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date: 27 January 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of the modern U.S. intelligence community, with specific reference to the causes and consequences of major reform efforts. Pearl Harbor generated intense pressure to build an intelligence system capable of providing warning of future attacks, culminating in the creation of the modern intelligence community in 1947. Sixty years later, the September 11 attacks led to another round of organizational changes. This chapter describes and evaluates those changes, noting that the jury is still out on basic questions about the relationship between organizational design and intelligence performance. It then turns to contemporary debates over analysis, intelligence-policy relations, and politicization. The conclusion suggests avenues of future research on these issues.

Keywords: intelligence history, reform, reorganization, analysis, intelligence-policy relations, politicization

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