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date: 27 October 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Capitalism is an absolutely central theme of Max Weber’s work as an economist and sociologist as well as of his political and social commitment. Weber’s investigations in ancient economy, the medieval city, and the political, economic, social, and religious systems of China and India are for a great part an inventory of differences versus the occidental development of modern market-oriented capitalism based on the exploitation of (formally) free labor. The transition from agrarian to industrial capitalism in contemporary Germany is observed by Weber with respect to the political and social problems of the young nation-state. The universal expansion of capitalism is analyzed with respect to its effects on humankind and conduct of life.

Keywords: modern capitalism, ancient capitalism, oriental capitalism, occidental capitalism, agrarian capitalism, industrial capitalism, rational capitalism, irrational capitalism, politically oriented capitalism, market-oriented capitalism

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