- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
Cyber conflict is often called the fifth domain of conflict. As more and more systems, networks, and information become digitized, there is contestation as to the growing nature of the threat and how exactly this domain can be exploited to coerce the enemy for either geopolitical or financial gain. Some argue that the cyber threat is exponentially growing and that offensive dominance reigns, making cyber conflict extremely unstable. Others contest that the threat is overblown and is more socially constructed. In this chapter we take a middle ground and find that much of the cyber conflict and security discourse has gotten it wrong through conjecture and worst- (or best-) case scenarios. We argue that a system of norms must be built upon and preserved to keep cyberspace a domain of relative openness and nonescalation. Arms races and deterrence strategies are not the path forward for a secure, prosperous cyberspace.
Ryan C. Maness is an assistant professor of Cyber Conflict and Security in the Defense Analysis Department of the Naval Postgraduate School. His current research explores cyber strategy and coercive effects and how the tactic fits within overall military pg xvistrategies for various countries. His research is based on the collection of cyber events through quantitative methods and is currently constructing a cyber incidents dataset that will not only encompass state actors, but non-state actors as well. He is coauthor of the forthcoming Cyber Strategy: The Changing Character of Cyber Power and Coercion (Oxford University Press), Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy: Energy, Cyber and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), and Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System (Oxford University Press, 2015). He received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2013.
Brandon Valeriano is the Donald Bren Chair of Armed Politics at the Marine Corps University. He also serves as a senior fellow in cyber security for the Niskanen Center. His three most recent coauthored books are Cyber War versus Cyber Realities, Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy, and Cyber Strategy. His ongoing research explores creating comprehensive cyber conflict data, external threats and video games, biological and psychological examinations of the cyber threat, and repression in cyberspace. He received a PhD from Vanderbilt University.
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