- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Semantic memory is composed of one’s accumulated world knowledge. This includes one’s stored factual information about the real-world objects and animals, which enables one to recognize and interact with the things in one’s environment. How is this semantic information organized, and where is it stored in the brain? Newly developed functional neuroimaging (fMRI) methods have provided exciting and innovative approaches to studying these questions. In particular, several recent fMRI investigations have examined the neural bases of semantic knowledge using similarity-based approaches. In similarity models, data from direct (i.e., neural) and indirect (i.e., subjective, psychological) measurements are interpreted as proximity data that provide information about the relationships among object concepts in an abstract, high-dimensional space. Concepts are encoded as points in this conceptual space, such that the semantic relatedness between two concepts is determined by their distance from one another. Using this approach, neuroimaging studies have offered compelling insights to several open-ended questions about how object concepts are represented in the brain. This chapter briefly describes how similarity spaces are computed from both behavioral data and spatially distributed fMRI activity patterns. Then, it reviews empirical reports that relate observed neural similarity spaces to various models of semantic similarity. The chapter examines how these methods have both shaped and informed our current understanding of the neural representation of conceptual information about real-world objects.
Elizabeth Musz is currently a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Psychological and Brain Sciences Department at Johns Hopkins University. Her research uses neuroimaging to study how conceptual information is represented in the brain. She received her PhD in Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania.
Sharon L. Thompson-Schill, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
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