- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explains the history and role of diplomacy in advancing U.S. interests. The State Department is discussed as the primary actor in American diplomacy. The rise of multilateral diplomacy in the 20th century is examined along with the continued applicability of bilateral approaches. The State Department’s role in forming and implementing policy, in coordination with other government agencies, is outlined as well as its role in development assistance, consular affairs, and public diplomacy. The increased role of transnational issues, including human rights, religious freedom, arms control, and nonproliferation is outlined. The structure, funding and career paths of Foreign Service officers is examined, and the increasing use of diplomats alongside the U.S. military in combat zones in recent decades. The chapter highlights the limited resources that the United States commits to diplomacy when compared with military activities.
Ambassador John A. Cloud is Professor of National Security Affairs and the William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics at the U.S. Naval War College. Ambassador Cloud is a specialist in European and economic issues who served as U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Lithuania from August 2006 to July 2009. He previously served as the Deputy Chief of Mission at the United States Embassy in Berlin, Germany. Mr. Cloud was Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for International Economic Affairs on the National Security Council staff from 2001-2003. Mr. Cloud was Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Mission to the European Union from 1999 to 2001. From 1996 to 1999, Mr. Cloud served as the Deputy Chief of Mission at the American Embassy in Warsaw, Poland. He had earlier Foreign Service assignments in Germany, Poland, and Mexico. Mr. Cloud received his B.A. from the University of Connecticut in 1975 and his M.A. in International Affairs from George Washington University in 1977.
Damian Leader is a professor of practice in the Program in International Relations at New York University. He was a U.S. Foreign Service officer from 1985 until 2013 and focused largely on European security issues. He served as the deputy in both Russian Affairs and Nordic-Baltic Affairs. His overseas assignments included Deputy Chief of Mission in Lithuania, Chief Arms Control Delegate for the U.S. Mission to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in Vienna, political-military officer in London during the beginning of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, and Chargé d’Affaires at the Embassy of the United States to the Holy See. He was a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office as an exchange officer, and also worked on the efforts to bring negotiated peace to Angola, Burundi, and Mozambique. Leader earned his BA from the University of Notre Dame and his MA and PhD from the University of Toronto. He was a visiting fellow of St. Edmund’s College, Cambridge; has delivered lectures at Columbia University, Cambridge University, and St. Petersburg State University; and was a member of Council on Foreign Relations Task Force on Northeast Europe. He wrote the first volume of the official History of the University of Cambridge and has published articles and reviews on history and diplomacy.
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