- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
Space assets have provided the U.S. military a demonstrable edge against adversaries since the 1990–1991 Gulf War. Most space technology is dual-use, meaning it has both civil and military applications; this creates an ambiguity to know whether military applications are intended as offensive or defensive. This chapter examines four schools of thought on how to preserve U.S. space dominance, and what that realistically means, discussed within the context of issues related to dual-use technology, sustaining the space environment, and international law within which the schools have developed. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 celebrated its fifty-year anniversary in 2017, making those legal considerations especially appropriate. Whether further legal, even ‘soft law” approaches to optimizing the U.S. use of space, or whether preparing for what some consider “inevitable” space war should prevail in guiding future U.S. space security policy is the question planners and analysts must address.
Joan Johnson-Freese is a professor in and former Chair of the National Security Affairs Department at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. Prior to coming to Newport in 2002, she was at the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies in Honolulu, Hawaii, the Air War College in Montgomery, Alabama, and the University of Central Florida in Orlando. Her research areas include space security, focusing especially on the Chinese space program, women’s issues, and professional military education. She is the author of ten books and numerous articles, has testified before Congress on space issues on multiple occasions, and is a frequent media consultant. Her latest book is Space Warfare in the 21st Century: Arming the Heavens.
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