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date: 25 February 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Epidemiological evidence from the Midlife in the United States and other studies shows robust socioeconomic disparities in mental and physical health outcomes. Considerable heterogeneity exists in health within socioeconomic strata; not all socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals exhibit poor health. Evidence is presented supporting an integrative conceptual framework wherein psychological factors moderate the association between socioeconomic status and health, illuminating unique risk and resilience profiles. Regarding protective factors, distinctions between hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being are highlighted. Regarding psychological risk factors, the focus is on the experience and expression of anger. Several pathways through which socioeconomic and psychological factors may affect health, including health behaviors, emotion regulation, and physiological responses to stress are considered. The chapter concludes with directions for future research, including efforts to integrate psychological strengths and risk factors and the need for longitudinal and intervention approaches to address the public health issue of health disparities from a biopsychosocial perspective.

Keywords: health, socioeconomic status, hedonic well-being, eudaimonic well-being, anger, hostility, health behaviors, emotion stress

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