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date: 25 February 2021

(p. 513) Index

(p. 513) Index

A
accessible data, 24
achievement behaviors, culture and, 368
ACL study, 133
active engagement, and cognition, 294–295
active gene–environment correlation, 37
Adam, E. K., 461
adaptive aging, and positive psychological well-being, 348
additional decrement determinants, 108
Adler, N., 306
Administrative Database (MIDUS), 25–26
adolescents, health behaviors of, 327
affect
negative (see negative affect (NA))
positive (see positive affect (PA))
and stressors interacting with daily positive experiences, 164
affective chronometry, 356
affective fragility, 344
affective reactivity, 166, 346–347
affective variability, 344
African Americans
adversity and sense of purpose, 450
anger and inflammation in, 419–420
and chronic pain, 447
complementary and alternative medicine use by, 447
and educational attainment–physiological dysregulation relationship, 490
effects of ELAs on, 56
effects of nonnormative parenting, 145
family stress experienced by, 173–185
health disparities between white Americans and (see racial health disparities)
intimate relationships of, 175
marital status and health of, 136
perceived control at work reported by, 102
perceived discrimination, 443, 449, 450, 451
racial health disparities experienced by, 19
surveyed for MIDUS 2, 5
weight-related discrimination for, 279
age
and cognitive performance, 292
and daily positive experiences, 157
and educational attainment–physiological dysregulation relationship, 491
and emotions, 348
and multimorbidity, 225
and social support, 210
age-related differences, in work–health research, 101
age-related positivity effect, 359
aggression, and substance use behaviors, 306
aging
adaptive, 348
and anger, 421
attitudes towards, 92
negative stereotypes about, 88
perceptions of current and future, 90
resilience and successful, 70
subjective age as biopsychosocial marker of, 88
and work, 101
agreeableness, 396
and chronic disease, 324
defined, 306, 319
and health behaviors, 323, 324
interaction of, with other personality traits, 308
and substance use behaviors, 307, 309
Agrigoroaei, S., 57, 291, 293
Albert, M. A., 482
alcohol problems
and conscientiousness, 39, 40, 38–40, 313
genetically informative research on, 9
and work, 105
alcohol use
and family stress, 182, 183, 184
and personality, 323
and personality traits, 309
allostatic load (AL)
associated with ELAs, 50
and cognitive factors, 296
conceptual models for psychosocial resources and, 212
and cumulative stress, 79
and educational attainment, 41–42
educational attainment and, 480
and nonnormative parenting, 148
and perceived discrimination, 449
and positive psychological function, 337
and psychological resources, 13, 207–209
and psychosocial resources, 205–206, 211–212
racial health disparities, 461–462
and social resources, 209–211
Almeida, D. M., 145, 184, 416
(p. 514) altruistic behavior
defining, 192
and major depression, 194–195
and social capital, 192, 193–195
altruistic behaviors, 13, 192–193, 196–197
American Medical Association, 324
Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) study, 133
Americans With Disabilities Act, 283
American Time Use Survey, 120
amputations, lower limb, 251
Amstad, F. T., 117
analysis strategy
for MIDUS data on family stress, 178
for personality–SES interactions, 400–409
Andreyeva, T., 278
anger
and cardiovascular health, 414
and diabetes, 253–254
and educational attainment, 420
and exacerbation hypothesis, 419–421
interventions for management of, 424
Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion (Tavris), 388
anger expression, 18, 379–388
and biological dysregulation, 386–387
and cultural context, 383–386
cultural fit of, 374
future directions for research on, 388
racial differences in acceptability of, 423
vented frustration vs. dominance display, 382–383
in Western populations, 380–381
Anger Expression Inventory, 384
anger privilege, 384
archives, for data, 30–31
ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, 460
Aristotle, 368
arousal levels, of emotion, 374
ASDs (autism spectrum disorders), 149
Asian Americans, cultural fit of emotion for, 371
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 253
autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), 149
autoregressive latent trajectory modeling, 312
averaged recovery to emotional provocations, 357
B
baby boomers, drug use by, 310
Backett-Milburn, K., 120
Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area, 408
Banks, S. R., 416
Barrett, A. E., 89, 92, 101
Bates, T. C., 296
Beck, A. N., 459
behavior(s)
association of personality and, 312
unhealthy, associated with ELAs, 51
behavioral factors
as cause of allostatic load, 206
for psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 207
behavioral pathways
cultural differences in, 372–374
related to subjective age, 93
behavioral processes, and positive health, 338–339
behavioral protective factors, for cognitive functioning, 293
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 275, 276
Ben-Ezra, M., 91
benign neglect pathway, 115, 120
Berglund, G., 483
Bernard, Jessie, 135
Betula Project, 290
Bianchi, S. M., 120
Bierman, A., 130, 450
Big Five personality traits, 396, 397, 398, 408
described, 306
MIDI as measure of, 309
stability in, 307
and substance use behaviors, 310
binge drinking, 80
biobehavioral pathways, 414–415
biological dysregulation, 386–387
biological health risk (BHR)
and anger expression, 387
anger expression and, 387
educational attainment and, 480
biological pathways, 434–435
biological processes, and positive health, 337–338
biomarkers, in AL indices, 205–206
biomedical model, 222–223
biometrical moderation, 39, 40, 38–40
Björntorp, P., 435
Black Report (Black), 397
blindness, 251
Block, J. P., 79
blood pressure
educational disparities, 483
racial disparities, 459–460
and socioeconomic status, 423
and strain pathway, 119
Bodner, E., 91
body mass index (BMI), 254, 263, 266
discrimination and, 278
and positive emotion, 374
and positive psychological functioning, 339
psychological well-being and, 280–281
racial health disparities, 460
and sexual relations, 280
social relationship quality and, 279–280
body weight, 15, 275–283
and bone health, 241
and bone mineral density, 243
and cumulative stress, 79
future directions for research on, 281–282
institutional and interpersonal discrimination due to, 277–279
and life satisfaction, 339
and psychological well-being, 280–281
psychosocial consequences of, 277
and SES, 65
social and intimate relationships and, 279–280 (p. 515)
in United States, 276
and work characteristics, 105
Boehm, J. K., 348, 416
Bogg, T., 319, 323
Boiché, J., 295
bone health, 14, 237–245
bone size and bone turnover in, 239–240
future directions for research on, 245
life history and, 239
physiological dysregulation in, 244
and psychosocial factors, 238
psychosocial life histories and, 240–242
and psychosocial well-being, 242–244
social relationship histories and, 242
bone metabolic balance indices, 240
bone mineral density (BMD)
and intimate relationships, 137
and mental health, 243
and socioeconomic status, 238, 241
bone resorption, 240
bone size, 239–240
bone strength
and glucose dysregulation, 244
structural strength, 239
bone turnover
in bone health, 239–240
and socioeconomic status, 241
Bookwala, J., 137, 281
Boston cognitive battery, 292
Boston Longitudinal Study (BOLOS), 290, 291, 293
Bourassa, K. J., 135
Boyer, J., 281
Boylan, J. M., 419, 421, 437
breathers, positive emotions as, 156
BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 275, 276
Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT), 290–291
cognition and nonnormative parenting, 146
for cognitive function and multimorbidity, 229
Broffman, J. I., 203
Bromberger, J. T., 467
Brownell, K. D., 278, 279
Brummett, B. H., 482
buffering hypothesis, 179, 180, 180–182
Burgard, S. A., 105
Buring, J., 482
Burns, J. W., 380
Butler, A. B., 114
C
Cacioppo, J. T., 461
CAM (complementary and alternative medicine), 447–448
Canada, B., 90, 295
cancer
associated with ELAs, 50
and cumulative stress, 80
and personality, 325
CAR (cortisol awakening response), 434
cardiac vagal control, 297
CARDIA study, 53
cardiometabolic risk
and positive psychological functioning, 334
racial disparities, 466
and social inequalities, 421
cardiovascular health
and anger, 414
and anger expression, 381, 386
and educational attainment–physiological dysregulation relationship, 491–493
and marital status for women, 136
and perceived discrimination, 449
racial disparities, 459
and subjective age, 91
carotenoids, 337, 339
Carr, D., 278, 279, 280
Carr, D. S., 279, 280
catecholamines, 461
causal inference, of ELAs, 70
chains-of-risk life course model, 64
Chan, D., 345
Chang, Y.-F., 467
Chapman, B., 212
Chapman, B. P., 416
Charles, S. T., 184, 349
Chatters, L. M., 447
CHD (coronary heart disease), 324
Chen, D.-G. D., 294
Chen, E., 54, 57
Chen, Y., 416
Chibnall, J. T., 380
childbearing, age at, 69
and nonnormative parenting, 145
and work–family trade-offs, 121
childhood
personality and dispositions in, 318
SES adversity during, and cognitive functioning, 299
childhood abuse
gender differences in effects of, 66
gender differences in exposure to, 68, 66–67
parental relationships to buffer effects of, 53
children
health behaviors of, 327
nurturant parenting and metabolic risk in low SES children, 434
Chiriboga, D. A., 450
Choi, B., 102
Cholesky triangular decomposition model, 267
cholesterol, 338, 339
chronic disease
associated with ELAs, 50
development of, 318
early mortality due to, 317
and personality, 16, 324–325, 322
chronic pain, and anger/hostility, 380
chronic stress
and daily positive experiences, 156
due to nonnormative parenting, 143
interactions between day-to-day and, 80
chronological age, subjective age vs., 87, 93
circadian disruption, by night shift work, 103
clinical end points, 435
code books, 31, 32
Coe, C. L., 147, 417, 419
cognition, 15, 289–300
and active engagement, 294–295
antecedents of cognitive aging, 292 (p. 516)
Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone, 291
and cognitive aging, 290
everyday cognition, 297–298
future directions for research on, 299–300
and nonnormative parenting, 146
and perceived control, 294
and personality, 295–296
and physical health, 296
self-assessments of, 291
sociodemographic factors affecting, 292–293
and stressful life experiences, 296
and stress processes, 296–297
and subjective age, 90, 92, 298
cognitive aging
antecedents of, 292
course of, 290
mechanisms of, 299
cognitive function
and chronic disease, 325
and multimorbidity, 229–230
cognitive social capital, 192, 195–196
cohabitation, with intimate partners, 133–134
Cohen, L., 347
Cohen, S., 380, 482
collection, of large sample data over time, 25
Colvin, C., 347
comfort foods, 252
communicable diseases, early mortality due to, 317
communication, with study participants, 26
compensatory-cumulative model, 409
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 447–448
conceptual model, of gender differences, 67, 66
conscientiousness, 311, 396, 409
and alcohol problems, 9, 39, 40, 38–40, 313
and all-cause mortality, 325
and chronic disease, 324
and cigarette smoking, 309
defined, 306, 319
and disease, 326–327
and emotional responding, 360
and health behaviors, 310, 323
interaction of, with other personality traits, 308
interaction of neuroticism and, 311
meta-analysis of, 319–320
as psychosocial resource, 204
and substance use behaviors, 306, 307, 309
Consedine, N. S., 381
conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), 42–43
constant effect determinants, 108
constructive verbal behavior of anger, 388
control, perceived, 294
control-related resources, 204
and allostatic load, 207, 208
and multimorbidity, 228
coping strategies, poor health behaviors as, 181
Cornman, J. C., 484
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, 53, 65
coronary heart disease (CHD), 324
corrugator muscle activity, 357, 361
cortisol and cortisol levels
and bone health, 244
and daily positive experiences, 166
and emotional responding, 362
and intimate relationships, 138
and intraindividual affective variability, 346
and nonnormative parenting, 147, 148, 146–147
and perceived discrimination, 451
and positive psychological functioning, 337
racial health disparities, 461
and SES–health connection, 434–435, 436, 437, 438–439
and work–family conflict, 118
cortisol awakening response (CAR), 434
cortisol slope
and perceived discrimination, 451
and SES–health connection, 434–435
co-twin control, 40–42
counterfactual reasoning, 37
C-reactive protein (CRP)
and anger/hostility, 380
and stress buffering, 337
Crimmins, E., 481, 483
Crimmins, E. M., 137
crisis model, 130
critical period model, 64
cultural differences
in emotion and self-construal, 368–369
in health effects of anger expression, 381
in personality and health behaviors, 325
in psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 208
and subjective age, 88
in work–family interactions, 118
cultural fit hypothesis, 374
culture, 17, 367–376
and anger expression, 18, 383, 383–387
cultural differences in emotion and self-construal, 368–369
cultural differences in psychosocial and behavioral pathways, 372–374
cultural fit of emotion, 369–372
and ELAs, 56
future directions for research on, 374–375
well-being and glucoregulation, 421
Cummings, J. L., 459
cumulative psychological histories
and bone health, 14
for bone health, 239
cumulative SES adversity, and cognitive functioning in adulthood, 299
cumulative stress, 10, 75–82
approaches to study of, 76–77
due to nonnormative parenting, 144
future directions for research on, 81–82
genetic contribution to health outcomes of, 81
and health research in MIDUS, 77–80
interactions between day-to-day and chronic stress, 80–80
at multiple points in life course, 81
Curhan, K. B., 371
Currie, J., 500
Curtis, D. S., 467
Cutler, D. M., 500 (p. 517)
D
daily diary protocol (MIDUS), 160–161, 161–162
daily family stress model, 175, 176
daily family stressors, 175
Daily Inventory of Stressful Experiences (DISE), 80, 168–169
daily positive experiences, 12, 155–169
and affective reactivity, 166
age, social disadvantage, and, 157
and biological health outcomes, 157–158
and cortisol, 166
in daily diary protocol of MIDUS, 161–162
demographic patterns in, 162, 165
early research and theoretical perspectives on, 156
frequency of, 162
future directions for research on, 167
and health outcomes, 159
and improved health behaviors, 158
and inflammation, 164
integrative pathways linking health and, 160, 159–160
MIDUS methods and concepts in study of, 160–161
in National Study of Daily Experiences, 168–169
stress-buffering effects of, 158
stressors and affect interacting with, 164
types of, 162
daily stressors
affective reactivity to, 346–347
assessments of, 176
dampening, 346
Data Documentation Initiative (DDI), 32–33
data management, 7, 23–33
complexity and popularity of MIDUS, 24–25
digital data stewardship, 24
future directions for research on, 33
MIDUS data and metadata, 31–33
multidisciplinary, multisite data, 25–27
user-friendly documentation and data, 27–31
datasets
benefits of metadata to, 31–32
digital, 32
Davis, M. C., 347
day-to-day stress
interactions between chronic and, 80
of nonnormative parenting, 145
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), 373
dementia, and personality, 324
demographic factors
and daily positive experiences, 162, 165
in ELAs, 56
for family stress, 177
and subjective age, 88
depression
and diabetes, 253
and stress, 81
and subjective age, 89
depressive symptoms
and emotional responding, 361, 362
following marital loss, 133
and inflammation, 419
and positive affective reactivity, 159
related to nonnormative parenting, 145
DeSantis, A. S., 461
deteriorative biological processes
defined, 336
and positive psychological function, 337
developmental disabilities, prevalence of, 144
Deverts, D. J., 482
DHEA-S (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), 373
diabetes, 14, 251–257
and anger, 253–254
and depression, 253
family history as risk factor for, 255–256
future directions for research on, 257
and neuroticism, 255
and obesity, 252–253
and perceived weight discrimination, 254
and positive psychological functioning, 334–335
as public health epidemic, 251
racial health disparities, 460
SES and management of, 503
SES and race as risk factors for, 256–257
Diabetes Prevention Program, 252
dialecticism, culture and, 368
Diener, E., 343, 347
diet, and personality, 323
differential vulnerability hypothesis, 66
digital data stewardship, 24
direct effects model, 179
disabilities, parents of children with. See nonnormative parenting
disability
defining, 225
and multimorbidity, 225, 229
disablement process model, 223
disabling hypothesis/framework, 503
discrimination
due to body weight, 277–279
perceived (see perceived discrimination)
racial health disparities, 468
and racial health disparities, 463
discriminatory experiences
and health outcomes, 174
and job control, 102
and older subjective age, 88
DISE (Daily Inventory of Stressful Experiences), 80, 168–169
disease
pathways from personality to health and, 326–327
and personality development, 328
Dishman, R. K., 326
disposition, childhood, 318
dispositional affect, income and, 343
divorce, and nonnormative parenting, 149, 150
dizygotic (DZ) twins, 267
documentation
in Data Documentation Initiative, 33
of data management, 30
providing, for MIDUS projects, 28–29
Dolbier, C., 204
dominance displays of anger
in Eastern cultures, 384
health effects of, 386–387
vented frustration vs., 382–383
Donoho, C. J., 137
Dooley, D., 104, 108
(p. 518) Dornbusch, S. M., 277
double-jeopardy hypothesis, 180–182
Dow, W. H., 483, 490
Doyle, D. M., 449
Duckro, P. N., 380
Dunkel Schetter, C., 204
Duque, V., 500
E
early life adversity (ELA), 9, 52, 49–57
and adult stress, 81
background literature on, 50
demographic and genetic factors in, 56
future directions for research on, 55–56
and gender, 63–71
gender differences and vulnerability to, 64
gender differences in effects of, 63–64
in genetically informative research, 37
individual psychological traits as moderators of, 54–55
longitudinal assessments of people who experienced, 57
multiple psychosocial buffers for, 57
prevalence of, 63
psychological resources related to, 51
and racial health disparities, 466–468
social relationships as moderators of, 51–54
East Asian cultures
cultural fit of emotion in, 370, 371
emotional patterns and health in Western vs., 367
relationship of self and others in, 368
self-construal and emotion in, 368–369
Eastern cultures
anger expression in, 384
health effects of anger expression in, 386–387
EBR (eye-blink rate), 356–357
ecological momentary assessment (EMA), 185
EDS (Everyday Discrimination Scale), 446
educational attainment, 20, 479–495
and allostatic load, 41–42
analytical strategy for study of, 485
and anger, 419, 420
and cognitive performance, 293
future directions for research on, 494–495
and hardships in Great Recession of 2007-2009, 506
and health consequences of Great Recession, 500
and inflammation, 224, 417, 418
international data on, 484
and life satisfaction, 227
measures used in study of, 485
and mortality, 55
and physiological dysregulation, 487–493
prior analyses of biological risk and, 481–484
racial health disparities, 469
and racial health disparities, 464
and stressors, 416
and work characteristics, 104
Eibach, R. P., 92
Elgion, 2016, 384
Elgion, J., 382
Ellemer, N., 123
Elliot, A., 212
emotion
cultural differences in, 368–369
cultural fit of, 369–372
in Eastern and Western cultures, 17
emotional provocations, 357–358
emotional recovery
personality and, 360
purpose in life and, 361
emotional responding, 17, 355–363
aging and positivity effect, 359
experimental protocol design for, 358–359
to family stress, 179
future directions for research on, 363
and intimate relationships, 138
long-term marital strain and prolonged positive emotion, 361
in MIDUS Neuroscience Project, 356
neural mechanisms underlying positive emotional styles, 362
personality and differences in, 360
psychological measures of, 356–357
purposeful life engagement and emotion regulation, 360–361
reactivity, recovery, and change in, 357–358
and subjective aging, 93
emotional support
and allostatic load, 209, 210
as buffer for effects of ELAs, 53
emotion regulation
and aging, 421
and purposeful life engagement, 360–361
and socioeconomic status, 415
employment continuum construct, 104
endothelial dysfunction, 449
enduring self-concept, 265
engagement, active, 294–295
Engstrom, G., 483
enhancement pathway
future research on, 123–123
and work–family interactions, 115, 119–120
in work–family interactions, 11
environmental factors
and racial health disparities, 464
related to subjective age, 88–89
environmental variation, and genetically informative research, 36–37
episodic memory, 293, 294, 296
Ernerudh, J., 380
E-selectin, 449
Ettner, S. L., 104, 107
eudaimonic well-being, 224, 228, 335
and emotional responding, 362
and hedonic well-being, 422
and longevity, 340
and mitigation hypothesis, 417, 418
European Americans
cultural fit of emotion for, 371
effects of ELAs on, 56
health disparities between African Americans and (see racial health disparities)
Everson-Rose, S. A., 460
everyday cognition, 297–298
Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), 446
exacerbation, 346
exacerbation hypothesis
defining, 413
executive functioning
and multimorbidity, 230
and physical health, 296
and stress response, 297
expressed emotion, and culture, 369, 371
Extensible Markup Language (XML), 32
extraversion, 396
and chronic disease, 324, 325
and cognition, 295
defined, 306, 319
and health behaviors, 323
as psychosocial resource, 204
and subjective age, 90
and substance use behaviors, 307, 307, 309
eye-blink rate (EBR), 356–357
F
facial electromyography, 356, 357
FAIR guiding principles, 24
family
changing concepts of, 124
defining, 114
family environment
and bone health, 242
and health-related lifestyles, 65
as moderator of ELAs, 51–53
family history, of diabetes, 255–256
family networks, of African Americans, 175
family relationships, and body weight, 279, 280
family stress, 12, 173–185
daily family stress model, 176
future directions for research on, 184–185
race, health behaviors, and, 180–182
race, psychological stressors, and, 174
race and daily family stress model, 175
race and family support exchanges, 179–180
racial differences in exposure and reactivity to, 178–179
and racial disparities in health, 173–174
studies on race and, 176–178
and work–family conflict, 118
and work stressors, 118
family support exchanges
assessments of, 177
and race, 179–180
“family workday,” 115
Fazio, E. M., 130
Felitti, V. J., 63
Ferraro, K. F., 53
fight or flight reaction, 252
file-naming conventions, for MIDUS, 28–29
file types, for MIDUS, 27–28
Finan, P. A., 347
Finch, B. K., 459
findable data, 24
five-factor model (FFM)
meta-analyses of health outcomes and traits from, 320
personality dimensions in, 319
and psychosocial resources, 204
and subjective age, 90
Flynn effect, 299
Folkman, S., 156
Ford, M. T., 105, 106
fragile positive affect, 344, 347
fragile X syndrome (FXS), nonnormative parenting of children with, 149
fragility fractures, 237
frailty, cognitive functioning and, 297
Freese, J., 503
Friedman, E., 294
Friedman, E. M., 184, 417, 449, 452, 482
Friedman, H. S., 320, 325, 326, 347
Friedman, Howard, 311
Friedman, M., 278, 279, 280, 414
Frone, M. R., 122
frustration, vented. See vented frustration
frustration–aggression hypothesis, 382
Fuller-Rowell, T. E., 432, 461, 467
functional health, and subjective age, 89, 91
functional impairment
and disability, 229
and multimorbidity, 222
fundamental cause theory, 101, 102
Fung, H. H., 345, 369
future orientation, and allostatic load, 208
future research
on bone health, 245
on cumulative stress, 81–82
on daily positive experiences, 167
on data management, 33
and educational attainment–physiological dysregulation relationship, 494
on ELAs, 55–56
on family stress, 184–185
on gender differences, 70
on genetically informative research, 42
on intimate relationships, 138–139
on MIDUS data, 20
on multimorbidity, 230–232
on nonnormative parenting, 149–152
on perceived discrimination, 450–452
on racial health disparities, 468–469
on SES–health connection, 439–440
on social capital, 197
on social inequalities, 422–424
on subjective age, 93–94
on work–family interactions, 122–124
on work–health research, 107–110
FXS (fragile X syndrome, nonnormative parenting of children with, 149
G
Galen, 379
Garfinkel, I., 500
gender differences, 9, 63–71
in benefits of intimate relationships, 135–136
in body weight-related outcomes, 279, 281
in bone health, 242
in effects of altruistic behavior toward children, 197
in effects of childhood SES on physical activity, 67–68
empirical evidence on, 65–66
and exposure to ELAs, 63–64
in exposure to severe childhood abuse, 68, 66–67
future directions for research on, 70
in history of employment participation, 114, 115 (p. 520)
intervening processes in, 64–65
linking childhood SES and heart disease, 69, 68–69
in nonnormative parenting, 150
in psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 210
and vulnerability to ELAs, 64
and weight identity, 271
in work–family interactions, 121
in work–health research, 102
gender-specific pathways, 68–69
gender wage gap, 121
gene × environment interactions, 38–40. See also biometrical moderation
gene expression project (of MIDUS), 6
generalized anxiety disorder
and altruistic behavior, 194
and altruistic behavior toward children, 196, 197
generalized unsafety theory of stress (GUTS), 206
genetically informative research, 9, 35–44
biometrical moderation, 39, 40, 38–40
co-twin control, 40–42
on ELAs, 56
future directions for, 42
future directions for research on, 42
twin research, 36–38
on work–family interactions, 123
genetic contribution
to health outcomes of cumulative stress, 81
to weight identity, 271
genetic factors
in ELAs, 56
and racial/ethnic health differences, 444
genetic variation, and genetically informative research, 36–37
genome-wide association study (GWAS), 42
Geronimus, A. T., 461
Glei, D. A., 483, 484
glucoregulation
indicators of, in MIDUS studies, 14
and well-being, 421
glucose dysregulation, and bone strength, 244
glucose metabolism, and cognitive functioning, 296
glycemic control, and perceived weight discrimination, 281
glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 449
Glynn, R. J., 482
Goffman, Erving, 277
Goldman, N., 483
Goodman, N., 277
Graham, E. K., 295
Grant, A. M., 343
Great Recession of 2007-2009, 20, 499–509
biopsychosocial integration related to, 508
comparisons of pre- and postrecession America, 504–505
“disabling” of psychological resources during, 503
longitudinal assessments of health and, 509
and nonnormative parenting, 151
protective vs. disabled psychological resources, 505–507
psychological resources to cope with, 501–502
recession hardship, inequality, and health vulnerability, 500
and stress pathway, 501
studied in MIDUS Refresher sample, 6
Greenberg, J. S., 145, 147
Grollman, E. A., 452
Gruber, J., 345
Gruenewald, T. L., 449, 481, 482
Grundy, E., 310
Grzywacz, J. G., 80, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 114, 116, 145, 146
Günes, P. M., 107
Gunthert, K., 347
H
Ha, J.-H., 145, 146
Haan, M. N., 460
HAES (Health At Every Size) movement, 282
Hagger, M., 345
Hakulinen, C., 323
Halpern, D. F., 113
Hamdi, N., 41
Hamer, M., 419
Hamil-Luker, J., 65
Hampson, S. E., 311
happiness, and positive health, 333
Hardy, J., 346
harmonization, in Data Documentation Initiative, 33
Hartley, S. L., 149
Hastorf, A. H., 277
Hauser, R. M., 102
Hawkley, L. C., 461
health
defining, 114
in MIDUS, 344
pathways from personality to disease and, 326–327
positive (see positive health)
systematic review of personality and, 319–320
as work asset, 107
Health and Retirement Study (HRS)
marital status and health in, 135
subjective age in, 89, 90, 92
Health At Every Size (HAES) movement, 282
health behavior
and chronic disease, 318
of people in midlife, 340
and personality, 309, 321
health behavior model of personality (HBM), 308, 310–311
health behaviors
daily positive experiences and improved, 158
family stress, race, and, 180–182
measures of, 178
and optimism, 339
and personality, 323–324, 326–327
and positive affect, 343
racial health disparities, 469
in research on psychosocial resources, 214
and socioeconomic status, 414
and subjective age, 93
and work–family conflict, 118
health factors, and subjective age, 89
health identity, 263, 264
health inequalities, in work–health research, 101
health outcomes
of cumulative stress, 81 (p. 521)
and daily positive experiences, 157–158, 159
related to work, 109
related to work–family conflict, 117
SES and, 435
subjective age as predictor for, 90
and work–family interactions, 123
health policy, 409
health-related biology, 19, 431–440
biological pathways, 434–435
future directions for research on, 439–440
and health outcomes, 435
and HPA axis, 437–439
prior research on, 432–433
psychological pathways, 433
socioeconomic gradient bow-tie model, 436–437
healthy neuroticism, 311, 325
Healthy People 2020, 457
heart disease
and childhood SES, 68–69
and diabetes, 251
heart rate reactivity, and cognitive functioning, 297
Hedblad, B., 483
hedonic well-being, 224, 228, 335
and eudaimonic well-being, 422
and longevity, 340
and metabolic syndrome, 421
and mitigation hypothesis, 417, 418
Herd, P., 482
heritability
of allostatic load, 206
of psychosocial resources, 206
studying, with twin studies, 36
of weight identity, 271
heritability estimates, 265
heterogeneity
meta-analyses for study of, 319
in meta-analyses of personality, 325
of positive affect, 344
HF-HRV (high-frequency heart rate variability), 137
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, optimism and, 338, 339
higher order marriage, 134
high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), 137
Hispanic Americans, perceived discrimination, 444
Hoffman, Y., 91
Hong, J., 145, 147
Hong, R. Y., 308
hope, as psychosocial resource, 204
Horace, 379
hospitalization, subjective age as predictor for, 91
hostility, 396
and health, 380–381
and substance use behaviors, 306
Hostinar, C. E., 81
Howard, J. T., 482
HTN (hypertension), racial disparities in, 459–460
Hu, P., 481
Huang, W., 500
Hughes, D. L., 174
Hughes, M. E., 134
Hughes, M. L., 89, 90, 298
Human, L. J., 345
Hummer, R. A., 459
humoral theory, 379
Hunte, H. E. R., 450
hypertension (HTN), racial disparities in, 459–460
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis
and fight or flight reaction, 252
functioning of, 346
and nonnormative parenting, 146–147
and SES–health connection, 434, 437–439
and work–family conflict, 118
Hyun-ah, Cho, 382
I
IL-6. See interleukin 6
illicit drug use, and personality, 310. See also substance use and personality
immune system functioning
and daily positive experiences, 157
and intimate relationships, 137
income, 408
and dispositional affect, 343
and racial health disparities, 464
independent self, 368, 384
indirect selection hypothesis, 397
inflammation
and anger, 419–420
and anger expression, 380, 386
associated with ELAs, 50
and conscientiousness, 204
and daily positive experiences, 157, 164
and depressive symptoms, 419
and disability, 229
and educational attainment, 418, 417
and multimorbidity, 223
and optimism, 208
and perceived discrimination, 449
racial health disparities, 461
and SES–health connection, 437
and social relationships, 223
and socioeconomic status, 224
and stress, 81
injustice, and anger, 382
Institute of Medicine, 134, 289
institutional discrimination, and body weight, 277–279
integrative health science
necessity of, 3
positive affect research in, 347
intelligent searches, in Data Documentation Initiative, 33
interdependent self, 368, 384
interleukin 6 (IL-6)
and anger expression, 380, 387
and depressive symptoms, 419
and educational attainment, 417, 418
and negative affect, 387
and negative emotion, 371
and stress buffering, 337
International Affective Picture System, 358
interoperable data, 24
interpersonal discrimination, due to body weight, 277
interrole conflict, work and family responsibilities as, 116
interventions
for anger management, 424
informed by well-being research, 423
(p. 522) intimate relationships, 11, 129–139
and allostatic load, 210
and body weight, 279–280
and bone health, 242
future directions for research on, 138–139
gender comparisons of benefits of, 135–136
and health, 131–133
heterogeneity in, 133–134
integrative science approaches to research on, 137–138
life course comparisons of benefits of, 136–137
marital quality, 134–135
race comparisons of benefits of, 136
social causation perspectives on, 130–131
social selection perspectives on, 131
intraindividual affect variability, 345–346
intraindividual standard deviation (iSD), 345
introversion, 306
J
Jackson, P. B., 459
Jaconelli, A., 90
Jaffe, K., 279
Jahoda, M., 100
Jang, Y., 450
Janzon, L., 483
Japanese culture, 368, 371
Javaras, K. N., 360
Jdanov, D., 483
Jin, J., 106
job characteristics, in work–health research, 104–105
job demands–control (JDC) model, 100, 108
job insecurity, 105
K
Kalra, P., 482
Kang, S., 131
Kaplan, G. A., 460
Karlamangla, A., 481, 482
Karlamangla, A. S., 184
Kashdan, T. B., 422
Kern, M. L., 320, 325, 326
Kessler, R. C., 446, 452
Keyes, C. L., 174
Keyes, C. L. M., 107, 110, 450
kidney failure, 251
Kim, J., 459
Kirsch, J. A., 505
Kitayama, S., 374, 387
Kivimäki, M., 102
Knutson, B., 369
Kogan, A., 345
Korean Airlines, 382
Kornadt, A. E., 90
Koster, A., 482
Kotter-Grühn, D., 89
Kristenson, M., 380
Krueger, R. F., 39, 41, 313
Kubzansky, L. D., 348, 416
Kudielka, B. M., 461
L
labor force participation, 115
Lachman, M., 299
Lachman, M. E., 57, 89, 291, 293, 294, 295
lagged effects, of family stress, 183
Lapate, R. C., 138
latent deprivation model, 100
Lazarus, R. S., 156
Lazzarino, A. I., 419
Leanderson, P., 380
Lee, B., 120
Lee, P. L., 292, 294
Lee, Y., 382
Levine, C. S., 373
Lewis, G. J., 296
Lewis, T. T., 419, 447
Li, A., 119
Li, W.-D., 106, 109, 123
Liao, C. C., 192
life course history
and bone health, 239
and gender differences, 70
life course model of personality, 313
life course pathway model, 64–65, 70
life course perspective
on health, 63
multimorbidity in, 232
life course theory
and benefits of intimate relationships, 136–137
and work, 108
life engagement, purposeful, 360–361
life expectancy, 481
educational attainment and, 481
and multimorbidity, 221
racial disparities in, 459
life satisfaction
and body weight, 339
and educational attainment, 227
and SES–health connection, 438
and subjective age, 92
Lin, F., 294
Lin, S.-F., 459
lingering, of effects of positive events, 161
Link, B. G., 102
lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 381
Lleras-Muney, A., 500
locus of control, health-related attributions for, 318
longevity
and positive psychological functioning, 334–336
and well-being, 340
longitudinal assessments
of cognition, 290
of marital status and health, 132–133
of people who experienced ELAs, 57
of positive affect, 349
of psychological risk and resilience factors, 422
longitudinal sample maintenance, 26–27
long-term marital strain, and prolonged positive emotion, 361
lower limb amputations, 251
low-trauma fractures, 237
LPS (lipopolysaccharide), 381
Lucas, R. E., 343
Lutfey, K., 503
M
Mailick, M. R., 147
maintenance
of large sample data over time, 25
of longitudinal samples, 26–27
major depression
and altruistic behavior, 194–195
and altruistic behavior toward children, 196, 197
Major Experiences of Discrimination Scale, 444
Manly, J. J., 299
Manuck, S. B., 380
(p. 523) Mapstone, M., 294
MAR (missing at random), 400
marital quality, 134–135
marital resource model, 130
marital trajectories, 133
Marks, N. F., 102, 105, 131
Marks, S. R., 119
Marmot, M., 102
Marsland, A. L., 380
Masters, R. K., 459
mastery
and allostatic load, 207
as psychosocial resource, 204
Matthews, K., 306
Matthews, K. A., 482
Matthews, K. A., 467
Maty, S. C., 460
Mauss, I. B., 345
McEwen, B. S., 480
meaning, infusing ordinary events with, 156
mediation model of anger expression, 385, 388
Medicaid, 409
memory
and multimorbidity, 230
self-assessments and performance of, 291
and SOC strategies, 298
and subjective aging, 92
mental health
and affective reactivity, 346
and bone fractures, 243
and bone mineral density, 243
and intraindividual affective variability, 345–346
and marital status, 132
and nonnormative parenting, 145–146
racial disparities in, 174
and subjective age, 89, 91
and work, 107
and work–family enrichment, 119
Merkin, S. S., 482
Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., 117
meta-analyses
characteristics and use of, 319
of personality, 325–326
metabolic equivalents minutes per week (MMW), 67–68
metabolic syndrome
and anger, 421
associated with ELAs, 50, 52
and hostility, 381
and positive psychological functioning, 334
and well-being, 421
metadata
benefits of, to datasets, 31–32
in Data Documentation Initiative, 33
definition and types of, 31
metaregression, 319
Meyer, J. D., 102
microaggressions, negative health effects from, 174
Midei, A. J., 467
Midlife Development Inventory (MIDI), 309, 398
Midlife in Japan (MIDJA) study
anger expression in, 384
cultural fit of emotion in, 371
ELAs studied in, 56
MIDUS compared to, 17
well-being and glucoregulation in, 421
Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) studies, 5, 8, 4–7
body weight in, 276, 277, 278, 281
chronological and subjective age in, 88
cognition in, 298
complexity and popularity of, 24–25
cumulative stress in, 77–80
daily family stress in, 176–178
daily positive experiences in, 160–161
data management challenges of, 23–33
depression in, 253
ELAs studied in, 56
findings on Great Recession hardships, inequality, and health, 503–505
genetically informative research in, 36
health in, 344
measurements of acute and chronic discrimination, 445, 444–446
nonnormative parenting in, 145
obesity in, 251
perceived discrimination, mental health, and physical health, 446
perceived discrimination and biological processes, 449–450
positive affect in, 344
positive health in, 340
psychosocial resources and allostatic load in, 207
SES–health connection, 434
sexual orientation and perceived discrimination, 448
and SGBT model, 436–437
social capital in, 193
social inequalities in, 415–416
stressors studies in, 80
studying gender differences with, 65–66
type 2 diabetes in, 253
varieties of discrimination in, 447
weight discrimination in, 448
well-being measures of, 280
work–family interactions in, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121
work–health research in, 100, 107, 108
MIDUS 1
baseline study, 4
emotional responding in, 355
nonnormative parenting in, 151
personality in, 309
personality–SES interactions among, participants, 398
SES–health connection, 433
smoking behavior in, 309
twin studies on stress in, 81
and weight identity, 266–269
MIDUS 2, 4–5
age-related positivity effect in, 359
anger expression in, 384
cumulative adversities studied in, 81
emotional responding in, 355, 356
nonnormative parenting in, 151
smoking behavior in, 309
MIDUS 3
cognition in, 299
effects of Great Recession in, 108
emotional responding in, 355, 360, 363
nonnormative parenting in, 151
personality in, 312
(p. 524) MIDUS Biomarker project, 297, 311, 318, 325
MIDUS cognitive project, 289
MIDUS data and metadata, 31–33
Data Documentation Initiative, 32–33
definition and types of metadata, 31
metadata benefits to datasets, 31–32
MIDUS DDI Portal, 32–33
MIDUS Neuroscience Project, 350
aims and hypotheses of, 356
emotional responding in, 355
findings, 362
memory assessments in, 359
psychophysiological measures of, 356–357
MIDUS Refresher sample, 6, 451
body weight in, 282
cognition in, 299
emotional responding in, 356, 363
personality–health associations for, 313
Miech, R., 459
Milkie, M. A., 130
Miller-Martinez, D., 295
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 382
missing at random (MAR), 400
missing values, 30
mitigation hypothesis
defining, 413
and psychological well-being, 417–419
Miyamoto, Y., 371, 372, 374, 387, 421
Mock, S. E., 92
Mogle, J., 184
Molix, L., 449
monozygotic (MZ) twins, 267
Morozink, J. A., 56, 417, 419
mortality
and affective reactivity, 347
associated with ELAs, 50
and educational attainment, 55
and multimorbidity, 230
and personality, 325
and positive affect, 159
and positive psychological functioning, 335
social relationships as predictors of, 205
and socioeconomic status, 414
and subjective age, 91
mortality data, in MIDUS studies, 27
Morton, P. M., 53, 80
Moskowitz, J. T., 156
Mouzon, D. M., 447
Mplus 7.4, 267
multidisciplinary, multisite data, 25–27
Administrative Database, 25–26
collection and maintenance of large samples over time, 25
longitudinal sample maintenance, 26–27
multiproject data collection, 25
project participation and sequencing, 26
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 253
multimorbidity, 13, 221–232
and cognitive function, 229–230
conceptual framework for study of, 221–223
defining, 224
and disability, 225, 229
future directions for research on, 230–232
and mortality, 230
and patterning of, 225–228
prior research on, 223–224
psychological impact of, 228
and psychosocial resources, 224
multiproject data collection, 25
multisystem dysregulation, and bone health, 244
Murphy, C., 293
Myin-Germeys, I., 345
N
National Academy of Sciences, 289
national culture. See culture
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 275, 282
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 275
National Institutes of Health Toolbox of Cognitive Assessments, 291
National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), 136
National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE), 161, 163, 164, 168–169
National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), 133
negative affect (NA)
and age, 348
and body weight, 280
intensity of positive and, 347
and interleukin-6, 351
measures of, 178
methodological challenges with studying, 349
and personality, 360
related to daily positive experiences, 164
and subjective age, 89
negative attitudes, about overweight and obese individuals, 277
negative emotion/emotionality
and age, 348
and allostatic load, 208
and interleukin 6, 371
neighborhood environment, and racial health disparities, 464
NEO-PI-R personality inventory, 306
nervous system, and positive emotion styles, 362
Neupert, S. D., 416
neural factors
in age-related positivity effect, 359
in psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 207
neuroendocrine stress hormones, and racial health disparities, 461
neuroticism, 396
and chronic disease, 324, 325
and cigarette smoking, 306, 307, 309
and cognition, 295
defined, 306, 319
and diabetes, 255
and health behaviors, 323
interaction of, with other personality traits, 308
interaction of conscientiousness and, 311
and substance use behaviors, 309, 310
neurotic vigilance, 311
NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys), 275, 282
NHIS (National Health Interview Survey), 275
night shift work, 103
noncontradiction, culture and emphasis on, 368
nonignorable missingness, 408
nonnormative parenting, 11, 143–152
(p. 525) and allostatic load, 148
background literature on, 144
of children with autism spectrum disorders or fragile X syndrome, 149
and cognition, 146
and cognitive functioning, 296
future directions for research on, 149–152
and HPA axis, 146–147
mental and physical health outcomes of, 145–146
MIDUS for research on, 145
psychosocial resources and allostatic load in, 208
and work–family interactions, 119
nonresponses, in data collection, 30
Normative Aging Study, 307
NSFH (National Survey of Families and Households), 133
NSHAP (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project), 136
nurturant parenting
and metabolic risk in low SES children, 434
as moderator of ELAs, 51
“nut rage” incident, 382, 383
nutrition, and work–family interactions, 121
Nwizu, U., 449
O
obese individuals
discrimination against, 278–279
negative attitudes toward, 277
sexual relations for, 280
obesity
and development of diabetes, 14
and diabetes, 252–253
and health, 282
perceived discrimination and, 448
and personality, 324
racial health disparities, 460
in United States, 275, 276
obesity crisis, 276
objective social status markers, 385
occupational complexity, 106, 294
occupational status, 408
occupational stress, future research areas, 108
Oishi, S., 343
O'Neill, S., 347
O*NET, 106
Ong, A. D., 138, 344, 449
OpenMx, 267
openness, defined, 319
openness to experience, 396
and all cause-mortality, 325
and chronic disease, 324
and cognition, 295–296
and health behaviors, 324
and subjective age, 90
and substance use behaviors, 310
opportunity cost pathway, and work–family interactions, 115, 121
optimism
and allostatic load, 207–208
and health behaviors, 339
and positive health, 16
as psychosocial resource, 204
and restorative biological processes, 337
O'Rand, A. M., 65
organizational challenges, of large studies, 7
Osler, M., 483
osteoporosis, 237
overweight individuals
discrimination against, 278
negative attitudes toward, 277
in United States, 276
P
pain responses, and perceived discrimination, 447
Palgi, Y., 91
parenting
age at becoming parent, 69
benefits of, 193
negative aspects of, 193
participation
in multiple waves of MIDUS, 5–6
recruiting, for MIDUS projects, 25
PATH Through Life Project, 290
pathways
future research on, for stress, 82
gender-specific, 68–69
linking health and daily positive experiences, 159–160
from psychosocial life history to bone strength, 240
for psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 210
related to subjective age, 92
for stress and racial health disparities, 174
and work–family interactions, 117, 115–116
Paunonen, S. V., 308
Pearman, A., 295
perceived control
and cognition, 294
and discrimination–negative affect relationship, 450
health effects of, 311
and occupational stress, 100
and SES–health connection, 438
and subjective age, 90
at work, and physical activity, 102, 102
at work, and socioeconomic status, 102
perceived discrimination, 19, 443–452
age-related, 88
and allostatic load, 210
and biological processes, 449–450
conceptualization of, 443–444
discrimination, mental health, and physical health, 446
and family stress, 184
future directions for research on, 450–452
general/no attribution, 447
measurements of acute and chronic discrimination in MIDUS, 444–446
racial/ethnic, 447–448
and racial health disparities, 463
sexual orientation, 448
varieties of discrimination in MIDUS, 447
weight/obesity, 254, 265, 281, 448
personality, 16, 305–313, 317–328
and all-cause mortality, 325
associations between health behavior and, 309
background literature on, 317–318
beyond the Big Five personality traits, 311–312
changes in, and subjective age, 93 (p. 526)
changes in, and substance use behavior, 307
and chronic diseases, 324–325
and cognition, 295–296, 299
conscientiousness, 311
defined, 306
early theories of, 318–319
and emotional responding, 360
future directions for research on, 312–313, 327–328
health behavior model of, 308, 310–311
and health behaviors, 323–324
individual differences in personality traits, 306
methodological challenges of meta-analyses on, 325–326
pathways from personality to health and disease, 326–327
and substance use behaviors, 306–307, 309–310
systematic review of health and, 319–320
trait-by-trait interactions, 307–308
personality psychologists, 318
personality–SES interactions, 18, 395–409
among MIDUS participants, 398
analytic strategy to study, 400
background literature on, 395–396
future directions for research on, 408–409
measures used to study, 398–400
in MIDUS study, 402–403
open questions about, 397–398
reciprocal, 403–408
social causation and structural determinism, 396–397
social selection and individual self-determination, 397
personality traits, as psychosocial resources, 204
personal responsibility, 409
pessimism, 318
Petersen, K. L., 380
Phelan, J., 102
phenotypic variation, 36
physical activity
in benign neglect pathway, 120
and cognitive functioning, 294
effects of childhood SES on, 67–68
gender differences in, 102
and obesity prevention, 252
and personality, 323, 324
and positive psychological functioning, 338
racial health disparities, 466, 469
and subjective age, 93
and work, 102
physical health
and affective reactivity, 346–347
and cognition, 296, 299
defining, 340
and intraindividual affective variability, 346
and marital status, 132
and nonnormative parenting, 144, 145–146, 149
and obesity, 275
racial disparities in, 173
and subjective age, 89
and work, 107
physical reactivity, to family stress, 179
physiological dysregulation (PD)
in bone health, 244
educational attainment and, 479–495
measures used in study of, 485
and psychosocial resources, 206–207, 213
and socioeconomic status, 415
Piazza, J. R., 184
Ploubidis, G. B., 310
Pollitt, R. A., 482
positive affect (PA), 16, 343–350
adaptive aging and positive psychological well-being, 348
affect reactivity, 346–347
and body weight, 280
and bone health, 242
conceptualizations of, 344
defined, 343
dynamics, 344, 347, 348
fragile, 344
and health in MIDUS, 344
intraindivdual affect variability, 345–346
and marital strain, 361
methodological challenges in study of, 349–350
and mortality, 159
and nonnormative parenting, 148
related to daily positive experiences, 164
relationship between high and low, 347–348
positive affective reactivity, and depressive symptoms, 159
positive affect (PA) level, defined, 344
positive emotion
and age, 348
and altruistic behaviors, 192
and health, 372, 373
and long-term marital strain, 361
neural mechanisms underlying styles of, 362
positive events, and positive affect, 348
positive health, 16, 333–341
and behavioral processes, 338–339
and biological processes, 337–338
future directions for research on, 339–340
and positive psychological functioning, 334–336
and stress buffering, 336–337
positive psychological factors
and bone health, 243
to buffer effects of ELAs, 9
positive psychological functioning
and adaptive aging, 348
defined, 333
improving, 339
interactions of, 340
as moderator of social disparities, 340
and positive health, 334–336
positive psychology, 192
positive reappraisal, for coping with stress, 156
positivity effect, age-related, 359
poverty, and racial health disparities, 467
Prather, A. A., 380
prefrailty, and cognitive functioning, 297
problem-focused coping, 156
programming code, 30
project participation and sequencing, 26
psychiatric disorders, and personality, 328
psychobiological processes, and positive affect, 343
psychological demand, of work, 105
(p. 527) psychological factors
integration of positive and negative, 422
and subjective age, 90
psychological health, defining, 340
psychological impact, of multimorbidity, 228
psychological measures, of emotional responding, 356–357
psychological resources
and allostatic load, 207–209
for coping with Great Recession of 2007-2009, 501–502
and mitigation hypothesis, 416
protective vs. disabled in Great Recession of 2007-2009, 505–507
psychosocial resources as, 204
related to ELAs, 51
psychological risk, and socioeconomic status, 416
psychological states, associated with ELAs, 51
psychological traits, as moderators of ELAs, 52, 54–55
psychological well-being (PWB)
associated with ELAs, 51
and body weight, 280–281
and emotional responding, 361, 362
and life adversities, 56
and mitigation hypothesis, 417–419
and multimorbidity, 226, 225, 228
as psychosocial resource, 224
racial differences in, 174
psychophysiological assessment, of emotional responding, 358–359
psychosocial buffers
for early life adversity (ELA), 57
for ELAs, 57
psychosocial consequences, of body weight, 277
psychosocial determinants of health, social inequalities, 414
psychosocial factors
and bone health, 238, 245
and racial/ethnic health differences, 444
psychosocial features, of work, 104, 108
psychosocial life histories, and bone health, 240–242
psychosocial processes
cultural differences in, 372–374
and positive affect, 348
psychosocial protective factors, for cognitive functioning, 293
psychosocial resources (PSRs), 13, 203–214
and allostatic load, 205–206, 211–212
conceptual models for allostatic load and, 212–214
defining, 203–204
measurement models of, 212
and multimorbidity, 223, 224
and physiological dysregulation, 206–207, 213
as protective factors for multimorbidity, 231
psychological resources, 204
psychological resources and allostatic load, 207–209
social resources, 205
social resources and allostatic load, 209–211
and socioeconomic status, 414
psychosocial well-being, and bone health, 242–244
publication bias, 326
Puhl, R. M., 278, 279
purposeful life engagement, and emotion regulation, 360–361
purpose in life
and allostatic load, 208
and psychological well-being, 423
as psychosocial resource, 204
and well-being, 312
Q
quality control, in Data Documentation Initiative, 33
quality of life, and body weight, 275
Quinn, J., 294
Quoidbach, J., 345
R
race
and daily family stress model, 175
family stress, health behaviors, and, 180–182
and family stress, 176–178
and family support exchanges, 179–180
and perceived discrimination, 447–448
psychological stressors, family stress and, 174
as risk factor for diabetes, 256–257
racial differences
in benefits of intimate relationships, 136
in exposure and reactivity to family stress, 178–179
in nonnormative parenting, 145
racial health disparities, 19, 458, 457–469
allostatic load, 461–462
body weight, 276, 279
cardiovascular disease, 459–460
childhood context and experiences in, 466
core questions in study of, 458
diabetes, 460
and experiences of discrimination, 463
and family stress, 173–174
future directions for research on, 468–469
inflammation, 461
life expectancy and mortality, 459
and neighborhood environments, 464
obesity, 460
physical activity, 466
prior research on, 458
psychological experiences as mediators of, 462
race differences in early life adversity, 467–468
self-rated health, 459
SES and, 444–453
sleep problems, 465–466
socioeconomic status and educational attainment, 464
stress hormones, 461
racial inequalities
and work, 108
in work–health research, 102–103
Raghunathan, T. E., 460
Ram, N., 344
Ranjit, N., 380
reactivity
affect, 346–347
and emotional responding, 17
and recovery/change across emotional provocations, 357–358
Reading, S. R., 79
(p. 528) reciprocal personality–SES interactions, 403–408
recovery
emotional, personality and, 360
emotional, purpose in life and, 361
and emotional responding, 17
and reactivity/change across emotional provocations, 357–358
recursive partitioning analysis, 227, 226
relationship strain, and perceived discrimination, 449
religion
as buffer for effects of ELAs, 56
and discrimination–negative affect relationship, 450
religiosity, and cognition, 296
remarriage, 134
repositories, for data, 30–31
reserve capacity model, 212
reserve-capacity model, 433, 505
resilience
adversity and sense of purpose, 450
to buffer effects of socioeconomic status, 416
and psychological risk and socioeconomic status, 416
and structural features of work, 103
subjective age and, 91
and successful aging, 70
restorative biological processes, 336, 337
restorers, positive emotions as, 156
reusable data, 24
Richardson, S. A., 277
Rickenbach, E. H., 291, 292
Ricks, D. F., 345
Ridker, P. M., 482
Rippon, I., 91
Ritchie, S. J., 296
Roberts, B. W., 319, 323
Robertson, T., 483
Rosenman, R. H., 414
Rosero-Bixby, L., 483, 490
Rosmond, R., 435
Rosvall, M., 483
Rottenberg, J., 422
Roux, A. V., 482
Russia, life expectancy in, 481
Ryff, C., 416, 484
Ryff, C. D., 174, 371, 372, 374, 417, 419, 421, 437, 505
S
Salthouse, T. A., 290
same-sex marriage, 134
Sbarra, D. A., 135
Schaefer, S. M., 423
Schafer, M. H., 53, 89, 92
Schnittker, J., 81
Schwartz, B., 343
Schwartz, C., 192
Scopus database, 320
Seeman, T., 295, 299
Seeman, T. E., 137, 184, 295, 481–482
Segerstrom, S., 348
Segerstrom, S. C., 346
Selcuk, E., 138
selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies, 298
self, culture and relationship of others to, 368
self-assessments, of cognition, 291–291
self-care, in benign neglect pathway, 120
self-construal, cultural differences in, 368–369
self-determination, and personality–SES interactions, 397
self-efficacy, as psychosocial resource, 204
self-esteem, as psychosocial resource, 204
self-protective strategy, subjective age as, 87–88
self-rated health, racial disparities in, 459
self-reports
of emotional responding, 358
of health behaviors, 326
of positive affect, 350
of positive psychological functioning, 334
self-worth, and SES–health connection, 437
Seltzer, M. M., 145
sense of belonging, and altruistic behaviors, 195
sense of coherence, and allostatic load, 208
sense of control, and life adversities, 55
sense of obligation, and altruistic behavior toward children, 196–197
sense of purpose, adversity and, 450
SEP (socioeconomic position), 395
Serido, J., 416
sex differences
in cognitive functioning, 292
of psychosocial resources and allostatic load, 213
in work–health research, 102
sexual orientation, and perceived discrimination, 448
sexual relations, and body weight, 280
SGBT (socioeconomic gradient bow-tie) model, 436–437
Shalnova, S., 483
shift-and-persist strategies, 54–55, 57
shift work, and work–family conflict, 118
Shippee, T. P., 89, 92
Shkolnikov, V. M., 483
Shrager, S., 482
Shrira, A., 91
Shuey, K. M., 459
sibling participation, in multiple waves of MIDUS, 6
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 42
Sjogren, E., 380
Slatcher, R. B., 138
sleep
and allostatic load, 206
body weight and quality of, 281
and daily positive experiences, 158
and well-being, 338
sleep problems
and intimate relationships, 138
racial health disparities, 465–466, 469
Sliwinski, M. J., 184
Sloan, R. P., 137
Slopen, N., 451, 467
Small, B. J., 450
Smith, A. M., 145, 146
Smith, Adam, 379
Smith, J., 299
Smith, L., 149
smoking. See tobacco use
(p. 529) social capital, 13, 191–197
and altruistic behavior, 192, 193–195
and altruistic behavior toward children, 192–193, 196–197
background literature on, 191–192
as buffer for effects of ELAs, 54
cognitive and structural social capital, 195–196
defined, 191
future directions for research on, 197
and health, 196
social causation
and intimate relationships, 130, 130–131
and personality–SES interactions, 396–397
social selection vs., 397
social class, 395, 396, 397
social comparison processes, and subjective age, 89
social disparities, positive psychological functioning as moderator of, 340
social ecology, 432–433
defined, 432
and SES–health connection, 434
social engagement, and cognition, 295
social environment, and health, 43
Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (SEBAS), 207
social factors, in subjective age, 88–89
social goals, and emotion/culture, 369
social identities, 271
social inequalities, 18, 413–424
anger and exacerbation hypothesis, 419–421
biobehavioral pathways affected by, 414–415
data on, in MIDUS study, 415–416
future directions for research on, 422–424
and protectiivve factors for cardiometabolic risk, 421
psychological well-being and mitigation hypothesis, 417–419
socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of health, 414
socialization, and ELAs, 65
social process model, 64
social relationships
and body weight, 279–280
and bone health, 14, 242
and health, 129
and inflammation, 223
as moderators of ELAs, 52, 51–54
as predictor of mortality, 205
as psychosocial resource, 224
as psychosocial resources, 205
and subjective age, 89
and work, 100, 108, 109
social resources
and allostatic load, 209–211
psychosocial resources as, 205
social selection
challenges to interpreting, 397–398
and intimate relationships, 130, 131
and personality–SES interactions, 397
social causation vs., 397
social situations, and cultural fit of emotions, 374–375
social status
and anger expression, 384–386
and functionality of anger, 388
social stratification theories, 101
social support
and allostatic load, 209, 210
and emotion–health link, 372
and health, 205
as psychosocial resources, 205
sociodemographic factors, in cognition, 292–293
socioeconomic gradient bow-tie (SGBT) model, 436–437
socioeconomic position (SEP), 395
socioeconomic status (SES)
and allostatic load, 206
and anger, 419
and blood pressure, 423
and body weight, 65, 276, 279
and bone strength, 241–242
and cognitive functioning, 299
coping strategies for people with lower, 55
and daily positive experiences, 157–157
as determinant of health, 414
effects of, on health, 9
in fundamental cause theory, 102
and health, 414
and health, in twin studies, 41–42
and health consequences of Great Recession, 500
and health-related biology, 19, 431–440
heart disease and childhood, 68–69
and inflammation, 224
and multimorbidity, 222
parental relationships to buffer effects of, 52–53
physical activity and childhood, 67–68
and psychological resources for coping with Great Recession of 2007-2009, 501–502
and psychological risk and resilience, 416
and racial/ethnic health differences, 444–453
and racial health disparities, 464
and response to cognitive stressors, 297
as risk factor for diabetes, 256–257
and SGBT model, 436–437
and stress buffering, 336
variability of, 82
and work, 108
in work–health research, 102
socioeconomic strata, 409
socioemotional selectivity theory, 157
sociohistorical context, of work–family interactions, 114–115
Soederberg Miller, L. M., 294
Song, J., 146, 148, 151
South, S., 41
South, S. C., 39, 313
Sparks, P. J., 482
spontaneous assessments, 265
Stamatakis, E., 419
standard error of measurement (SEM), 400
startle reflex, 357
Stellar, E., 480
Stephan, Y., 89, 92, 93, 295
Steptoe, A., 91, 419
stigma
and body weight, 277, 279
of economic hardship, 508
(p. 530) strain pathway
future research on, 122, 123
and work–family interactions, 115, 116–119
in work–family interactions, 11
Strasser, C., 31
stress
as cause of allostatic load, 206
and cognition, 296
and emotional responding, 361
linking psychosocial resources to allostatic load, 212
over anger-inducing events, 381
personality and adaptation to, 323
and positive psychological functioning, 335
and SES–cortisol profile interactions, 435
subjective age and resilience to, 91
stress buffering
daily positive experiences as, 158
and intimate relationships, 130–131
and positive affect, 343
and positive health, 336–337
stress eating, 252
stress hormones
racial health disparities, 461
See also cortisol
stressors
and affect interacting with daily positive experiences, 164
and educational attainment, 416
measures of, in MIDUS studies, 77
race, family stress, and, 174
variability of, 82
work-related, 103
stress pathway, 501
stress pileup, 80
stress processes, 296–297
stress proliferation life course model, 64
stress response, and expression of anger, 388
stroke
and diabetes, 251
racial disparities, 459
structural determinism, and personality–SES interactions, 396–397
structural features, of work, 103
structural social capital, 192, 195–196
study-level metadata, 31
Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN), 292
Suarez, E. C., 380
subjective age, 10, 87–94
as biopsychosocial marker of aging, 88
and cognition, 90, 92, 298
demographic factors related to, 88
future directions for research on, 93–94
and health, 91
and health behaviors, 93
health factors related to, 89
and mortality, 91
and personality changes, 93
as predictor, 90
psychological factors related to, 90
and resilience to stress, 91
as self-protective strategy, 87–88
social and environmental factors related to, 88–89
and well-being, 92
subjective cognition, assessments of, 291–292
subjective social status markers, 385
subjective well-being, 264
substance use, and personality, 16, 306–307, 309–310
supportive role models
as buffer for effects of ELAs, 54
and shift-and-persist strategies, 57
surrogate end points, 435
sustainers, positive emotions as, 156
sympathetic–adrenomedullary axis (SAM), 252
systematic review, of personality and health, 319–320
T
Taiwan, life expectancy, 481
Tavris, Carol, 388
Taylor, R. J., 447
Taylor, S. E., 203
temporal issues, with studies of positive affect, 349
temporal structures of work, 103, 118
Terracciano, A., 295
tobacco use
and cumulative stress, 10, 78–79
cumulative stress and, 451
and family stress, 181
MIDUS subproject data on, 312
and personality, 306, 307, 308, 309, 318, 323
and work–family conflict, 118
Tolpin, L., 347
Tomazic, T. J., 380
Torgersen, S., 308
Tracy, R., 482
trait adjectives, 398
trait positive affect, measuring, 344
Tsai, J. L., 369, 371
Tsenkova, V., 421
Tun, P. A., 293, 294, 295
Turiano, N. A., 309, 438
Turiano et al, 2012, 310
Turra, C. M., 483
twin studies, 36–38
and biometrical moderation, 40
of body weight, 282
and conserved transcriptional response to adversity, 43
on ELAs, 56
in multiple waves of MIDUS, 6
of personality, 44
of positive psychological functioning, 338
on social capital and health, 196
on stress, 81
Type A behavior, 306, 318, 380
type 2 diabetes, 251
U
Umberson, D., 135
unemployment, 409
unfairness, at work, 105
United States, body weight in, 275, 276
US Department of Labor, 113
“uplifts,” 156
user-friendly data sets, 29–30
user-friendly documentation and data, 27–31
file-naming conventions, 28–29
file types, 27–28
repositories and archives, 30–31
user-friendly data sets, 29–30 (p. 531)
V
valence dimension, of emotion, 374
value labels, 29
VA Normative Aging Study, 347
van Steenbergen, E. F., 123
variable-level metadata, 31
variables
formats for, 29
labeling of, 29
naming of, 29
vented frustration
anger as dominance display vs., 382–383
health effects associated with, 386–387
in Western cultures, 384
Viswesvaran, C., 117
vitamin model, 101, 108
Vollrath, M. E., 308
W
waist circumference, 281, 450
Waite, L. J., 134
Ward, R. A., 89
Warr, P., 101, 108, 109
Warren, J. R., 102
Watts, E., 483
wealth inequality, and racial health disparities, 464
weight. See body weight
weight discrimination, perceived, 254, 263, 265, 281, 448
weight identity, 15, 263–271
background literature on, 264–266
future directions for research on, 271
and gender, 271
genetic contribution to, 271
and health identity, 264
heritability of, 264, 271
in MIDUS study, 266–269
weight loss
and diabetes risk, 252
implications of, 282
and obesity prevention, 252
Weinstein, M., 484
Weir, D., 483
Weiss, D., 88
well-being
and affective reactivity, 346
and body weight, 280–281
eudaimonic, 335, 340
hedonic, 335, 340
interventions informed by research on, 423
and multimorbidity, 222
purpose in life and, 312
and sleeping patterns, 338
studying hedonic and eudaimonic together, 422
subjective, 264
and subjective age, 92–92
and work–family interactions, 121
well-being therapy, 423
Wessman, A. E., 345
Westerhof, G. J., 92
Western cultures
anger expression in, 380–381, 384
cultural fit of emotion in, 369, 371
emotional patterns and health in East Asian vs., 367
health effects of anger expression in, 386–387
relationship of self and others in, 368
self-construal and emotion in, 368–369
Wheaton, B., 135
Whisman, M. A., 135
white-collar jobs, body-weight discrimination in, 279
Whitehall Study, 290
Whitehouse Forum on Workplace Flexibility, 113
WHO (World Health Organization), 114, 129
Wichers, M., 345
Wienert, J., 93
Wigman, J., 345
Williams, D. R., 416, 449
Williams, K., 135
Willson, A. E., 459
Wilson, K. E., 326
Winning, A., 348
Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), 65
“wise persons,” 279
Wong, J. D., 147
Woodward, A. T., 447
work
amount of time spent in, 99
changing concepts of, 124
characteristics of, in work–health research, 104–105
defining, 114
health as asset for, 107
racial health disparities at, 469
structural features of, 103
work elements, alternative assessments of, 105–106
work–family enrichment, 119–120
work–family interactions, 11, 113–124
and benign neglect pathway, 120
defining core concepts of, 114
and enhancement pathway, 119–120
future directions for research on, 122–124
and opportunity cost pathway, 121
and pathways to health, 115–116, 117
sociohistorical context of, 114–115
strain pathway, conflict in, 116
and strain pathway, 116–119
work–health research, 10, 99–110
age-related differences in, 101
alternative assessments of work elements, 105–106
future directions for research on, 107–110
health as work asset, 107
health differences and health inequalities in, 101
racial inequalities in, 102–103
sex- and gender-based differences in, 102
socioeconomic inequalities in, 102
structural features of work, 103
theoretical foundations of, 100–101
work and job characteristics, 104–105
workload incongruence, 106
Workplace, Workforce, and Working Families program, 115
work-related discrimination, and body weight, 278
worksite health promotion programs, 107, 110
(p. 532) work stressors
and family stress, 118
and nonnormative parenting, 148, 147
World Health Organization (WHO), 114, 129
X
XML (Extensible Markup Language), 32
Y
Yoo, J., 371, 372, 374
Z
Zahodne, L. B., 299
Zautra, A. J., 156, 347
Zhang, X., 345
Zilioli, S., 118, 502