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date: 27 May 2020

(p. 789) Subject Index

(p. 789) Subject Index

A
acculturation 668–669, 669
achievement 166
action research, participatory 213–214
actions
critical 205
infants and 274–275
moral
adolescence and 135, 566
adults and 228, 593
atheism and 617
autonomy and 17
capacities needed to generate 129
children and 194, 473
collective 765–780
environmental 420, 425, 776–777
self-concept and 32–33, 131, 133, 596
prosocial
defined 290
infants and 272–274
social, and youth 563
sociomoral, infants and 269–277, 280–282
sociopolitical 206
activism, sociopolitical, youth and 585–586
Afrocentric Schools 206
agency/agent
child 168
individual 152
locus 308, 767, 772
diffusion/displacement of responsibility and 309–310
moral 566
aggression
bullying 252–254, 309–312, 320–322, 758
non gender-conforming 738, 741, 746
cyberbullying 312, 321–322, 544–545
game play and 710, 713
guilt and 252–254
levels of 528
media and 649–650, 654–655
moral disengagement and 307–317
negatively valenced emotions and 247
peer groups and 158
prosocial behavior and 311, 539
reactive 258
regulating 485
relational 656–657
school 321
aging, positive 443–447
Albania 618
altruism 28–29, 44, 46–47
altruistic personality approach 32–33, 38–41
European American/US Mexican 41
guilt and 154
reciprocal 17
Amazon jungle 422
American Dream 510–511
American National Education Longitudinal Study 355–356
American Religion Identification Survey 616
Argentina 46, 472
anger, unhealthy 408–409
Armenia 176, 667
arousal, physiological (emotional experiences of children and) 256–257
Asia 102, 120, 318, 392, 672
assimilation 668
cognitive 694
assumptions, informational 496
atheism
defined 614
discrimination and 616
morality and 615–618
Atman 603
attachment
place, and connectedness to nature 430–431
security 150–151
theory 82–83, 369
attention
“concerned” 38, 74
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 104
emotional experiences of children and 256
attitudes, moral implications of 746–760
Australia 312, 321, 468, 472, 618, 756
authoritarianism 752–753
authority
/subversion 56, 328, 651, 658–659, 711–712
principle 283
sanctions/supportive norms 636
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 104–105
autonomy 667. See also Ethic of Autonomy
adolescence and 233–235, 466–467
belonging and 196–198
children and 484–485
India and 339–340
reasoning 666
rights to 299
toddlers and 189–191
work and 196–198
young children and 196
Yucatec Maya children and 189–192
awareness, moral self- 77–80
parent-child relationship and 81–83
young children and 77–83
awareness, self-, youth and 562
B
Baha’i 731–732
Bantu 701–702
behavior
counterproductive workplace (CWB) 699
moral 597, implications of 746–760
prescriptivity and 422
rule-contingency and 422
transgressive 487, 554
American/Asian/European cultures and 318, 322
youth and 564–565
universality and 422
Belgium 40, 468, 618
beliefs. See also religion and religiosity
affirmative 753–755
moral implications of 746–760
reciprocal 29, 43, 45
benevolence 166
Betty Shabazz International Charter Schools 215
Bhagavad Gita 333–337
bhakti 334, 340–342. See also Seva
bien educato 5, 27, 46
“Big Five” (traits) 696–698
“big three ethics.” See Three Ethics Theory
bildung 123
Black Panther Party Liberation Schools 206
“Bobo doll” study 711
Brahman 332–333, 603
Brazil 117–119, 122, 124, 204-205, 216, 235, 252, 293, 328–329, 405, 756
Buddhism 120, 600, 731
bullying/cyberbullying. See aggression
C
(p. 790) Cambodia 672
Cameroon 370, 378
Canada 103, 132-133, 138, 228, 321, 350–351, 354, 361, 427, 430, 472, 581, 618
Canadian Futures 373, 375
capital, social, religion and 601
care
/harm 56, 651–655, 711, 713, 718
/justice 228
caring. See also motivation, caring
bond 11, 18–21
morality and 56–58
reciprocal
adolescence and 199
children and 196–200
defined 197
caste 337–338
character
anthropomorphizing fictional 713
children’s basic 537
civic 689
conscience and 694–696
culture and 691–692
defined 689
education 137, 601
“good” 5, 27. See also bien educato
identity (moral) and 130–132, 685–703
intellectual 689
moral 84–87, 445, 447, 455, 686–701
adolescence and 587
defined 597
faith and 122
tripartite model of 699–701
neutral 269–270, 275
performance 689–690
prosocial 291
infants and 295–296
strength 113–114
moral 116
purpose and 116–117
varieties of 689–691
virtue and 596, 606, 689–691
Character Report Card 690
Chile 248–249, 636
Christianity 600, 615–616, 621, 731
Citizen Schools 206
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 765–767, 769
Civic and Political Health Survey (CPHS) 577
cognitive-developmental model 33–34, 129, 146–147
collectivism 38, 123
Columbia 253, 472, 520
commitment
civic 356
moral 116, 132–133, 231, 448
transpersonal 352
commons
tragedy of the 766, 773
community. See also Ethic of Community
conventional and preconventional 54
cultural approaches to 58–60
development of moralities of 60–61
discretionary 54–55
European American/Hindu cultural variations 58–59
moral identity and 52–66, 137
moralities of 56–63
peer 566
play groups 542–543
service 584–585
Community, Autonomy, and Divinity Scale (CADS) 328
compassion 56. See also empathy; Seva
children and 82, 148, 193
community service and 778
defined 257
gratitude and 116–117
heart rate and 408
mercy and 403
moral development and 73, 116–117
prosocial behavior and 32, 250
religion and 593, 602, 606
competence 134, 195–196, 452
moral 54, 688
self-promotion and 94
self-regulating 150
compliance, mutual 168
concepts, constructing moral 488–491
concern
empathetic. See empathy; motivation, caring
generative 777
moral, first-order (fundamental) 506–507
conformity 167
Confucianism 225, 248, 251, 386, 388–389, 691
Confucius 388, 536
connectedness 425–426, 604
conscience
character and 694–696
defined 82
development of 484
socializing moral 483–486
conscientização. See consciousness, critical
consciousness, critical 206, 748, 755–756
conceptual framework for 207–209
defined 204–207
fostering 211–217
key outcomes of 209–210
measuring 210–211
schools and 211–212
construal, self-
caretaker’s 153
children and 148–150, 155–156
independent 669, 674, 676
contact hypothesis 753
contagion, affect 425
Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure 211
context 274
civil and moral 570–588
cultural, for moral values 146
local 773–775
secular living and 613–626
social/transcendent 600–605
contracts, social (implicit and explicit) 299–300
conversations 482–496. See also narratives
defined 482
deliberative discussion 580
group discussion 558–559
moral development and 482–496
parent-adolescent 318–319, 465–466, 468
parent-child 65, 81–87, 136, 235
pre-adolescents and 87
co-occurance, ethical 672–673
cooperation 773
adolescents and 14
bullying and 542
children and 83
coordinated life-span 13–14
cultural 650
prosocial behavior and 146–148, 473
third party reward/punishment and 277
Costa Rica 37, 46
countering 465–466
Critical Civic Inquiry (CCI) 214
Critical Consciousness Inventory and Scale 210
culture 105. See also globalization; values
biology and 151
change and 667
character and 689–692
Chinese 391
cognitive-developmental sequence and 224–225
cultural awakening 112
decisions and 768
defined 223–224, 691
deviant behaviors and 152
environment and 431–433
markers 152
modeling and 212–213
moral identity development and 137–138, 666
values, and 151–157, 669–671
curiosity 690
cyberbulling. See aggression, cyberbullying
Czechoslavia/Czech Republic 46, 64, 370, 618, 625
D
(p. 791) deception 94–97, 105, 311, 316. See also truth-telling
Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness Scales 406
decision-making (moral)
adults and 235
children and 86, 134
community and 694
digital game play and 714–719
distress/empathy and 291
respect and 388
sources for 505
deliberation, youth’s ethical 553
democracy, deliberative 580–584
Dharma 229
defining 328
formulation of 334
moral universe and 332
perspectives of, across disciplines 335–337
wheel of 332–333
Dharmashastras 231, 333
dilemma, prosocial 297
discipline, developmental 564
discourse, and moral development 578–579
discrimination 45
age 395
anti-atheist 615–616, 625
ethnic-racial 378, 632–642
gender 57, 729, 734, 739, 747–757, 753–754. See also Title IX
Hinduism and 328
moral domain and 729
norm of tolerating 103
oppressed groups and 208
religious 616
sexual and gender minority (SGM) 746–757
social justice and 561
tolerating 103
transgender 736
understanding attitudes about 749
disengagement, moral
across the life span (developmental trajectory) 310–315
cognitive factors in 315–317
collective 321–322
defined 307–308
digital game playing and 719
environmental responsibility and 772
gender differences in 313–314
loci of 308–309, 772
mechanisms of 308–310, 319–321
pre-adolescents and 315–316
social factors in 317–319
theoretical analysis of 308
young children and 318–319
distress
ameliorating personal 35, 42
children and 78–81, 155–156, 252, 292
environmental 776
infants and 74–75, 249, 296, 693
proactive sensitivity and 154
shame and personal 470
toddlers and 77–78
victim 100
diversity, sexual and gender. See gender, attitudes, morality and
Divinity. See also Ethic of Divinity; God
adolescence and 340, 666–668
domains 465. See also Social-Cognitive Domain Theory (SCDT)
developmental processes for ethical 559–566
Distinct Domain Model (of morality) 54–55, 61, 63
knowledge 226–228
moral 630, 734
psychological/societal 734
dominance, social 751–752
dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) 255
dutifulness, communal and spiritual 327–346
E
early childhood education and care (ECEC) 516–529
autonomy, community and 523–524
ecology of 517–518
ethics of 525–526
Nordic welfare model of 521–529
quality and 526–528
setting 517–518
structural and process features of 518–519
Swedish settings for 524–525
teachers and 520–521
Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (ECERS) 527
East Africa 432–434
Ecological Model 136
education
academic pressure in China 396–397
moral identity development and 137
Education for Liberation 206
egotism 28–29
Elaine paradigm 30, 37–38, 41–42, 47
elder care 395–396
El Salvador 520
embeddedness, social 192–194
emotions
behaviors and 247f
ethical development and 566
“feeling thermometer” 615–616
moral 73, 79, 245–247. See also identity, moral, emotions and
defined 17, 73, 425, 536
development of 423–427, 469
play groups and 545
predictive 28, 469–470
self-evaluative 420
socializing 463
morally relevant action and 251–255
sociomoral 154
taxonomy of 247–251
valenced, orientation, and consciousness 247–251
empathy. See also omoiyari
adolescence and 37–38, 252–255
affective 253
-altruism hypothesis 30–31, 37
cognitive 18, 21, 74
compassion and 410, 425, 469, 566, 619, 728, 776
components of 524
defined 74
dispositional, for nature 776–777
early childhood and 246
emotional 18, 21, 74
as gateway to caring 12–24
global 425
guilt and 154
induction 319
infants/children and 34–35
pre-adolescents and 654
prosocial behavior and 336
proto- 74
sympathy and 469–470
young adults and 37–38
youth and 563
endogeneity 579
engagement
civic and political 572
continued 444
positive 452–453
social motivations, by age group 578f
Enright Forgiveness Inventory (EFI)/EFI for Children 405–406
Entertainment Software Association 710
environmentalism 378, 419–434, 765–780
adolescence and 421–434
Anishinaabe and 770–771
children and 422–423, 427–428
emotional affinity to nature and 425–427
environmental commons 766, 768–769
defined 768
educational nurturing of 772–773
First Nations and 432
generational amnesia 775
moral disengagement and 772
prosocial components of 420–422
types of behaviors 427
Whanganui and 767
epigenetics 692–693
esteem, self- 670
(p. 792) Estonia 618, 625
Ethic of Autonomy 232–237, 330–332, 340, 494, 505, 526, 606, 667–669, 673–676, 767–768
defined 525, 606, 666
Ethic of Community 330–332, 505, 606, 667–668
defined 666
Ethic of Divinity 330–332, 505, 606, 666, 668
defined 666
Ethical Values Assessment (EVA) 328
Ethiopia 674–675
ethnicity 629–642. See also discrimination
eudemonia 691
European Values Study (EVS) 731
Euthyphro dilemma/trilemma 622–623
evangelicals, American 235, 615–616
evolved developmental niche, and infancy 692–693
exemplars
brave 376–378
generative 376
moral (care) 33, 38, 40, 44, 129, 376–378, 441, 451. See also Model of Intuitive Morality and Exemplars (MIME)
adolescence and 566, 593
defined 132
moral identity and 230–232
religious 594–595
societal 617–618
spiritual 598, 605
Twenty-Four Filial 389
experiences
emotional
factors associated with children’s 255–257
theoretical perspective on 245–246
everyday, and cultural values 186–201
F
fairness
/cheating 56, 329, 651, 657–658, 711–712
/justice (fairness/reciprocity) 16–17
infants and 271–272, 278–279
norms 271
faith-based organizations 342–345
faith, religious 115, 122, 165, 228, 331, 359–360, 453, 595, 601–605, 618, 619. See also Dharma; Seva
family 121–122. See also parenting
defining 462–463
generativity and 371–372
moral identity and 136
perspective-taking and 468–469
play groups 538–540
prosocial behavior and 461–475
siblings and extended 472–473
social justice and 63–64
sympathy and 469–470
volunteerism and 354–355
Family Forgiveness Questionnaire 406
Family Support Agreement (FSA) 394
Faroe Islands 521
First Nations 432, 434
flourishing, moral 440–455, 617
forgiveness 250, 333, 336, 402–415, 425, 454
defined 403–404
dispositional 405
early developmental work on 404–405
education 413–414
intervention and 411–412
measuring the construct of 405–408
prosocial behavior and 336
psychological/physical health and 407–408
self- 409
therapy 408–413
trait 405
Forgiveness Likelihood Scale 407
France 404
“free riders” 16
friendship 753
fundamentalism 606
G
game play 714
categories of 714–715
digital
child’s developmental level and 718–719
devices and 719
factors that impact 714–719
genre 714–715
identity 716–717
immersion 716
mode of 715–716
moral choices and 708–720
narratives and 717–718
theoretical perspectives on 711–714
“sandbox games” 708
shooter games 710
Gemeinschaft 57–58, 66, 669–672, 675–676
gender
androgeny 738
attitudes 727, 731–732
values 730–737
binary 735–739
cis-sexism 748–749, 755, 755–755
differences, developmental and cohort 729–730
essentialism 736–737
gay-straight alliances (GSAs) 756
heterosexism 748–749, 755
internalized homo/trans negativity 755
metacognitions 727
morality and 731–732
non-conformance 737–739
norms and conformity 751
prejudice 727
psychological masculinity/feminity 729
religion and 731–732
SCDT and 750–753
segregated/targeted educational programs 739–740
SGM and 755–757
stereotyping 727
trans- 732, 736, 747–748
generations, identifying with future 776–777
generativity 20–21, 366–381
adolescence and 370, 379
adults and 20–21
aging and 446
culture and 375–376
environmentalism and 430
life span and 369–375
moral (care) exemplars and 135, 375–378
motives and 366
personality and 368–369, 371
predictors of 375–376
psychological features of 367
social/civic activity and 373–374
genetics
behavior 169, 255
emotional experiences of children and 255–256
passive/evocative gene-environment correlation 175
values and 166, 170–171, 175
Gesellschaft 670–673, 676
Ghana 732–733
globalization 237–238, 663–677. See also culture
God. See also Divinity; morality; religion and religiosity
Brazilian adolescents and 122
Chinese culture and 386
Hindu reationship with 340–342
humans and 227
Iranian society and 120
Judeo-Christian conception of 387, 493, 599, 603–604, 613–618, 621–626, 732
Kenyan culture and 595
morality and 329, 593
Göteborg Child-Care Study 527–528
grammar, moral 55–56
gratitude 62, 690
character strength and 116–117
moral (care) exemplars and 451
prosocial behavior and 257, 336
purpose and 450
reciprocal filial piety (RFP) and 392
(p. 793) Great Britain 102–103. See also England; United Kingdom
Greece 321
groups
children and group membership 101–105
cliques and crowds 18
cooperative 268
cross-race 638–639
dynamics, and trust in 778
identification with 775–776
“identitarian” 586–587
peer 13–14, 14, 18, 638
acceptance 80, 99, 246, 250, 738
-based interventions 758
collaboration 566
conflict 83, 311, 634
discrimination 636–639
egalitarianism 488
exclusion 103
moral identity and 137
networks 86–87, 321
norms 638, 753, 758
play 541, 727
pressure 404
prosocial 137
relations 18, 97, 172, 566
selection 137
victimization 738, 757
play (school) 540–542
religious 592–607
Guatemala 293, 539
guilt and shame 35, 41–42, 78–80, 469–471
American/European cultures and 248, 471
children and 154–155
Chinese culture and 85, 248
neurotic guilt 248
pro- and anti-social behavior and 250–252
young children and 78–79
H
happiness, eudaimonic/hedonic 20
happy victimizer phenomenon 246
harm
/care 16, 330, 573
/injustice 60
healing, radical 207
Heartland Forgiveness Scale 406
heart rate 256–257
hedonism 166
help/harm, infant 269–271, 279–280
helping. See also altruism; identity, moral; volunteerism
age-related motivations for 147–148
childhood maturation and 293–295
considerations 297–298
defined 289
development 291–298
distinguished from prosociality 290–291
early social interactions and 291–293
face-saving and 146
infants and 269271, 295–296
instrumental 76
intraindividual variability and 294–295
older children and 299
pre-adolescents and 256, 298
prosocial behavior and 295
spontaneous 147
toddlers and 155
young children and 256, 296–298
Hinduism 329, 603, 731
Hmong 235
Holland 472, 618
honesty/dishonesty 672
Hong Kong 85, 370, 380, 392, 394–396, 405, 411, 669
human embryonic stem cell research (ESCR) 337
Human Rights Watch report 736
humility, and prosocial behavior 336
I
identity
adolescence 132–136
bicultural 667–668
civic 353
development 428, 667–669
digital game play and 716–717
environmental 428–431
ethnic-racial
characteristics 639
youth and 639–641
formation, versus role confusion 428
gender 228–229, 736
adolescence and 751–752
narratives surrounding 511
pre-adolescents and 747–749, 759
group 775–776
moral 28, 40
adolescence and 87–88
character approach to 130
contexts of 136–139
defined 128, 699
development of 87, 128–140
dispositional 130–131
emotions and 128, 473, 697
explicit 131, 134
family and 136–137, 473
history of 129–131
honesty and 96
implicit 131, 134
internalization 138
moral actions and 353
purpose and 353–354
religion and 595–596
social cognition and 130, 698–700
sociological 130
symbolization 138
transcendence and 603
oral narrative 130–131
pathways to cultural 668
personal 388
personal/ego 208
public 105
relational 387–388
religious, and prosocial behavior 595–604
remix 667–668, 675
self-
adolescence and 33, 208, 230–231, 371, 697, 699
Implicit Association Test 102
individualism 38, 123
/collectivism 152–153
Indonesia 155, 249, 252
ingratiation 93
inherence heuristic 737
injustice 409
integration, self- 133, 668
intellectualism, critically compassionate 207
intelligence, socialization 690
intentionality
shared 76
toddlers/young children and 77–79
interactions, representational 489
interdependence 767. See also parenting
/independence 152, 154–155, 157, 669–670
Asian children and 151, 156, 392
democracy and 767
Hinduism and 338
theory 229, 268
International Millennium Survey 358
internet 674–675
intersectionality 216
interventions, inclusive school- and peer-based 758
intimate, principle of favoring the 388–389
intuitions, moral 17
Ireland 413, 468
Islam 602, 621
Israel 156, 171, 176, 235, 249, 252, 328, 405, 411, 427, 470, 472, 674–675
J
jati 333
Jordan 472
Judaism 600, 603, 615–616, 731
judgment, rational/intuitive 719
justice
deliberative 580
distributional 77
experience and 630
(p. 794) family and 55, 63–64
gender and 57
interpersonal issues and 60–61
model (of morality) 53–57
Chinese culture and 391
moral development and 54, 73
social 63–64, 554
ally development and 753–755
environmental commons and 768–769
and ethnic studies coursework 214
youth program activities and 561–563
Just World Theory 215
K
Kalaalit Nunaat (Greenland) 521
karma 340
Kazakh youth 120
Kenya 46, 433, 472, 542, 595
Kohlbergian justice model. See justice, model (of morality)
L
language, moral 574–575
language socialization paradigm 491–492
Laos 672
Latter-Day Saints 235
law, natural 388
Leadership High School, New York City 203–204
learning
ethical 553
service-learning programs 584
social 276
liberty/oppression 56, 328, 651
life
“good” 503–504, 507
-span theory (of moral development) 85–87
literacy, critical 212–213
Lithuania 46
longevity dividend 449
loyalty/betrayal 56, 328, 651, 655–657, 711–712
Loyola Generativity Scale (LGS) 368, 370, 373, 375, 378–379
M
Madagascar 155
Mahabharata 333
Malaysia 156, 249, 252, 472
Manu, Law Book of 333
mapping, cross-cultural 666–667
marginalization 209, 339, 562, 668, 756
maturation/maturity 132, 391
meaning
cultural/symbolic 432
individual/expressive 432
inherent/aesthetic 432
instrumental/goal directed 432
in life scale 370
making 486
needs of 111
Measure of Adolescent Critical Consciousness 210
media 649–660. See also video gaming
digital video 545
moral change and 674–675
moral depictions in 651
moral identity development and 138
moral reasoning and 651–659
in Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia 672
as a values antecedent 173
violence and 651–655
meditation, mindfulness 602–603
mentoring 21
mesosystem 139
Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) 368–369, 372–374
mind
set, cultural 152, 156
theory of (ToM) 13, 72, 75–76, 80, 95–97, 146, 148, 248, 321, 749
modeling (spiritual) 601
Model of Intuitive Morality and Exemplars (MIME) 712–713
moksha 333–334
Mongolia 117, 120
monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) 255
Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) 56, 328
Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) 56, 153, 330, 651, 659–660, 711, 720
Moral Internalization Theory 462
Moral Interpretations of Interpersonal Violence (MIIV) scale 653
morality 18. See also religion and religiosity
authority and 573
constraining/heteronomous 488
contexts for 573–577
cooperative/autonomous 488
defined 665–666
development of 146–149
as gateway to caring 16–17
God and. See God, morality and
in-group 573
implicit 507
internalizing 21, 24
models of 53–56
“moral” defined 650
moral dimensions 92
“moral judgment-action gap” 129
nonrelativist 53
purity and 573
secular 616–620
theistic and secular 622–624
volitional 73
Morocco 164–165
motivation
caring 9–24
adolescence and 17–19
defined 10
infants and 21
infants/preschoolers and 12–14
morality and 9–10, 16–17
normative development of 12–14
pre-adolescents and 14–17
proactive 10–12, 15, 18
defined 699
developmental benefits and 577–578
external/integrated/introjected 133
identified 133
motives, prosocial
categories/spectrum of 28–29
children and 34–37
defined 27–28
development of 34–45
indicators of 28
infants and 34–37
moral identity approach to 32–33, 38–40
pre-adolescence and 34–37
psychological theories of 30–34
toddlers and 71
young children and 34–37
Mutual Response Orientation (MRO) 695
Myanmar 351 672
N
Nepal 156
narratives 130–131, 134–136
alternative 510–512
children and 486–488
counternarratives 510
digital game play and 717–718
generativity and 367
master 486, 501–513
biographical 505
core principles, critical aspects of 503
culture, power, agency and 501–503
defined 501, 504
ethics and 503–506
moral development and 503–510
propositions about 503–508
moral selves and 486–488
personal 486, 501–502
pre-adolescents and 486–494
toddlers and 488
transcendent 597–598
National Association for Choice in Education 739
National Curriculum for Preschools (Sweden) 524–525
National Education Longitudinal Study 355
(p. 795) National Study of Adolescent Health 357
natural deficit disorder 431
Negative-State Relief Model (of prosocial motives) 42
Netherlands 618, 631, 672
neuroticism 373
New Zealand 235, 328, 618, 765
niche, evolved developmental (EDN) 153, 156, 689, 692–693
Nicomachean Ethics 403
nonviolence, and prosocial behavior 336
normativity/norms 434–435
gender 63–64
hidden and explicit, in school 757–758
personal 420
personality 423
social 86–87
Norway 618
O
obligation 41
omoiyari 59, 61–62, 65
oppression 204–205
stages of 207
systems of 748–749
optimism 690
original stage perspective (on generativity) 368–369
outcome locus 772
oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) 256
P
parenting 11, 19–21, 63, 136, 175–179, 249, 255, 462–475, 485. See also family; similarity, parent-child
AFP, RFP and 396
culture and 154
democratic 87
dimensions of 136
European/American 64–65
gender atttitude socialization and 732–734
generativity and 372–375, 380–381
harsh 319, 374–376
interdependence and 168–179
Japanese
moral development and 464–466
parenthood paradox 20
personality characteristics and 696
prosocial behavior and 471–472
secularism and 620–622
self-awareness and 81–85
“sensitive” 66, 151, 154
supportive 392
toddlers and 485
values and 466–467
volunteerism and 354–355
participation, thin-thick 216
pathways (attitudinal/social-milieu) 172
pedagogy, culturally relevant 207
persona, inauthentic 544
personality. See also generativity
identity development and 428
levels of 130, 371
moral 32–33, 39, 373
infancy and 688–689, 696
reconciliation model of 367
social cognitive approach to 699
stages 369–370
traits 130–132
Personal Strivings Theory 446
personhood
legal 765
moral 200, 672–674
“person-situation debate” 139
perspective taking 468–469
Pew Studies (2014) 615, 688
Philippines 472, 542
piety, filial 385–398
authoritarian (AFP) 392–397
culture and 386–397
dual model of 391–394
extended 229
mechanisms to train 396
modern 390–397
psychology and 390
reciprocal (RFP) 392, 394–397
shifting values of 394
play
community 542
defined 535–536
groups 534–547
effects of 537–538
future of 546–547
moral development and 545–546
neighborhood 540–542
virtual 543–545
moral development and 535–537
object 189–190
sibling 540
policy, social 64–66, 462
child development and 64–66
moral beliefs and 575
Nordic welfare model and 521
values and 398
Portraits of American Life Study (PALS) 359
Portugal 407, 573
Possibility Project, The (TPP) 562–563
praxis 205
prejudice
anti-atheist 615–616, 625
authoritarianism and 752
ethnic-racial 632–639
presentation, self-
adolescence and 98
after rule violation 100–101
atypical development and 104–105
defined 93
“face work” 100
intergroup contexts and 101–104
tactics of 93–105
young children and 98–99
preservation, children’s self- 94–99
pride
adolescence and 250
pro- and anti-social behavior and 255
prosocial behavior and 250
privacy 663–665
Problem-Posing Model (of education) 211–212
alternatives to 214–215
Process Model
of forgiveness 409–413, 415
of generativity 367
promotion, self- 93
prosocial behavior. See also family
adolescence and 29–30, 37–45
children and 60
defined 290–291
emotional socialization and 154–157
pre-adolescents and 94
preconditions for 147
prerequisites for 149
preschoolers and 94
studies on 147–150
toddlers and 77–78
young adults and 37–45
Prosocial Personality Battery (PSB) 39
Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM) 29, 46–47
protection, self- 694
Proteus effect 717
psychology narratives. See narratives
Puerto Rico 112–113
puja 341
punishment 34–35, 41
purity
/degradation 651
principle 283
purpose
adolescence and 114–117
adults and 114
beyond self 447–448
character strength and 116–117
common and personal 120–121
conditions supporting the development of 115–116
defined 111
economics and 123
education and 123–124
eudaimonic well-being and 447
goal directedness and 447–448
gratitude and 450
later life and 449–452
“meaning” and 111
religion and 599–600
social 121
the world beyond self and 111
youth and (cross-cultural themes) 121–124
R
race 172, 629–642. See also discrimination; prejudice
adolescence and 632–633, 637–639
defined 632–633
(p. 796) Ramayana 333
REACH Model (of forgiveness) 411, 412–413, 415
reasoning
autobiographical 502
Autonomy 672–674
Community 672–674
Divinity 672–674
hedonistic 36
interpersonal 236–237
moral 32, 36, 40–41
children and 463–464
cognitive-developmental approach to 224–226
cultural-developmental approach to 232–236
domain approach to 226–230
extended family and 466–468
future research directions for 236–238
gender attitudes and 734–735
media and 651–659
moral identity and 230–232
parents and 464–466
play groups and 545
post-hoc 575
pre-adolescents and 464
siblings and 466–468
template of 233–335
needs-oriented 36
second-order mental-state 96, 99
social 750–753
reciprocity 77, 388–389
reconciliation 133, 367
referencing, social 75
reflection
critical 205
self- 698
regulation, self- 149, 315, 597, 694, 698
relationships
adolescence and 147
ally development 753–755
embedded 196–197
God, beliefs, and 603–604
harmonious, and individual freedom 387–388
human-environment 769–772
leader-youth 556–557
peer. See groups, peer
positive 452
religion and religiosity 40
behavioral standards and 600
commercialization of 343
defined 593
diffused/instititional 386
fidelity and 597
fundamentalism 329
ideological content of 598–600
in India 337
L’Arche faithbased communities 595
meaning and 599
moral (care) exemplars and 359–360
moral identity development and 138–139
morality and 731–732
“other” 329–330
prayer and 602
purpose and 121–122, 599–600
regulation and 602–603
as resource 598
spirituality and 593–594
spiritual practices and rituals 604–605
supernatural monitoring, and self-control 605
values transmission and 172–173
virtue development and 595–596, 605–606
volunteerism and 358–360
representation, moral self- 93
reputation
European children and 97
management 97–99
pre-adolescents and 97
resentment 408
respect 193, 254
active 339
pro- and anti-social behavior and 254
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) 256–257
responsibility 231
adolescence and 559
personal 554
Yucatec Mayan hierarchy of 192–194, 198–199
reward
material 36, 43–44
social 35–36, 43
Righteous Among the Nations 10, 17
role(s) 371–375
helping 672
responsibility and 559–561
social 672
transitions among 371–375
Rowe-Kahn Model (of successful aging) 443–444
Rushton Altruism Scale 41
Russia 375–376
Rye Forgiveness Scale 406
S
samaj 338
sanctions
children and 17, 72–73, 314–315
environmental 771
external 314
self- 308, 313–315
social 54
sanctity/degradation 56, 328, 711–712
schadenfreude 257–258
Schwartz Value Survey 394
Scotland 618
secularization, coercive/organic 618
security 167
selection, kin 17
Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) model 444–445
self
the dharmic 337
-efficacy, political 205
embedded in social networks 337–339
moral 79, 80–81
social 113
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) 133
Senegal 65
sensibility, premoral 72–73, 76, 81
sequences
cognitive-developmental 224
moral 666, 688
redemptive 135, 376
social-cognitive 112
Seva 327. See also Dharma
faith-based organizations and 342–343
Gandhian perspectives on 343–345
self-purification and 328
Seven Generations Principle 771, 777
Seven Goods 452–453
sexual and gender minority (SGM) 746–757
sexuality 750–753
siblings. See family
Sierra Leone 405, 411
Sikhism 341
similarity
environmental antecedents for 174f
levels of analysis of value 167–168
parent-child. See also parenting
common social environments and 171–173, 177
nonrelational sources of 170–173
pathways to 165–166
relational sources of 168–170
shared value antecedents and 173
Slovakia 731
Slovenia 618
Social-Cognitive Domain Theory (SCDT) 33–34, 421, 465–466, 489, 711, 734, 752–754, 756, 759
discrimination and 749–753
social feedback hypothesis (of prosocial motives) 34
socialization 14, 46, 57
adolescence and 17–19
adult 19–21
children and 14–17
of community moralities 61–63
emotional 154–157
ethnic-racial 637–639
European American 462, 472
incentives of parental 72–74, 84
internalization and 483–486
language 491–494
moral values and 146–157
toddlers and 61–63
values and 730
(p. 797) Social Justice Education Program (SJEP) 214
Social Reasoning Development Perspective (SRDP) 749–750
society. See also community; culture; identity; justice, social; narratives, master; role(s); volunteerism
Chinese 385–398, 492
collectivist/individualistic 123
dharmic view of 328–329, 337–338, 344, 346
Judeo-Christianity and 387
moral contribution to 448
“pure” 120
Swedish 525–526
Sociopolitical Consciouness Measure 211
South Africa 117, 119, 123, 472, 572, 588
South City High School Futures Project 213–214
South Korea 361, 618. See also Korea
Soviet Union 618
Spain 117–118, 123, 124, 321, 731
spirituality 599, 606
/elevation 453
applied or practical 343
defined 593–594
spiritual/Divine 340–342
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 206
superheroes 712–713
superior, principle of respecting the 388–389, 393
Sweden 53, 321, 472, 516–529, 541
Switzerland 248–249, 312, 316, 405
sympathy 37–38, 469–471. See also empathy
defined 253
pro- and anti-social behavior and 252–254
young adults and 37–38
T
Taipei 322
Tanzania 46, 433
television. See media
template 232
temptation resistance paradigm 95
Tendency to Forgive Scale (TTF) 360–361, 406–407
theism
defined 614
homicide and 618
morality and 615, 622
Title IX 739
Trait Forgiveness Scale 407
traits 131–132
Transgression-Related Inventory of Motivations (TRIM) 406
Triune Ethic Theory (TET) 693–694
trolley car problem 55, 289
truth-telling 94–97, 701–702. See also deception
Turkey 46, 321, 472, 520, 539, 670
twins 171, 255. See also family, siblings
U
understanding
self- 40, 112–113, 129
toddler’s emotional 75–77
United Kingdom 99, 235, 328–329, 429, 636. See also England; Great Britain
United Nations’ Gender Empowerment Measure 617
United Nations’ Human Development Report 617
universalism 166, 227–228
Upanishads 334
Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) 527
utilitarianism 622
V
Valenced Association Task 271
Value-Belief-Norm Theory 420
values 111. See also religion and religiosity
agency and 174
antecedents 173–174
birth-order and 178
cultural 151–157
change and 669–671
morality and 675–676
defined 166–167
European 58–59
experience and 630
gender attitudes and 730–737
generational transmission of 167–168
genetic (pan-human) transmission of 171
immigration and 176–178
internatization 168
moral 466–468
defined 727
development of 146–149
individual/social 153
internalizing 148–149
interpersonal 147
socialization and 146–157
mutuality and 174
prosocial
behavior and 336, 354
defined 147
young children and 147
separation strategy and 178
similarity (levels of analysis for) 167–168
socialization 167–168
socioeconomic status and 171
Values-in-Action Inventory 691
victimization 738
children and 424
gender 757–758
peer 738
school-based 756
SGM 757
video gaming 317, 615–618. See also media
violations rule 100–101
violence
adolescence and 654–655
video gaming and 312–313
virtue 596, 597, 689–691, 701
Vision of Humanity’s Global Peace Index 617
Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) 31, 44
Volunteer Functions Theory (VFT) 31
volunteerism 19, 21, 24, 44, 350–362, 573
adolescence and 231
culture and 360–361
European 360–361
factors (instrumental, social influence, sustaining) 351–352
Ghandi and 344–345
legacy of 354
neighborhood 357–358
positive benefits of 350–351
religious beliefs and 358–359
schools and 355–357
service-learning programs 357
social context of 354–361
society and 360–361
theological 623–624
young adults and 31
W
warming, global 420
welfare, agent 296–297
well-being, eudaimonic/hedonic 20, 447
Whanganui River/Iwi 765, 767, 768, 779
Whole Trait Theory 701
worship, ancestor 386–387
work 121–122
Chinese women and 397
generativity and 372–373
Yacatec Mayan children and 194–199
World Values Survey 361, 581
worldviews
ecological argument on 767–768
opposing 766–767
worth, self- 111
Y
(p. 798) Yale University’s Environmental Performance Index 617
“Young Warriors” program 213
Youth Action 553
Youth Dialogues on Race and Ethnicity 642
Youth–Parent Socialization Study 356–357
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) project 213
youth programs 552–562
“active ingredients” of 554–559
activities 557–559
convergent supports for 559
culture and 555–556
responsibility development and 560–561
social justice (processes) and 562–563
transgressive behavior and 563–565
in the United States 558–566