- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Hearing loss affects over 1 billion people around the world and is the fifth leading cause of disability. In the United States, approximately 10,000 babies are born each year with significant hearing loss. Although assistive technologies such as cochlear implants (CIs) are available to restore hearing, deaf children who receive CIs on average show significantly poorer language skills and academic outcomes than their normally hearing peers. At the same time, a relatively small percentage of deaf children are born to deaf parents and learn sign language as their first language, and grow up to be excellent, fluent communicators who are bilingual in signed and spoken language. Historically, there has been significant tension between advocates of sign language and “oralists” who discouraged sign language use. This chapter provides a critical review of language development in deaf children, including those with CIs and those exposed to different kinds, and amounts, of signed language. The linguistic and educational outcomes of deaf children are considered in light of current understanding of neurodevelopment, sensitive periods, and neuroplasticity, while highlighting areas of controversy and important directions for future research. The chapter concludes with evidence-based recommendations in favor of sign language exposure for all deaf children.
Aaron J. Newman, BA (Winnipeg), MSc, PhD (Oregon), is a Professor in the Departments of Psychology & Neuroscience, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Surgery at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Canada. His research focuses on the use of behavioral, neuropsychological, and multi-modal neuroimaging methods to study neuroplasticity in language and related systems. He is actively involved in training and research initiatives involving applications and commercialization of neuroscience.
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