- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Copyright Page
- About the Editor
- Inside the Black Box: Motivational Science in the 21st Century
- Social Cognitive Theory and Motivation
- A Self-Regulatory Viewpoint on Human Behavior
- Regulatory Focus Theory and Research: Catching Up and Looking Forward After 20 Years
- A Terror Management Theory Perspective on Human Motivation
- The Nature and the Conditions of Human Autonomy and Flourishing: Self-Determination Theory and Basic Psychological Needs
- Ego Depletion: Theory and Evidence
- The Complex Role of Choice in Human Motivation and Functioning
- Curiosity and Motivation
- Flow: The Experience of Intrinsic Motivation
- Implicit–Explicit Motive Congruence and Moderating Factors
- Interest and Its Development, Revisited
- Achievement Goals
- Goal Attainment
- Does Goal Pursuit Require Conscious Awareness?
- On Gains and Losses, Means and Ends: Goal Orientation and Goal Focus Across Adulthood
- The Five Pillars of Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection
- The Gendered Body Project: Sexual and Self-Objectification as Motivated and Motivating Processes
- Relatedness Between Children and Parents: Implications for Motivation
- Motivational Neuroscience
- Advancing Issues in Motivation Intensity Research: Updated Insights from the Cardiovascular System
- Autonomous Motivation, Internalization, and the Self: A Functional Approach of Interacting Neuropsychological Systems
- Motivation in Psychotherapy
- Motivation in Education
- Advances in Motivation in Exercise and Physical Activity
- Motivational Processes in Youth Sport and Physical Activity
- Work Motivation: Where do the Different Perspectives Lead Us?
- Envisioning Progress and Perils: Musings on the Future of Motivation Research in a Rapidly Evolving World
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter discusses two self-evaluation motives, self-enhancement (to pursue, maintain, or augment the positivity of self-views—more so than objective standards would warrant) and self-protection (to avoid, repair, or minimize the negativity of self-views—even at the expense of truthful feedback). Under the self-centrality breeds self-enhancement principle (i.e., self-enhancement and self-protection will be particularly influential in personally important domains), the chapter elaborates on five pillars of the two motives: self-serving bias, better-than-average effect, selective self-memory, socially desirable responding, and overclaiming. The chapter also considers other reasons for why self-enhancement and self-protection are motivated (e.g., fluctuations in motive strength as a function of self-threat and self-affirmation) and rules out nonmotivational explanations (e.g., expectancies, egocentrism, focalism). Self-enhancement and self-protection are worthy of a place in the pantheon of human motivation.
Center for Research on Self and Identity, Psychology Department, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA
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