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- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Since the discoveries of language-sensitive brain areas in the late nineteenth century, the localization of the language network in the brain has been the subject of neurolinguistics research. Especially during the times of the two world wars and until the 1980s, head and brain injuries in soldiers as well as in civil patients served as the main data source. The advent of neuroimaging techniques roughly 100 years later was a milestone, providing online data from the living brain. This chapter presents functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as the most frequently used technique, the physical basics, appropriate experimental study designs, and perspectives for novel developments for neurolinguistics research in the active and passive brain.
Keywords: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), resting state fMRI, dynamic causal modeling (DCM), blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal, arterial spin labeling (ASL), language production, language comprehension, speech
Stefan Heim is a cognitive neuropsychologist and neurolinguist. He did his PhD thesis at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, Germany. He is now Professor and Chair of the academic programs for Speech-Language Therapy (BSc, MSc) at Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University, Germany. His main research focus is on the connectivity, and plasticity of the language network in the human brain.
Karsten Specht is a cognitive neuroscientist. He is a Professor at the Department of Biological and Medical Psychology at the University of Bergen, Norway, where he became head of the Bergen fMRI group, and he also holds a guest professorship at the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø. His main research focus is on clinical multimodal neuroimaging, auditory perception of speech and music, connectivity and plasticity of the language network, and rehabilitation from speech and language disorders.
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