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date: 25 November 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Oil palm is a key global crop, providing food and nonfood resources for billions of people. Two distinct types of oil, derived respectively from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit and from the kernel (seed), are distributed via separate supply chains to markets in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Oil palm is a tropical crop typically grown in high rainfall regions but yields have recently been reduced by water limitation due to changing climate patterns. In addition, over recent decades, indirect land use changes due to the expansion of oil palm into new regions have affected local hydrology and biotic components of these ecosystems. As the expansion of oil palm cultivation continues in order to meet growing consumer demand, especially in Asia, new research is beginning to address potential solutions to critical issues such as the environmental impact and biological performance of oil palm crops.

Keywords: Oil palm, El Niño, climate, drought, smallholders, plantations, sustainability, supply chain

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