- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. National Security
- About the Editors
- Foreword: U.S. National Security for the Twenty-First Century
- Introduction: Shape and Scope of U.S. National Security
- America’s Foreign Policy Traditions
- National Interests and Grand Strategy
- U.S. Foreign Policymaking and National Security
- Civil-Military Relations
- The Presidency and Decision Making
- The National Security Council: Is It Effective, or Is It Broken?
- The National Security Process
- Intelligence and National Security Decision Making
- Congress and National Security
- Diplomacy, the State Department, and National Security
- Development Assistance: Rationale and Applications
- Understanding and Improving U.S. Financial Sanctions
- The Political Economy of Security
- Budgeting for National Security
- Military Force Planning and National Security
- Military Operations and the Defense Department
- Alliances, Military Basing, and Logistics
- Homeland Security
- The United States and Iran: Challenges of Deterrence and Compellence
- U.S. Nuclear Strategy: The Search for Meaning
- International Cyber Conflict and National Security
- Encryption Wars: Who Should Yield?
- Space and National Security
- Human (In)Security
- Climate Change and Environmental Security
- Political Violence
- Women’s Participation in Political Violence
- International Terrorism
- Threats and Dangers in the Twenty-First Century
- International Rivalry and National Security
- Interstate Rivalry in East Asia
- The Transatlantic Security Landscape in Europe
- U.S. National Security in the Western Hemisphere
- Epilogue: Five Lessons for National Security Policymakers
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explains basic concepts used by the executive branch and Congress in requesting and allocating federal budget resources for national security. It provides a context for mandatory and discretionary budgeting and also defines some basic budget terms, such as “budget authority” and “outlays.” The chapter briefly explains the budgeting process, first within the executive branch (e.g., the White House and Departments of Defense and State) and then within the Congress, both the House of Representatives and the Senate. In addition, the chapter highlights some of the trade-offs that the executive branch and Congress must make in allocating federal budget resources to national security.
Rodney Bent held several positions in Washington over the past thirty-five years, including being the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General’s representative, a senior executive adviser in the U.S. Department of State, and an executive adviser at Booz Allen Hamilton. Mr. Bent was the Deputy Chief Executive Officer and acting CEO of the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) from 2006 to 2009. Before the MCC, he was a professional staff member at the House Appropriations Committee, working on international affairs. From 2003 to 2004, he served as the senior adviser to the Iraqi Ministry of Finance and the Iraqi Ministry of Planning for the Coalition Provisional Authority in Baghdad, Iraq. Mr. Bent spent twenty years at the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, where his final position was deputy associate director for the International Affairs Division as a member of the Senior Executive Service. He received an MBA from Cornell University, an MA from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and an AB in History from Cornell University.
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