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date: 21 June 2021

Index

Index

(p. 533) Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f’, respectively, following the page number.

A
Aarts, Henk 276, 278, 279
ability
in goal implementation theory 511
interventions to improve students’ views of 450
Abraham, C. 21
academic functioning 340
academic motivation. See Student motivation
academic performance tests 257
acceptance, peer group 494–96
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) 430–31, 433
achievement domain 490
achievement goal orientation 236
Achievement Goal Questionnaire Revised 237
achievement goals 229–41
achievement goal approach 230
achievement goal theory 230
and approach–avoidance distinction 232–35
and competence 234–35
and competence-based model 238–39
conceptual issues in 235–37
development of 229–30
dichotomous model of 230
emerging research in 237–40
future research, directions for 240–41
historical overview 230–32
measurement issues in 236–37
potential-based 239
and response bias in measurement 240
student, interventions to improve 451
and 3 × 2 model 235
trichotomous model of 233
and 2 × 2 model 233–35
achievement goal theory 469–70
2 × 2 achievement goal perspectives and SDT 474–75
work motivation in 512
youth sport motivation in 488–89
achievement values 450–51
Ackerman, P. L. 511
ACT (acceptance and commitment therapy) 430–31, 433
actional phase 295
action and awareness 170
action-oriented mode 399–400. See also action system
action-outcome learning 272–73
action system 398–99, 399–400
Adams, J. S. 518
adjustment to school 447
adolescents
peer groups for 448
physical activity motivation for 494, 495
affect
approach and avoidance 32
defined 31
mechanism of 31
positive 33–35
and self-regulatory behavior 31–36
affect-driven influence 270
affective consequences 299
affective consonance 401, 402
affective consonance production 394, 401
affective experiences 378
affective response 211
affective stimuli 270
affirming the self 125
African American children 456
age
and friendship quality 495
and goal focus 291
AI (artificial intelligence) 528, 530
Ainsworth, M. D. S. 338
Ajzen, I. 465–67
alcoholism, model of 424
Alexander, K. L. 449
Alexander, M. B. 121
Alicke, Mark 310
alliance fostering therapy 425–26
alliance ruptures 426
American dream 101
Ames, C. 447, 448
Ames, Carole 230, 236
Ames’s integration 232
Amorose, A. J. 498, 500
amygdala 358, 360–61, 366
Ancel Joye, I. 383
Andersen, S. 259
Andersen, S. M. 49, 473
Anderson-Butcher, D. 498
ANS (autonomic nervous system) 179
anterior cingulate cortex 358–59, 361–62
anterior insula 99
anxiety, competitive 491
anxiety-buffer hypothesis 71
approach–avoidance framework 512
approach goals 423, 432
approach temperament 38
approach valence 469
approach vs. avoidance 249, 469
Arndt, J. 71
Arnold, Felix 159
artificial intelligence (AI) 528, 530
ASIP (autonomy-supportive intervention program) 451–52
assessment practices 454–55
assimilation contrast 310
associationistic processing 36
astuteness 252
attachment to parents 338–30
attainment of goals. See goal attainment
attainment value 445
attitudes
and employee motivation 519
in planned behavior theory 465
attribute verifiability 309
attribution theory 141
attrition from sport 488
augmented realities 528
authoritarian parenting style 491
authoritative parenting style 491
auto-biographical experiences 397. see also extension memory
automatically-activated motivational states 362
automaticity 433
autonomic nervous system (ANS) 179
Autonomous and Controlled Motivations for Treatment Questionnaire 420
autonomous motivation
autonomy-supportive contexts 95
in education 93
and feedback 95
and feedback, positive vs. negative 95
in healthcare 93
and personality systems interactions theory 394
in psychotherapy 419, 425
relational supports 95
and self-determination theory 394, 473, 474
in self-determination theory 468–69
in sport 94
in work environments 94
autonomous self-regulation 367–68
(p. 534) autonomy 136
in basic needs theory 469
and choice 137, 144
control vs. 149
and effort 147
in motivational interviewing 429
neural mechanisms of 405–7
and physical health 138
and self control 125
in self-determination theory 472
student 451–52, 454
and student performance 137
autonomy support 96
autonomy-supportive intervention program (ASIP) 451–52
autonomy-supportive leadership style 498, 500
autonomy-supportive parenting style 491
autonomy-supportive practices 347
autotelic experience 169
autotelic personality 175–76
Autotelic Personality Questionnaire 175
avoidance goals 423, 432
avoidance tendencies 423–24
avoidant valence 469
B
Balanced Inventory of Socially Desireable Responding 312
Bandura, Albert 4, 12, 248, 444, 511
Barber, H. 493
Barreto, P. 384
Barsalou, Lawrence 274
basal ganglia 359
basic behavior 419
basic needs theory 469, 514
basic trust 400
Bass, B. M. 498
Baumann, N. 404, 407
Becker, Ernest 69, 72, 79, 80
behavior
basic 419
and employee motivation 519
ideomotor 273
behavioral construct, in motivation 488
behavioral restraint 385–86
behavior change 455
behaviorism 3–4, 136, 517
behavioristic theory 98
being in flow 176
Belk, R. W. 74
benevolent sexism 324
Berking, M. 427
Berlyne, D. E. 160, 160f
Bernacki, M. L. 454
Bern Inventory of Treatment Goals 420t
beta-adrenergetic sympathetic impact 376
better-than-average effect (BTAE) 309
Bhalla, J. A. 492, 494
big data 529
Billings, Josh 310
black box model 4
Blackwell, L. S. 450
Blaga, M. 512
Blazo, J. A. 493
Bodmann, S. M. 237
body image 324
body project 321
Bohn, V. K. 60
Boivin, M. 18
Bond, R. 21
boredom 171
Bouquet, C. A. 275
Bowbly, John 69, 78, 337
Boyd, J. N. 292
brain glucose 121–22
brain structures 357f
Brehm, J. W. 374
Bridwell, L. G. 509
brief interventions for student motivation
and national education policy 455
scaling up 452–53
Briggs, C. 423
Brinkmann, K. 381, 383
Bronfenbrenner, U. 494
Brownman, A. S. 49
Brumberg, Joan 321, 327
Brunstein, J. C. 420
Brustad, R. J. 489, 491, 493
BTAE (better-than-average effect) 309
Burgess, P. W. 255
Burke, B. L. 70
Burton, K. D. 476
C
Calogero, R. M. 326, 332
Canning, E. A. 451
Capa, R. L. 275
cardiac preejection period reactivity 381f
caretaker-child interactions 49
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development 449
Carnevale, P. J. 258
Carstensen, L . L. 292
Carter, C. 473
Carver, C. S. 68
Casper, F. 421
Castonguay, L. G. 425
casual attribution theory 230
causality orientations theory 476
Cesario, Joseph 53
challenge-skill balance 173, 174
challenge-skill relationship 176
change, models of 427–28
chatoyant notion of the self 393
Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. 473
Chen, S. 473
Cheon, S. H. 452
Chicoine, E. 423
child development 488
children’s motivation
and academic functioning 340, 343
and attachment to parents 338–40
and autonomy-supportive practices 347
and capability 338
development of 446–47
and early relatedness 344–45
and engagement 338
and investment 338
and IQ 339
other factors in 347
and parental beliefs 490
and relatedness, contextual variations in 345–47
and self-determination theory 340–42, 344
and sense of responsibility to parents 342–43
and socialization 341
variations in 456See also student motivation
Children’s Research Center 230
Chirkov, V. 101
Choi, J. 93
choice 135–50
and analytic mindset 140
and autonomy 144
biological and neuroscience perspectives in 140–41
biological/neuroscience views of 140–41
cognitive views of 138–40
cultural differences in 147–49
and depression 141
effects of 143–49
and effort 146
and environmental factors 136
as focal task 145
future research, directions for 149–50
and individual preference 144
and memory 139
as motivator 136–43
and social class 148
and social interaction 142–43
choice overload 147
cholinergic system 180
chronic accessibility 50
cingulate cortex 276
Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values 420
clarification-oriented psychotherapy 431, 433
Clarkson, J. J. 121
classroom practices 447
classrooms, interventions in 452–53, 455–57
climate, motivational 499, 500
coaches
factors influencing behavior of 500
peer leaders vs. 496
and youth sport motivation 489, 497–500
youth sport motivational practices for 500
coach praise orientation 495
Coakley, J. J. 495
coasting 34
cognitive construct, in motivation 488
cognitive dissonance 138 (p. 535)
and choice 139
dissonant motivational state 139
cognitive dissonance reduction. see affective consonance production
cognitive mediators 4–5
cognitive modeling 15
Cohen, A. L. 255
Cohen, J. 423
Cohen, P. 423
collective agency 13
collective efficacy 22
Common Core State Standards 453, 457
competence
and achievement goals 234–35
in basic needs theory 469
defined 234
parental beliefs about and self-appraisals of 490
in student motivation 444–45
competence-based model 238–39
competence motivation theory 488, 489
competitive anxiety 491
competitive reward structures 448
competitive youth sports leagues, friendship in 497
concentration 170
Concept Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) program 452, 454
condition-experience model 172–73
confirmatory factor analyses 51
Connell, J. P. 444
Conner, M. T. 467
contextual-level motivation 473
control
in planned behavior theory 465
sense of 170
in student motivation 444–45
controlling coach behaviors 498
controlling form of motivation 489
controlling motivation 468
controlling parenting style 491
control theory 511
co-objectification 330
cooperative reward structures 448
Cordray, D. S. 452
core self 400
CORI (Concept Oriented Reading Instruction) program 452, 454
Corker, Katherine 53
Cornwell, J. F. M. 58
correspondence of content 193
cortisol 179
Cosmides, Leda 89
Côté, J. 493
course content 453–54
Cox, Cathy 78
Cox, W. M. 424
Crits-Christoph, P. 425
cross-domain relationships, with coaches 498
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly 80, 81, 170, 171, 173
cultural psychology 531
cultural relativism 102
cultural values 101
culture
and student motivation 456
and youth sport motivation 494
curiosity 157–64
diverse 159
as for-its-own-sake motivation 159–62
future research, directions for 164
instinct of 162
interest vs. 161
personal differences in 162–63
and reduction of novelty/uncertainty 157–59
specific 159
and wonder 162
Curiosity and Exploration Inventory 162
Custers, R. 279
cybernetic approach
defined 27
and motivational concepts 29
D
D’Alessandro, D. 476
Dang, J 120
data science 529
Davis, N. W. 493
deactivating emotion 39
death-thought accessibility hypothesis (DTA) 71, 74
Deci, E. L. 425, 489
Deci, Edward 90, 92, 94, 286, 337
declarative memory 141
deKnop, P. 499
delay of gratification 257
delegation hypothesis 255
Delgado, M. R. 140
Dembo, T. 232
denial of autonomy 322
denial of subjectivity 322
DeNisi, A. 512
departmentalization, in secondary school 449
depression 35
and choice 141
and emotional reactivity 39
mental contrasting 253
and personal goals 423, 424
and self-integration 400
well-being therapy in treatment of 430
descriptive studies 488
desire to approach success 232–33
desire to avoid failure 232–33
Destin, M. 49
Dewey, John 159, 160
didactic instruction 15
Di Domenico, T. 91, 99, 368, 406
differential expectancies 308, 312
differentiated view 231
difficulty law of motivation 374
dimensions of well-being 430
Dinnerstein, Dorothy 324
discrepancy-enlarging feedback loops 28
discrepancy-reducing feedback processes 28
discrepancy system 397–98
dispositional flow 175
Dispositional Flow Scale–2 175
distal defenses 71
distributive justice 518
diverse exploration 158
diversity 531
division achievement 15
domain-differential view 288
domain-general regulatory focus 49
domain-specific regulatory focus motivations 50
Domingues, Rholfs 138
dopamine 355
dopamine pathway. see dopaminergic system
dopaminergic reward system 399
dopaminergic system 98
dorsal striatum 358
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 99, 276, 358, 363
Dovido, J. F. 332
Dreher, J. C. 275
drive-increasing stimuli 158
drive theory 136
DTA (death-thought accessibility hypothesis) 71, 74
dual process models 476
Duda, J. L. 490
Dufour, A. 275
Duval, S. 68, 81
Dweck, C. S. 450, 454
Dweck, Carol 230, 249, 290, 384, 444
Dworkin, A. 322, 323
Dwyer, L. A. 419, 425
dynamic casual modeling 407
dysphoria 383
dysphoric individuals 383
E
eagerness 48, 54
early sport sampling, specialization vs. 494
eating habits 199
Ebbeck, V. 497
Ebner, N. C. 285, 291
Eccles, J. S. 445–46, 449, 453, 490, 491
ecological systems model 494
education 443–57
future research, directions for 455–57
motivation-related interventions in 450–55
school’s influence on motivation in 447–48
and school transitions 448–50
source of student motivation in 444–47
effort 146
and autonomy 147
and choice overload 147
and difficulty 379f
effort control 36, 38
effort mobilization 255, 373
(p. 536) effort-related cardiovascular response 376
egalitarian goal 277
egocentrism 310
ego control 403
ego depletion 113–28
and brain glucose 121–22
building resistance to 125–27
causes of 115–16
and challenges to depletion effect theory 119–20
and changing the self 116–17
consequences of 116–19
conservation of 123
and effects of motivation/conservation 122–24
and ego strength 114–15
and expectancy 121
future research, directions for 127–28
and interpersonal interactions 115
and memory 118
moderators of 124–25
operation of 120–22
overcoming 122
and passivity 117, 127
physiological markers of 119
and rest and replenishment 124
ego goal orientation 446
ego involvement 231
ego-oriented motivation 475
ego strength 115
and changing the self 116
and cognition 119
and interpersonal interactions 115
and self control 115
Einstein, Albert 286
elective selection 286
electroencephalographic methodology 119
elementary school 449
elite child athletes 487, 493
Elliot, A. J. 446
Elliot, Andrew 232, 233, 234, 237, 238
Elsner, B. 273
embodied motivation 529
emotional drain 331
emotional reactivity 39
employee motivation
conceptual framework of 514–15, 515f
importance of 507See also work motivation
empty goal commitments 424
endurance 126
engagement 444
Ennis, G. E. 380
entity theory 231
environmental factors
and choice 136
and human experience 136
epinephrine 179
Epstein, Herman 36
equity theory 518
ESM (experience sampling method) 174, 178
ethnicity, and student motivation 456
European American children 456
Evans, J. 495
Every Student Succeeds Act 453, 457
exercise and physical activity 463–79
future research, directions for 479
integration of theories 472–75
measurement and methodological advances in 475–79
motivational theories 464–70
theoretical advances in 470–75
existential anxiety 70
existential protection 324–25
existential psychotherapy 69
expectancy 4, 121
expectancy-value theory
work motivation in 509–10
youth sport motivation in 488–90
expectations, of coaches 498
experience
interpreters of 490–91
providers of 490–92
experience fluctuation model 171–72, 171f
experience integration 397
experience sampling method (ESM) 174, 178
experiential avoidance 430–31
experimental system 36
explicit motives 418, 420
exploratory behavior 158
extension memory 397. see also auto-biographical experiences
external locus of control 444
external regulation 92, 445, 468
external stimuli 508
extrinsic aspirations. see life goals
extrinsic goals 423
extrinsic motivation 366
defined 91–92
and identified regulation 93
and inherent integrative process 92
and integrated regulation 93
and introjection 92
and relative autonomy 93
in self-determination theory 513–14
extrinsic regulation 422
F
Facchin, S. 324
facilitators of change 425–27
false self 398
family members 489–93
fantasy realization 249
Faucher, E. H. 71
feedback 510
feedback loop 28
feedback patterns 497–98
feedback processes 28–29
Feixas, G. 424
female subordination 323
Ferguson, C. J. 277
Festinger, L. 232, 247
first grade, transition into 448–49
Fishbein, M. 467
fit, of personal goals 422
fixed mindset 444
flexible tenacity 260
flow 169–82
constructs related to 173–76
dispositional 173
dynamic process in 176
frequency 175
and happiness 170
and motive congruence 198
proneness 173, 174
and self-esteem 173
temporal dynamics of 177
flow condition 173
flow experience 173, 178
conditions of 171–73
and dopamine 180
emergent motivation and temporal dynamics of 176–79
future research directions in 179
neurophysiology of 179–82
psychological covariates of 173
and stress response 179
Flow Proneness Scale 175
Flow Questionnaire 174
flow scale for human-computer interaction 174
flow state 170–71, 173
Flow State Scale-2 174
for-its-own-sake motivation 159
Forman, E. M. 431
Fournier, M. A. 102
Fraley C. 340, 344
Fredericks, J. A. 490
Fredrickson, Barbara 321, 322, 327
Frenzel, A. C. 215–18
Freud, Sigmund 200, 398
Freund, A. M. 285, 294
Friedrich, A. 377
friendship
peer group acceptance vs. 494
and youth physical activity motivation 495–96
friendship orientation 495
friendship quality 495–97
Fries, A. 428
Frodi, A. 342
Fulmer, C. A. 60
functional domains 288
G
Galinsky, A. D. 323
Gallup World Poll 312
game structures 431
Gaspard, H. 451
Gebauer, J. E. 312
Geller, P. A. 431
gender 23
and friendship quality 495
and sibling support for youth sports 493
and student motivation 456
Gendolla, A. 376, 380
(p. 537) general psychotherapy (change model) 428
German action theory 511–12
Gibbons, S. L. 497
Gilbert, S. J. 254
goal attainment 247–62
and competitive situations 257
derailment 256
and goals vs. motivation 247–49
and implementation intentions 253–61
interventions related to 261–62
and mental contrasting 249–53
optimism about 425
self-regulation of 249–61
Goal Attainment Scaling procedure 421
goal difficulty 16
goal-directed behavior 254
goal-directed response 253
goal focus
actional phase 295, 296f, 297
and age 291
and deadlines 298
and loss avoidance 291
and motivational phase 295–98
postactional phase 295, 296f
preactional phase 295, 296, 296f
predecisional phase 295, 296f
process and outcome 290t
and resource demands 293
and responses to feedback 298–99
and time perspective 292
goal implementation theory 511
goal orientation
change 292–93
maintenance 291
of parents 490–91
stability 292–93, 294
goal orientation and focus 285–300
and adult development 286–89
age and 291–92
change throughout adulthood 288
and change vs. stability 292–95
and feedback on progress toward goals 298–99
and motivational phase 295–98
and process vs. outcome 289–99
and related constructs 289–90
and successful development 286–87
goal pursuit 269–80
as automated behaviors 272
environmental reward cues 279
and environmental stimuli 271
future research, directions for 279–80
and habitual action selection 272–74
means vs. outcomes 286
outcome/reward representation 277–79
and reward cues 275–77
stimuli as trigger for 274
unconscious source of 274–75
without awareness 270–72
goal-reason combinations 238
goals 39
achievement (See achievement goals)
anti-goal 28–29
clear 172
egalitarian 277
emergent 177
goal program 30
hierarchy of 515–16
learning 230–31, 290
maintenance 291
managing multiple goals 287
mastery 232
mastery-approach 233
mastery-avoidance 233
motivation vs. 247–49
nonfocal 35
performance 230–31, 232
personal best 235
prevention 249
promotion 249
proximal 172, 176
and self determination theory (SDT) 97
setting 510, 516
in student motivation 445–46
subgoal 30
Goals as Action-Desired Outcome Representations (ADORE) 271, 272f, 279
goal selection 287
goal-setting theory (GST)
and employee motivation 519
work motivation in 510
goal striving 248
goals vs. motivation 247–49
Goldenberg, J. L. 324
Gollwitzer, P. M. 254, 255, 258, 262, 428, 470
Goodenow, C. 448
Gorman, C. A. 513
Gotez, Thomas 215–16
Goyer, J. P. 455
Graham, S. 456
Grawe, K. 418–19, 428
Greenberg, J. 67, 69, 70, 72
Griffith, H. R. 380
Grolnick, W. S. 96, 341, 347
Grosse Holtforth, M. 418–19, 425, 428
Grossman, C. 421
group acceptance orientation 495
group learning 448
growth mindset 444
Gruenfeld, D. H. 323
Guay, F. 18
Guenther, C. L. 310
gut-feelings 363
Guthrie, J. T. 452
H
Hackman, J. R. 518
Hagger, M. S. 466, 474
happiness 170
Harackiewicz, J. M. 198, 215, 237, 294, 446, 451
Harmon-Jones, C. 405
Harmon-Jones, E. 77
Hartup, W. W. 495
Haws, K. L. 49
Hayes, J. 71
Heapy, A. A. 427
heart rate 376
Heckhausen, H. 295, 399, 417, 418, 428, 470
Heckhausen, J. 417, 418
hedonic incentive 386
hegemonic masculinity 323
Hennecke, M. 294
Herbert, J. D. 431
Herzberg, F. 519
Hess, T. M. 380
heteronomous motivational orientations 476
heterosexual maleness 323
Hidi, S. 445
Higgins, Edward T. 47, 49, 54, 58, 512–13
high-maintenance interactions 115
high schools
student autonomy in 454
transition to 449–50
high-stakes assessments 454
Hillgruber, A. 374
Hirt, E. R. 121
Hispanic American children 456
Hodge, K. 94
Holt, N. L. 491
Hom, H. L. 490
homeostasis 29
Hommel, B. 273
Horn, J. L. 490
Horn, T. S. 490, 492, 498
Horowitz, L. M. 431
Houser-Marko, Linda 299
HR (human resources) 518–19
Huang, Y. 331
Hull, Clark 158
Hulleman, C. S. 237, 451, 452
human agency 13
human resources (HR) 518–19
Hyde, J. S. 451
hypomanic personality scale 39
hypothalamus 361
I
IAPE (implicit-affect-primes-effort) 378
ICAN intervention 450
idealized influence 499
identified regulation 93, 368, 422, 445, 468
identity relatedness 249
identity theory 198
ideomotor behavior 273
ideomotor learning study 278
idiosyncratic negative event 251
I-D model 163
if-then plans 377
IJzendoorn, Van. 339
(p. 538) imaginary audience 328
immediate and unambiguous feedback 172
implementational mindset 296
implementation intention strategies 470–71
implicit-affect-primes-effort (IAPE) 378
implicit aging 378
Implicit Association Test 420, 477
implicit–explicit motive congruence 187–201
antecedents of 197
consequences of 197–99
future research, directions for 200–201
and independence hypothesis 191–92
methodological factors in 192–95
and picture story exercises vs. questionnaire measures 188–91
and self-determination 196
and stress 197
substantive variables moderating 195–96
implicit–explicit systems 180–81
implicit motivation
in exercise and physical activity 476–77
in psychotherapy 418–20
implicit processes 476
implicit self 396
impression management 308
incentive-based information 362
incentive learning 274
incremental theory 231
independence hypothesis 191
individual interest 207–9, 208t, 213
individualized consideration 499
individuated-entity versus aggregate comparisons 310
Inesi, M. E. 323
information processing 512
inherent integrative process 92
inspirational motivation 498
Institute for Child Behavior and Development 230
instrumentality 322
insula 360
integrated regulation 93, 445
integrative self 395–97
and ego control 403
and implicit self 396
me-self vs. I-self 396
and negative emotion 402–3
and personality development 400, 401
and self-congruence 397
and self-decision 401
and self-doubt 402
and self-positivity 400
and self-relaxation 402–3
intellectual stimulation 499
intention
and physical activity 464
in planned behavior theory 465–68
and self-determination theory 473–74
intention memory 398–99
interactional justice 518
interdisciplinary research 531–32
interest
conceptualizations of 209–11
current research on 212–20
four-phase model of 207, 208t, 209
future research, directions for 220–21
individual 213
situational 207, 213
student, interventions to improve 450
in student motivation 445–46
sustaining 213
and wonder 162See also interest development
interest development 205–21
and earlier/later phases of interest 213–15
fluctuations/shifts in 214–15
four-phase model of 207, 208t, 209
individual 207–9, 208t
longitudinal studies on 212–13
measurement considerations with 211–12
situational 208t
study complementarity with 215–18
triggers for 212–14
as value 210
internal frame of reference 102
internalization 92, 332, 398
neural mechanisms of 405–7
in student motivation 445see also extrinsic motivation
internalized rules 398
internal locus of control 173, 444
internally guided decision making 368
Internet-based interventions 433
interpersonal interactions 115
interpersonal leadership styles 498, 500
interpersonal theory 431
interpreters of experience, parents as 490–91
interracial interactions 115
intervention design 478
intervention mapping 477–79
interventions
Internet-based 433
motivational change in 429
tailored to clients 418, 425See also specific interventions
interviews, to assess personal goals 420
intrapersonal factors, in youth sport motivation 488
intrinsically motivated behaviors 160
intrinsic aspirations. see life goals
intrinsic goals 423
intrinsic motivation 91, 136, 144, 366–67
defined 91
and mastery-oriented motivational climate 475
and neural networks 99
in organismic integration theory 468
in self-determination theory 513–14
for students 445–46
students’ age-related decline in 446
in youth sports and physical activity 489
intrinsic reward 366
intrinsic value, in task value 445
introjected regulation 422, 445, 468
introjection 92, 429
intuitive behavior system. see action system
J
Jack, W. 77
Jacobs, J. 456
James, William 308
jealousy 493
Jelinek, S. 53
Jia, L. 121
job design 518
Joormann, J. 423
Jost, J. T. 326
Juhl, Jacob 76
justice 518
K
Kanfer, R. 511
Kanze, D. 53
Kappes, A. 252
Kappes, H. B. 253
Karoly, P. 423
Kasser, T. 423, 429
Kasser, Tim 286
Kazen, M. 404, 407
Kehr, H. M. 197, 198
Keller, Helen 205–6, 220
Kent, M. 403
Kierkegaard, Søren 313
Kimiecik, J. C. 490
Kimiecik, J. D. 492
kindergarten, transitions to and from 448–49
Kingler, E. 424
Kipp, L. E. 495, 497, 500
Kirk, T. 258, 262
Kitsantas, Anastasia 290
Klappheck, M. 422–23
Klappheck, M. A. 425
Klauda, S. L. 452
Kluger, A. N. 512
Kochansa, G. 347
Koestner, R. 423, 476
Koestner, R. 197
Köllner, M. G. 193
Kosfelder, J. 422–23
Koskey, Kristin L. K. 216–17
Krings, F. 324
Krott, N. R. 251
Kuhl, J. 395
Kuhn, K. 423
L
Langdon, Rae 322
Latham, G. P. 375, 387
leadership, peer 496
leadership behaviors, of coaches 498–99
(p. 539) leadership styles, of coaches 498, 500
learned motivational states 362–65
expectancy 363–64
reward 362–63
value 364–65
learning
enactive 13
goals 16
and goals 230–31
in groups 448
social influences on 443–44
task-involved 446
vicarious 13
learning goals 16, 230–31, 290
learning theory 247
Lecci, L. 423
Lee, V. E. 449
Lekes, N. 423
Lens, Willy 238
Leotti, L. A. 140
Levesque, C. S. 476
Lewin, Kurt 136, 232, 514, 517
Liening, S. 197
life goals 97, 98
Lifton, R. J. 75
limbic system 362
Linnenbrick-Garcia, Linda 216–17
Locke, E. A. 375, 387
Locke, K. D. 418
loss-based selection 286
low-stakes assessments 455
Ludeke, S. G. 314
Lydon, J. E. 476
M
MacInnes, J. 197
MacKinnon, Catherine 322
Maehr, M. L. 451
Maehr, Marty 230
Magee, J. 323
Magee, J. C. 323
maintenance goals 291
Makransky, G. 314
Manderlink, G. 294
Manning, Eli 492
Manning, Peyton 492
Manzey, Christine 216–17
Marien, H. 279
Maslow, A. H. 508–9, 515, 519
mastery-approach goals 233, 469
mastery-avoidance goals 233, 469
mastery climate 499
mastery goal orientation 446, 451
mastery goals. see learning goals
mastery models 14–15
mastery-oriented motivational climate 474, 475
material incentive 382–83
in depressed individuals 383
and gender-specific effects 385
and outcome expectancy 383–84
and social incentive 384
Mayer, Richard 356
McClelland, David 187, 188, 189, 192, 248
McDougall, William 162
MCII (mental contrasting with implementation intentions) 261–62
McKinley, N. M. 329
McRae, A. 452
meaning 79, 80
Medalia, A. 93
medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) 99, 276
Meece, J. L. 446
memory 139
declarative 141
extension 397
intention 398–99
selective self (see selective self-memory)
mental contrasting 251, 402
and approach/avoidance goals 251
and astuteness 252
and depression 253
and fantasy realization 249
and goal pursuit 250
mechanisms of 252
and reality as obstacle 250
mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) 261–62
mentoring, for youth athletes 497
mesocortical pathway 361
mesolimbic dopamine system 362
mesolimbic pathway 361
Mestas, M. 240
metacognition 219
metamotivation 60–61
metamotivational beliefs 61
metamotivational control 61
metamotivational monitoring 61
metatheories 528
Meyer, B. B. 493
Michalak, J. 422–25
Michigan Omnibus Personality Inventory 311
mid-brain dopaminergic pathway 407
middle school
student autonomy in 454
transition to and from 449
Midgley, C. 451
Midgley, Carol 237
Miele, David 61
mimicry 273
mindfulness 103
mindset(s)
interventions focused on improving 450
in student motivation 444
Mischel, W 248, 257
mnemic neglect 311
model of interpersonal motives 431
Moitra, E. 431
Molden, D. C. 49
MoMa intervention program 451
Monti, J. D. 345
mood-behavior model 378
mood disposition 210
Moradi, Bonnie 331
Moran, M. M. 496
moratorium diffusion 198
morbidity 114
Morris, P. A. 494
mortality concerns 325
mortality salience hypothesis (MS) 70, 72–75
motivation
antecedents of 517–18
defined 488
employee (see employee motivation)
modern study of 6
work (See work motivation)
motivational attunement approach 425–26
motivational change 428–31
motivational clarification 428
motivational climate 474–75, 499, 500
motivational constructs
assessment of 432
in psychotherapy 418–21
motivational interventions
as facilitators of change 425–27
for students 450–55
for youth athletes 497
motivational interviewing 429, 433
motivational model of alcoholism 424
motivational neuroscience 355–69
automatically-activated motivational states 362
automatically activated motivational states 362
autonomous self-regulation 367–68
brain structures/pathways, key 357–62
current research on 355–57
future research, directions for 368–69
learned motivational states 362–65
neural core of 363f
person-generated motivational states 365–67
research practices in 355–57
top down vs. bottom up research 355–56
motivational phases
actional 295, 296f, 297
postactional 295, 296f
preactional 295, 296, 296f
predecisional 295, 296f
motivational processes 15–18
motivation intensity theory 373–87, 374f
ability, fatigue and aging 378–80
and depressive symptoms 377–78
difficulty/effort, variables affecting 377–78
effort measurements in 375–76
and effort-related cardiovascular response 376
empirical evidence for 376–77
importance of success, variables affecting 381–86
material incentive 382–83
objective task difficulty, moderation effects of 378–81
and unclear difficulty 375
and unfixed difficulty 375
(p. 540) motivation phase (Rubicon model of action phases) 427
motivation research, future of 527–32
and cultural psychology 531
and methodologies 530
and technology 528–30
motive change 424–25
motive congruence
antecedents of 197
and eating habits 199
integrative model for 190
multiple-moderator approaches 196
and need satisfaction 197
and referential competence 197
and volitional strength 198
and well-being 198
motive-oriented therapeutic relationship building 425
motive-oriented treatment plan 432
motor areas 359
motor resonance 273
Mouratidis, Athanasios 238
MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) 99, 276
MS (mortality salience hypothesis) 70, 72–75
multidirectionality 286
Murayama, Kou 98, 141, 237, 240, 356
Murphy’s Law 308
Murray, Henry 187
N
naive treatment concerns 426
narcissistic personality disorder 431
national education policy
motivation theory and 453
and researcher recommendations 455, 457
National Research Council 457
naturalistic motivational change 428–29
needs 90
need satisfaction 197
needs theories 508–9
negation implementation intention 256
negative affect 404
negative emotion 402–3
neural mechanisms
and personal systems interaction theory 405
and self-determination 406–7
and self-referential information 406
neuroscience. See motivational neuroscience
neutral stimuli 270
Nicholls, John 230, 231, 446
Niemic, C. P. 96
No Child Left Behind 453–55
Norcross, J. C. 428
norepinephrine 179
Norman, P. 473–74
nucleus accumbens 358
Nussbaum, M. C. 322
O
Obama, Barack, and administration 453
objectification theory
and anxiety 324
and body image 323
cognitive development theories in 328–30
co-objectification 330
denial of autonomy 322
denial of subjectivity 322
and dissonance 326
and emotional drain 331
and gender development 329
and instrumentality 322
and mortality concerns 325
and ownership 322
self-objectification 322, 324
situational/contextual factors in 327
situational motivators of 330
socialization theories in 327–28
object-recognition system. see discrepancy system
observational learning 14
obsessive-compulsive disorder 403
Oettingen, G. 249, 251, 252, 261, 262, 424
OIT (organismic integration theory) 468–69
Oldham, G. R. 518
O’Malley, S. 425
openness to experience 163
optimal arousal 158
optimal experience 169
optimism, about goal attainment 425
optimization 286
optional functioning 519
Orbell, S. 473–74
orbitofrontal cortex 358, 361, 362
organismic integration theory (OIT) 468–69
O’Rourke, D. J. 491
other-referenced goal perspective 469
outcome expectancy 17, 364
outcome focus 289, 290. See also goal focus
out-group hostility 80
override impulses 123
P
Pak, H. 249
parasympathetic deactivation 376
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) 179, 180
PARCS (predictive and reactive control systems) 394, 405
parental beliefs, in youth sport motivation 490–91
parental involvement 345
parental pressure, and youth sport motivation 491
parental socialization 489–90
parenting style 491–92
parents
as interpreters of experience 490–91
as providers of experience 490–92
relationship quality with 496
as role models 490, 492
and youth sport motivation 489–92
youth sport motivational practices for 500
passivity 117, 127
Patalakh, M. 197
Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale 237
Paulhus, D. L. 312–14
Pavolvian-to-instrumental transfer 274
Payne, S. C. 512
peer-assisted learning strategies 497
peer group acceptance 494–96
peer leadership 496
peer modeling 489, 497
peers
and student motivation 448
and youth sport motivation 489, 494–97
PEESE (precision-effect estimate with standard error) 119–20
Pekrun, Reinhard 215–16
Pelletier, L. G. 476
PEP (pre-ejection period) 376
PEP (pre-ejection period) reactivity 382
perceived behavioral control
in planned behavior theory 465
and self-determination theory 474
perceived power 465
perceptions of competence (perceived competence)
and positive reinforcement from coaches 498
in youth sport motivation 488
performance-approach goals 446, 469
performance-avoidance goals 446, 469
performance climate 499
performance-contingent reinforcement 497–98
performance goal orientation 446
performance goals 16, 230–31, 446–47
performance orientation 512
performance-oriented motivational climate 474, 475
personal best goals 235
personal goals
assessments of 420–21
defined 418–19
in psychotherapy 421–24, 432
personality disorders 431
personality interactons theory 197
and discrepancy system 395
and intuitive behavior control 395
process of 396f
personality systems interactions theory 394, 395, 401
personal relationships
anxiety-buffering effects of 78
and existential threats 79
personal systems interaction theory 404
person–environment fit 518
(p. 541) person-generated motivational states 365–67
intrinsic and extrinsic motivation 366–67
psychological needs 367
self-regulation and goals 365–66
volition 365
PET (precision-effect test) 119–20
PFC (prefrontal cortex) 180–81, 358
phenomenology 69
physiological arousal 139
Pichora-Fuller, K. M. 382
Picture Story Exercises (PSEs) 187
and problems of measurement 189
and questionnaire measures 188
Pintrich, P. R. 446
planned behavior, theory of 464–68
and implementation intention strategies 470–71
integration with self-determination theory 472–74
Plant, R. W. 425
PNS (parasympathetic nervous system) 179, 180
Pomerantz, E. M. 343–45
portable electroencephalography headsets 356
positive adaptation 96
positive affect 488
positive reinforcement 497–98
positive youth development framework 489
postactional phase 295
Postmes, T. 512
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 76
potential-based achievement goals 239
potential motivation 374, 374f, 383
Powers, T. A. 423
Powers, William 28, 37
Pratto, F. 332
preactional phase 295
precision-effect estimate with standard error (PEESE) 119–20
precision-effect test (PET) 119–20
predecisional phase 295
predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS) 394, 405
pre-ejection period (PEP) 376
pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity 382
prefrontal cortex 365
prefrontal cortex (PFC) 180–81, 358
prevention goals 430
prevention-inducing recall activities 61
Price, M. S. 496, 499, 500
primary aversion system 162
primary goods 102
primary reward system 162
principles 30
priority management 35
procedural justice 518
process focus 290. See also goal focus
Prochaska, J. O. 428
promotion goals 430
prospect theory 123
providers of experience, parents as 490–92
provision of choice 143
proximal environment 341
proximinal defenses 71
Przybylinski, E 259
psychological change 455
psychological housekeeping 308
psychological need satisfaction
and motivational climate 499
in self-determination theory 471–72
psychological science 528, 528–30
psychological selection 177
psychopathology
development of 421
and fit of personal goals 423–24
psychophysiological states 355
psychotherapy 417–34
future research, directions for 433–34
motivational constructs in 418–21
motivational factors in 424–31
personal goals in 421–24
PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) 76
Pugh, Kevin J. 216–18
Punnett square 219f
purpose
and achievement goals 236
defined 236
pursuit of goals. See goal pursuit
Püschel, O. 423
Q
quadrant model 171
questionnaires
for assessment of explicit motives 420
for assessment of personal goals 420–21
Quinn, D. M. 332
Quirin, M. 398, 403, 404
R
Radtke, T. 402
Ramsay and Pang study 193
randomized controlled trials 477–79
rational system 36
raven matrices 251
Rawolle, M. 197
Raynor, J. 287
reduction to appearance 322
reduction to body 322
Reeve, J. 451–52, 514
referential competence 197
regulations 468
regulatory fit paradigm 49
regulatory focus questionnaire 50
regulatory focus strength measure 50
regulatory focus theory (RFT) 47–62
choice of motivation in 56–59
desired end states 53
“fit” in 59–60
goals in 430
and group dynamics 60
measuring/manipulating of motivation in 50–51
and metamotivation 60–61
origins of motivation in 49–50
prevention motivation in 48–49
promotion and prevention goals in 51–56
promotion motivation in 48
promotion/prevention vs. approach/avoidance in 51
scope of 48
undesired end states 53
work motivation in 512–13
reinforcement theory 508
reinforcement value 4
relatedness, in basic needs theory 469
relatedness of children to parents 337–48
attachment theory on 338–40
and categories of children’s motivation 338–40
contextual variations in 345–47
importance of early 344–45
and non-relatedness factors 347
self-determination theory on 340–42
and sense of responsibility 342–44
relationship-specific identities 49
relative autonomy 93
religious orientation 80
Renninger, K. A. 445, 450, 454
reproductive fitness 323
resource allocation 516–17
rest and replenishment 124
restraint intensity 386
retention 14
retrospective self-administered questionnaire 175
reward, and work motivation 508
reward-aversion model 160
reward cues 275–76
reward prediction error 363
reward processing 276, 276t, 278, 279
Reznik, I. 49
Richardson, M. 21
Richter, M. 377
Riediger, M. 294
rigidity/flexibility 260
riskiness 54–55
Roberts, G. C. 495
Roberts, T. A. 321, 324, 327
Roch, R. M. 429
Roeser, R. W. 453
Roisman, G. I. 345
role models
parents as 490, 492
siblings as 493
Rösch, A. G. 429
Rosenberg, M. 308
Rosenzweig, E. Q. 452
Rosiman, G. 345
Rotter, J. B. 4, 11
(p. 542) Routledge, C. 72, 76
Rozek, C. S. 451
Rubicon model of action phases 427–28, 427f
Russell, Bertrand 315
Ryan, R. M. 423, 425, 489
Ryan, Richard 90, 92, 96, 286
Ryff, C. D. 430
S
Sachse, R. 431
Saguy, T. 331, 332
Sailer, P. 261
Sapieja, K. M. 491–92
SBP (systolic blood pressure) 376, 380
scaling up 452–53
Scheier, M. F 68
Schiefele, U. 449
Schimel, J. 71
schizophrenia 255
Schmitt, C. H. 420
Schnetter, K. 249
Schoenrade, P. 80
Scholer, A. 57, 61
school(s)
influence of, on motivation 447–48
transitions between 448–50
school reform 457
Schöttke, H. 426
Schrager, S. M. 237
Schramm, E. 421
Schulte, D. 423
Schultheiss, O. C. 193, 429
Schultz, W. 362, 363
scientific management 510
SDR (socially desirable responding) 312–13
Sears, P. S. 232
Sedikides, C. 312
SEEKING system 162
selective self-memory 310–12
and defensiveness 314
nonmotivational factors in 314
origins of 311
and self-boosting 311
self-access 400–404
self-affirmation 308
self-appraisals of ability 490
self-awareness
defined 68
objective self-awareness theory 68
self-awareness theory 81, 384
escaping self-awareness 81–82
and existential anxiety 81
self-boosting 311
self-centrality breeds self-enhancement principle 308
self-concepts 397
self-concordance, of personal goals 422–23
self-congruence 397
self-consciousness, loss of 170
self-continuity 294
self control
and automatization 124
and autonomy 125
and brain glucose 121–22
defined 113
and depletion model 114
and ego strength 115
and endurance 126
and expectancy 121
and morbidity 114
and smoking 126
self-control strength. see ego strength
self-decision 401
self-determination 196
self-determination theory (SDT) 89–104, 136, 196, 394, 403
2 × 2 achievement goal perspectives and 474–75
autonomy-supportive vs. controlling climates in 95–96
and basic psychological needs 90
basic psychological needs in 90–92
and behaviorism 90
controlled motivation in 91–92
and cultural values 101
economic/political systems in 102–4
in exercise and physical activity 464, 468–69, 471–72
future research, directions in 517
and goals 97
integration with planned behavior theory 472–74
internalization and extrinsic motivation in 92–93
intrinsic vs. extrinsic aspirations in 97–102
life goals in 96–97
motivation and wellness within 90
and needs 90
and need satisfaction 103
neural mechanisms in 406–7
relationships in 96–97
and self-actualization 90
and student motivation 444
taxonomy of motivation 92f
underlying systems in 403
and work motivation 513–14
work motivation in 513–14
youth sport motivation in 488, 489
self-determined motivation 489
self-doubt 402
self-efficacy 4, 18–22, 173
effects of 20–21
and gender 23
and performance 512
and physical activity 464
in planned behavior theory 465, 466
and self-regulatory processes 21
in social cognitive theory 18–22, 511
sources of 18–19
in student motivation 444
self-enhancement and self-protection 307–15
and better-than-average effect 309–10
five pillars of 308
functionality of 307–8
and overclaiming 313–14
and selective self-memory 310–12
and self-serving bias 308–9
and socially desirable responding 312–13
self-esteem
and cultural worldviews 77
and flow 173
and mortality salience hypothesis 74
self-evaluation 384
self-evaluative process 68
self-infiltration 394, 404
self-inhibition 403–5
self-integration. See integrative self
self-internalization 404
self-modeling 15
self-motivation 403
self-objectification 322. See also sexual and self-objectification
self-positivity 400
self-positivity bias and self-integration 400–405
self-protection
defined 307
and terror management theory 308See also self-enhancement and self-protection
self-referenced goal orientation 469
self-regulation 15
defined 510
and goal setting 515
and habitual responses 258
and resource allocation 516–17
self-regulation theory 510–12
self-regulatory behavior 27–42
dual process models of 36
and feedback control 28–31
and hierarchicality 36–37
“how” vs. “what” of 40–41
and impulse vs. control 37–40
and priority management 35–36
self-regulatory depletion 142, 144
self-regulatory processes 15
self-relaxation 402–3
self-report questionnaire 236
self-serving bias (SSB) 308
self-system therapy (SST) 429–30, 433
self-threat 308, 311
self-threatening feedback 311
self variables, in motivation theory 443
sequences 37
serious gaming 433
Sevincer, A. T. 424
sexism, benevolent 324
sex role stereotypes 328
sexual and self-objectification 321–32
culture of 327–30
as existential protection 324–25
(p. 543)
the motivating but consequential body project 331–32
as power/dominance 323–24
situation motivators of 330
as system justification 325–26
theoretical frameworks for 322–23
sexual objectification
and anxiety 324
benevolent sexism 324
and body image 324
cognitive development theories in 328–30
and female menstruation 325
and internalization 332
and mortality concerns 325
and power 323
and self-objectification 324
and sex role stereotypes 328–30
socialization theories in 327–28
Share, T. 429
Sheeran, P. 467, 473–74
Sheldon, K. M. 429, 433
Sheldon, Kennon 286, 299
Short Flow Scale 174
sibling rivalries 493
siblings 492–93
Silvestrini, N. 386
Simon effect 258, 259
Simon task 258
situated cognition 274
situational interest 207, 208t, 213
Skaalvik, E. 446
Skinner, B. F. 3, 4, 274
Slabbinck, H. 420
Smith, A. L. 494–96
Smith, J. 449
Smith, K. 429
Smith, R. E. 497–500
Smoll, F. L. 497–98
SNS (sympathetic nervous system) 179
social cognitive theory 11–24
conceptual framework of 12–13
future research, directions for 22–24
motivational processes in 15–18
and self-efficacy 18–22
self-efficacy in 18–22
self-regulatory processes in 15
symbolic processes in 15
vicarious processes in 13–15
and work motivation 511
and youth sport motivation 489
social cognitive transference 49
social comparisons 17–18
social competence
and peer leadership 496
and student motivation 448
social–environmental factors 488
social goal orientations 495
social influence, in youth sport motivation 489. See also specific groups, e.g. parents
socialization, parental 489–90
social learning theory 11
socially desirable responding (SDR) 312–13
social projection 259
social psychological-based interventions 452–53, 455–57
social relationships
and learning 443–44
in youth sport motivation 488
social support
from parents 491
and student motivation 448
sociocultural approach to motivation 447
Soenens, Bart 238
Sperance, A. L. 498, 500
spontaneous alteration 158
spontaneous satisfactions 366
sport commitment model 489
sport specialization, sampling vs. 494
SSB (self-serving bias) 308
SST (self-system therapy) 429–30, 433
stability goals 294
Stangier, U. 424
sternberg memory task 380
Stevenson, C. L. 493
Stewart, C. C. 380
Stewart, Victoria C. 216–17
stimulus perception 255
Stipek, D. J. 447
strategic vigilance 54
Strauman, T. J. 424, 429–30
striatum 276, 355, 360
stroop interference task 115, 119
stroop test 123
Stuart, M. E. 490
student achievement
social competence and 448
and student–teacher relationship 448
student autonomy 451–52, 454
student motivation
school’s influence on 447–48
school transitions effect on 448–50
source of 444–47
student–teacher relationships 447–48
Stuntz, C. P. 495, 498, 500
subcortical insula 363
subjective norms 465
substance abuse disorders 424
suffering, as therapy motivation 419
Sullivan, Anne 206
superego 405
supervisors 518
suppression-oriented implementation 256
Svoboda, R. C. 451
symbolic immortality 75, 79
symbolic processes 15
sympathetic nervous system (SNS) 179
system justification theory 326
systems approach, to youth sport motivation in families 494
systolic blood pressure (SBP) 376, 380
T
TARGET approach 447, 451
task goal orientation 490–91
task involvement 231
task-oriented motivation 475
task value 445
taxonomies of health-related behavior 478
teacher–student relationships 447–48
team-building activities 497
team members 518
technology 528–30
telenomic model of subjective well-being 421–22, 422f
temporal dynamics
future research directions in 178–79
research on 178
study of 177
temporal perception 170
tension state 293
terror management theory (TMT) 67–83, 308
and cultural differences 75, 77–78
current research utilizing 70–72
development of 69–70
existential anxiety in 72
and inevitability of death 70
and mortality salience 385
personal dimension in 74–76
physical dimension in 72–74
and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 76
self-awareness in 67–69
social dimension in 76–79
spiritual dimension in 79–81
and theory perspective on human motivation 67
transcendence of death in 81–82
testing practices 454–55
test-operate-test-exit (TOTE) 27, 30
Theeboom, M. 499
Thematic Appreciation Test 187, 248, 270, 419
theories of reality 77
theory of planned behavior (TPB)
and control theory 511
and motivation 517
and work motivation 509–10
theory of resultant valence 232
therapeutic relationship, fostering 425–26, 432
therapy expectations 419
therapy motivation
defined 417See also psychotherapy
Thomas, C. 384
threat immunity 310
3 × 2 model 235
time perspective 292
Tolman, E. C. 247
Tolman, Edward Chase 4
Tomkins, Silvan 160–61
Tooby, John 89
(p. 544) Tops, M. 398
TOTE (test-operate-test-exit) 27, 30
transformational leadership behaviors 498–99
Transient Hypofrontality Theory 181
transtheoretical model (TTM) 428
treatment fidelity 478
treatment goals
formulation of 421, 426–27, 432–33
in psychotherapy 419, 420t
Trzesniewski, K. H. 450
TTM (transtheoretical model) 428
Turner, J. C. 447
Twenge, J. M. 101
2 × 2 model 233–35, 469–70
U
Ullrich-French, S. 494–96
unclear difficulty 375
undermining effect 367
unfixed difficulty 375
Unmüssig, C. 421
Urdan, T. 240, 447
urge magnitude 386
utility value 364, 445, 451
V
Vallerand, R. J. 473
values 17, 418, 420, 445–46
values–instrumentality–expectancy (VIE) theory 509, 515, 517
Van Heil, A. 98
Vansteenkiste, Maarten 98, 238
van Yperen, N. W. 512
Veling, H. 276
Ventis, W. L. 80
ventral striatum 358
ventral tegmental area 360
ventrolateral prefrontal cortex 403
ventromedial prefrontal-amygdala pathway 361
ventromedial prefrontal cortex 100, 358
vicarious processes 13–15
VIE (values–instrumentality–expectancy) theory 509, 515, 517
volitional decision making 368
volitional strength 198
Vroom, V. H. 509
W
Wadden, Thomas 252
Wahba, M. A. 509
Walkington, C. 454
Watson, J. B. 274
Watson, John 3, 4
Watt, Helen M. G. 215–16
WBT (well-being therapy) 430, 433
weekend effect 103
Weinert, F. E. 428
Weinstein, N. 96
Weiss, M. R. 492–97, 499, 500
well-being 198
dimensions of 430
and employee motivation 519
telenomic model of subjective 421–22, 422f
well-being therapy (WBT) 430, 433
Wellborn, J. G. 444
Wentzel, K. 448
Westbrook, Russell 492
White, A. 495
White, R.W. 91
White, S. A. 491
Wicklund, R. A. 68, 81
Wigfield, A. 338, 449, 452
Wilko, A. M. 500
Williams, Serena 492
Williams, Venus 492
Wincott, D. W. 398
wonder 162
work 507–19
in achievement goal theory 512
in expectancy-value theory 509–10
future research, directions for 514–19
in goal-setting theory 510
and needs theories 508–9
in regulatory focus theory 512–13
in self-determination theory 513–14
in self-regulation theory 510–12
work-avoidant goal orientation 446
work motivation 507–19
in achievement goal theory 512
in expectancy-value theory 509–10
future research, directions for 514–19
in goal-setting theory 510
and needs theories 508–9
in regulatory focus theory 512–13
in self-determination theory 513–14
in self-regulation theory 510–12
Work-Related Flow Scale 174
Wright, R. A. 380
Wright, Wilbur 528
Y
Yalom, Irvin 74, 76
Yamauchi, H 93
Yeager, D. S. 450, 456–57
Yeomans, P. D. 431
younger siblings 493
youth sport and physical activity 487–502
best practices for motivation in 501–2
coach influence in 497–500
cultural significance of 487
parental influence in 489–92
peer influence in 494–97
sibling influence in 492–93
studies in 488–89
Z
Zafeiriou, A. 378
Zedelius, Claire 276
Zimbardo, P. G. 292
Zimmerman, Barry 290, 365
Znoj, H. 428
Zuroff, D. C. 419, 424–25