- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter uses the Iran and Russia cases to understand how modern U.S. financial sanctions operate (including how they interact with traditional tools of foreign policy) and how to better incorporate them into the United States’ standing arsenal of foreign policy tools. It does so by considering three broad sets of questions: First, how has the use of financial sanctions evolved over the past fifteen years? Second, what are the main ways in which financial sanctions impose costs on sanctioned countries? Finally, how should U.S. policymakers alter the use of financial sanctions to maximize their impact, sustain their strength, and minimize problematic side effects?
Jennifer M. Harris is a non-resident senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). Prior to joining CFR, she was a member of the policy planning staff at the U.S. Department of State, where she was responsible for global markets, geoeconomic issues, and energy security. In that role, Harris was a lead architect of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton’s economic statecraft agenda. Before joining the State Department, Harris served on the U.S. National Intelligence Council staff, covering a range of economic and financial issues. Harris is coauthor, with Robert D. Blackwill, of War by Other Means: Geoeconomics and Statecraft. A Truman and Rhodes scholar, she holds a BA from Wake Forest University, an MPhil from Oxford University, and a JD from Yale Law School.
Robert B. Kahn is an economic consultant and Adjunct Professorial Lecturer in the School of International Service at American University, with expertise in macroeconomic policy, finance, and crisis resolution. Previously, he was the Steven A. Tananbaum Senior Fellow for International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). He also was a senior strategist with Moore Capital Management, served as a senior adviser in the financial policy department at the World Bank, held staff positions at the International Monetary Fund, was head of the Office of Industrial Nations at the U.S. Treasury and a senior economist at the Council of Economic Advisers and Federal Reserve Board, and held various senior-level positions at Citigroup. He received his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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