- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter provides a brief overview of the history of the modern U.S. intelligence community, with specific reference to the causes and consequences of major reform efforts. Pearl Harbor generated intense pressure to build an intelligence system capable of providing warning of future attacks, culminating in the creation of the modern intelligence community in 1947. Sixty years later, the September 11 attacks led to another round of organizational changes. This chapter describes and evaluates those changes, noting that the jury is still out on basic questions about the relationship between organizational design and intelligence performance. It then turns to contemporary debates over analysis, intelligence-policy relations, and politicization. The conclusion suggests avenues of future research on these issues.
Joshua Rovner is Associate Professor in the School of International Service at American University. He is the author of Fixing the Facts: Intelligence and the Politics of National Security (Cornell University Press, 2011). Some of his other recent work on intelligence includes “Intelligence in the Twitter Age,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (Summer 2013); “Is Politicization Ever a Good Thing?,” Intelligence and National Security (Spring 2013); and “Does the Internet Need a Hegemon?” with Tyler Moore, Journal of Global Security Studies (Summer 2017).
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