fundamentalist ideology, 513
Islamic State (ISIS), 6, 64, 144, 239, 257, 294, 343, 515, 519, 539, 551, 595, 605
isolationism, 17, 19
Israel, 201, 209, 300, 372, 374, 407, 528, 535–36
Istanbul, 499
Jackson, Andrew, 17, 22, 29
Janowitz, Morris, 79–81, 86
Japan, 49, 137, 308, 315, 463, 583–84
Jay Treaty, 20
Jefferson, Thomas, 17–18, 20, 27, 45–46
Jervis, Robert, 381–82, 545, 581
Joffe, Josef, 6, 50
Johnson, Jeh, 339
Johnson, Louis A., 284
Johnson, Lyndon, 26, 70, 103, 620
Johnson-Freese, Joan, 12
Johnston, Alastair, 585
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). See U.S. military
Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), 188, 232–33, 376
Joint Direct Attack Munitions, 286
joint resolutions, 156
Joint STARS, 286
Joint Strike Fighter, 297
joint task forces (JTF), 339
Jones, James L., 9
Jones, Thomas K., 389
Jordan, 239
JTTF (Joint Terrorism Task Forces), 340
judiciary, 66, 71
Judiciary Act (1789), 432
Junio, Timothy J., 406
Justice Department, 63
“just in time” supply, 4
Kagan, Fred, 47
Kagan, Robert, 547
Kahn, Herman, 384
Kahn, Robert B., 11
Kahneman, Daniel, 551
Kaplan, Abraham, 128
Kaplan, Fred, 386
Karine-A incident, 373
Katz-Hyman, Michael, 442
Kehl, Danielle, 423
Kello, Lucas, 405–6
Kemp, Geoffrey, 368
Kennan, George, 23, 43, 118, 127
Kennedy, Paul, 43, 250
Kennedy administration, 26, 100, 102–3, 105, 114, 280–81, 313, 619–20
Kenya, 213
Kerr, Orin, 432
Kerry, John, 18
key escrow, 422–23
Khamanei, Ali, 374–75
Kharazi, Kamal, 373
Khatami, Mohammad, 372
Khomeini, Ruhollah, 364–67, 370–71
Khoo, Nicholas, 12
(p. 660) Khrushchev, Nikita, 549
kidnappings, 200, 367–68, 371
Kim Jong-un, 258
King, Kay, 166, 168
Kirshner, Jonathan, 249, 579–80
Kissinger, Henry, 23, 26, 44, 103, 106, 112, 117–18, 126, 381, 384, 387, 394, 568
Kissinger model, 116, 125–26
Klare, Michael, 485
Klein, James P., 570
Kohl, Helmut, 189
Kohn, Richard, 83–84
Korea, 31, 70, 102, 200, 251, 296
Kosovo, 8, 39, 66, 70, 463, 607
Krasner, Stephen D., 35
Krepon, Michael, 442
Kriner, Douglas L., 169
Kristol, William, 47
Kumaratunga, Chandrika, 518
Kuwait, 26, 49, 70, 187–88, 294, 367, 371, 648
Kyllo v. United States, 427
Kyoto Protocol, 59, 486–87
LaFeber, Walter, 618
Lake, Tony, 104
Lake Turkana, 213
Lancaster Defense Agreement, 606
Lanoue, David, 161
Lansford, Thomas, 10
Larijani, Ali, 373–74
la Rose, Coleen, 519
laser beams, 442
Latin America, 5, 202, 516–18, 578, 617–19, 621–30
Latvia, 597
Lavrov, Sergey, 52
Law of the Sea convention, 163
Layne, Christopher, 46, 579
Leader, Damian, 10
leadership roles, 165–66
lead federal agency (LFA), 340
League of Nations, 18, 24–26, 186
leaking, 69, 123, 126, 131, 344, 403, 424–26, 585
leap ahead technologies, 285
Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, 300
Lebanon, 239, 367, 368, 371
Lee Tenghui, 582
leftists, 528
legislation, 7, 159, 161, 165, 220. See also U.S. Congress
Lenin, Vladimir, 514
Le Pen, Marine, 603
Lewis, James, 433
Li, Rex, 584
liberal internationalism, 17–18, 24–26, 31, 45t, 47
liberal isolationism, 19
liberal nationalism, 21, 23
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), 510, 517, 532
Liberia, 209
Liberman, Nira, 550
libertarianism, 426
Libicki, Martin, 406
Libya, 3, 17, 41, 65, 117, 259, 362, 374, 496
Liddell Hart, B. H., 318
Liff, Adam P., 406
Light Advanced Attack Helicopter (LAAH), 283
Lincoln, Abraham, 22
Lindsay, James M., 153, 159, 405–6
Lippmann, Walter, 37
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), 298
loans, 210
Locke, John, 496
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 24, 25
logistics, 314, 316, 319–22
long-term investment channel, 236–37
Lopez, Thomas Joseph, 484
los Zetas, 627–28
Louisiana Purchase, 27
Louis XIV, 186
LRP (local and regional procurement), 207
Lundberg, Russell, 338
Lupton, David, 445
Mabus, Ray, 298
Macao, 233
Mack, W. R., 161
Mackey, Craig, 424
Macron, Emmanuel, 603
MAD (mutual assured destruction), 386–90, 393
Madagascar, 224
(p. 661) Madison, James, 107
Madrid Peace Conference, 29, 49
magic circle, 143
Mahoney-Norris, Kathleen, 12, 466
Major Theater Wars (MTWs), 285–86
Mali, 8, 40, 224, 606
Malik, Tashfeen, 519–20
mandatory spending, 266t, 267–68, 271
Maness, Ryan C., 11, 407, 408, 571
Manila, 499
manufacturing, 4–6, 254–55, 259
Mao Zedong, 514, 549
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13), 627–28
maritime security, 307, 318
Maritime Strategy, 439–40
Marks, Edward, 167
Marshall Plan, 199–200, 207, 210, 223, 244
Marxism, 192
Maslow’s Hammer, 128
Masood, Khalid, 424
Massive Retaliation, 382–83, 384
Mastanduno, Michael, 249
Master Labor Contracts, 321
Mattis, James, 60–61, 291, 484
Mattox, Gale A., 12
Maull, Hanns, 607
May, Theresa, 600, 601
Mazarr, Michael, 296
Mazurana, Dyan, 516
Mbeki, Thabo, 213
McCain, John, 310
McConnell, Mike, 61
McDonnell, John, 500
McDougall, Walter, 19, 22
McGlen, Nancy E., 511
McKay, Susan, 516
McMaster, H. R., 84–85, 108, 113
McNamara, Robert, 281–82, 386–87
Mead, Walter Russell, 29, 43
Mearsheimer, John, 23, 46, 578–80
Medicaid, 266
Medicare, 6, 266
mergers and acquisitions, 255
Mérida Initiative (MI), 626, 629
Merkel, Angela, 429, 607–8, 610
Mesquita, Carolina Marques de, 510
micromanagement, 115, 118–19, 157
Microsoft, 425
Middle East, 4, 7–8, 42, 49, 239, 403–4, 410, 513–14, 516–17, 563, 567
militarization of diplomacy, 194
militarization of police, 345
militarization of space, 441–44, 446
military coup, 8
military equipment, 320
military force, 35, 37–39, 40–41, 46, 49, 58, 70, 82, 153, 154–58, 165, 278–81, 285–86, 308, 320, 414–15, 496, 510–11, 617, 644. See also individual wars; military power
military operations, 291, 293–96, 298–302
military power
alliances and, 309
China, 50
civil-military relations, 10
COCOMs (combatant commands), 64
Congress’ role in, 65–66
conservative internationalists, 18
defense spending, 253–54
and diplomacy, 18, 186
force planning, 277
forward-deployed, 3
global deployment, 5
“global war on terror,” 6
and human rights, 17
imperial overstretch, 250
joint operations, 11
limits to, 647–48
operational reach, 318
post-Cold War, 6
power projection, 314
remotely piloted vehicles, 40
Russia, 51
SOCOM (Special Operations Command), 64
technology, 4–5, 255–56
threat perception, 544
of the U.S., 42, 57
wealth as foundation, 250
(p. 662) Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), 8, 214, 217, 223–24
Miller, Amanda, 519
Milosevic, Slobodan, 186
minimum risk force, 280–81
mirror-imaging, 139–40
Miscamble, Wilson, 28
Mischief Reef area, 582
missile defenses, 389–90, 395–97
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), 188
mission creep, 336
Mississippi Gulf Coast Alliance, 274–75
Mitterrand, 189
MNNA (major non-NATO allies), 308
modernization, 254, 291
money laundering, 231–32
Monroe Doctrine, 22, 617
Moore, Pauline, 12, 407
Moran, Brendan, 496
Morgenthau, Hans, 37–38, 46
Moscow Olympics, 645
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 135
mujahideen, 645
Mullen, Mike, 5–6, 314
Multi-Domain Battle White Paper, 300
multilateral assistance, 205, 222
Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) (2005), 210
multilateralism, 44, 46–47, 49, 187–88, 230, 244–45
multilateral organizations, 208–9, 214–15
multinational/multilateral forces, 597–98
multiple advocacy, 97–98, 104–5, 108
multipolar system, 579
Munich Security Conference, 607
Murer, Jeffrey Stevenson, 12
Murphy, Richard, 369
Murray, Shoon, 9
Muslims, 66, 344
mutual defense, 309t
mutual gains, 186
Mutual Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA), 321
MV-22 Osprey, 296–97
Myanmar, 497
Mykonos Incident, 371
Nabavi, Bihzad, 366
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 30, 48, 59, 259, 621, 624–25
Nagl, John, 300
Nakatani, Gen, 583
nanotechnology, 250
narcotraffickers, 200
National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX), 136
National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC), 136
National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), 342
national debt, 5
National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), 158, 339, 446
National Economic Council (NEC), 100–101, 104
National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), 134, 135
National Guard, 285, 334, 341
National Intelligence Council (NIC), 483
national interests, 1, 9, 35–41, 45, 51, 200–201, 212, 225, 294. See also grand strategy
nationalism, 17, 19, 20–23, 25, 29–30, 37, 459
national liberalism, 45t, 47–48
National Military Enterprise, 159
National Military Establishment, 99
National Military Strategy, 291, 439–40
National Network of Fusion Centers (NNFC), 342
National Photographic Interpretation Center, 134
National Preparedness Goal, 329
National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), 330
National Reconnaissance Office, 134
National Response Framework, 340
national security
“America First,” 6
balance of power, 153
bilateral relationships, 49
border security, 629–31
budget process, 265, 271
civilian-military power, 63–64
civil-military relations, 171
and climate change, 12, 476–77, 483
(p. 663)
Congressional legislation, 158–60
Congressional powers, 151–54
Congress’ role in, 10, 130–31
cyberspace, 11, 404
defense industry, 253–56
defensive realism, 580
detention centers, 49
development assistance, 199–201
discretionary spending, 2
East Asia policy, 587
and the economy, 5, 616
encryption, 426, 434
female suicide bombers, 519–20
financial sanction, 246
foreign aid,