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date: 30 May 2020

(p. 885) Subject Index

(p. 885) Subject Index

Note: Figures and Tables are indicated by “f” and “t” following the page numbers.

A
Aβ ligands
PET with
as AD biomarker 555
ability(ies)
crystallized 6
emotional
AUD-related deficits in 312–313
fluid
aging effects on 6
visuospatial (see visuospatial abilities)
academic functioning
epilepsy and 466
academic skills
in neuropsychological evaluation 785–786
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs)
for FTD 688
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 300–301
acquired prion diseases (PrPs)
clinical presentation of 719–722, 721t
kuru 719
vJCD 720–722, 723t
action/responsibility
ethical issues related to 867
ACTIVE study 557
activities of daily living (ADLs)
basic vs. IADLs 564
in neuropsychological evaluation 786, 786t
tests in assessment of 564
acute liver failure (ALF)
ammonia in 153
HE in 150
mercaptans in 153
ADCS-ADL Questionnaire 564
AD dementia 5–6. See also Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
ADLs impact on
tests in assessment of 564
assessment of
cognitive tests in 559–563, 560t
CDC on 551
clinical implications 558
clinical presentation of 553
comorbid brain pathologies associated with 551
costs related to 552
defined 550
described 550
diagnosis of
neuropsychological battery in 559–563, 560t
epidemiology of 550–552
Mediterranean diet in reducing risk of 590
mortality rates with 551
neurological assessment of 565
prevalence of 550–552
risk factors for 588–589
societal implications 552
staging of 564–565
TBI and 556
treatment of
planning for 565–566
addiction-like pathological screen use
ADHD impact of 402
ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) 407
ADHD Rating Scale with Adult Prompts (ADHD-RS-IV) 411
adjustment insomnia 345
adoption studies
on genetic risk for ADHD 402
α2-adrenergic agonists
in ADHD management 409
adult(s)
AUD in 307–309, 308f
cognitive disorders in (see adult cognitive disorders)
hydrocephalus in
clinical presentation of 454
lead exposure in 217–218, 219t
older (see older adults)
adult cognitive disorders. See also specific types
diagnostic classification of 792
ethical issues in 865–880 (see also ethical issues)
genetics of 797–810 (see also specific disorders, e.g., Huntington’s disease (HD))
neuropathological examination in 811–827 (see also specific disorders)
translational research in study of 828–851 (see also animal models; translational research)
Adult Investigator Symptom Report Scale (AISRS) 411
adult neurogenesis
reduced
aging effects on 10–11
“adult-onset” diabetes. See type 2 diabetes (T2D)
adults age 60 and older
prevalence of 6
Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) 411
advanced directive 868
advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) 127
aerobic glycolysis pathway
estrogens in maintaining 193
affective impairments
in KS 749–750
African Americans
older
disparities in cognitive aging related to 852–864 (see also cognitive aging, disparities in)
age
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment related to 67
chronological
described 14
cognitive changes with 6–8, 14–15
crystallized vs. fluid abilities 6
decline in spatial memory and navigation skills 7
increased susceptibility to interference 8
loss of contextual detail and recollection 7–8
memory function–related 6–7
shift from place to response learning 8
as factor for AD 6
as factor for AUD 319
as factor for cognitive impairment 3–4
as factor for dementia 6
as factor for FTD 680
as factor for heart valve disorders 94
as factor for hypertension 90
as factor for insomnia 346
as factor for MS 482
as factor for TBI 510
increasing variability in cognitive performance with
in neurocognitive aging studies 15
maternal
as risk factor for DS 379
age–AUD interaction 319
age-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) 818–820
age-related tau neuropathologies
neuropathological examination of 818–820
ARTAG 818–820
age-related vulnerabilities
brain effects of 5–6
aggression
in HD 666
aging
cognitive (see cognitive aging)
cognitive decline associated with 6
dementia in DS related to 378–395
determinants of 73
with HIV 43–45
memory changes related to 6
memory function–related changes with 6–7
of MTL
neurocognitive (see neurocognitive aging)
OSA related to 339–340
reliability theory of 73
systems theories of 73
US Census Bureau on 852
aging process
cancer treatment in accelerating 73
“agitated” depression
ADHD vs. 412
agitation
ADHD vs. 412
psychomotor
vs. ADHD 412
α2-agonist(s)
in ADHD management 408–409
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) 32–33. See also HIV–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)
clinical features of 32
mild to severe 32–33
neuropathological features of 32
prevalence of 33
air pollution
cognitive impairment related to 178
alcohol
abstinence from
prediction of relapse 316–317
excessive consumption of
cognitive impairment related to 307–309
diseases related to 307, 308
functional compromise related to 307
long-term abstinence from
cognitive recovery related to 310
alcohol abuse. See also alcohol use disorder (AUD)
defined 307
neurological complications from 317–319, 318t
alcohol dependence. See also alcohol use disorder (AUD)
defined 307, 308, 308f
“alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders”
DSM-5 on 308
alcohol-induced persisting dementia
DSM-IV on 745
alcoholism
chronic
cognitive impairment related to 743
cognitive impairment related to 743–746, 744f
prevalence of 743, 744f
alcohol-related cognitive impairment 747
alcohol-related dementia (ARD) 743–746, 744f
described 744–746
DNA damage related to 752
inflammatory processes in 751
introduction 743–744
mechanisms of 751–752
oxidative stress and 751–752
sensitization of NMDA receptor in 752
subsyndromes of 743–744, 744f
treatment of 752–753
alcohol use
cognitive impairment related to 743–746, 744f (see also alcohol-related dementia (ARD))
as risk factor for TBI 510–511
alcohol use disorder (AUD)
in adults 307–309, 308f
age as factor in 319
brain abnormalities in 320–327, 321f, 325f, 326f
fMRI of 322–323
functional modalities 322–324
neuropsychological impairments related to 324–327, 325f, 326f
structural findings from MRI 320–322, 321f
cognitive impairment related to 307–337, 743, 744f
CBT for 316
clinical implications 314–317
decision-making 314–315
learning 316
motivation 315–316
prediction of relapse 316–317
screening for 320
vs. AD 319
vs. FTD 319
costs related to 308
dementia and 319
differential diagnosis of 317–320, 318t
DSM-IV on 307, 308f
DSM-5 on 307–308, 308f
fMRI of 322–323
instant gratification and 314–315
KS vs. 317–319, 318t
life expectancy and 308
neurological complications from 317–319, 318t
neuropsychological impairments in 309–314
ataxia and motor skills 313–314
attentional EF and working memory 309–310
brain abnormalities and 324–327, 325f, 326f
emotional and theory of mind abilities 312–313
memory-related 310–311
(p. 887) metamemory/metacognition 310–312
visuospatial abilities 313
prediction of relapse 316–317
prevalence of 308, 743, 744f
recovery from
structural findings 322
uncomplicated
FDG-PET in 323–324
without KS
described 318t
alcohol use disorder (AUD)–age interaction 319
allele(s)
defined 798
major 804
minor 804
allopregnanolone
in HE 153
allostatic load 62f, 73
accumulation of 73
cognitive decline related to 73–74
high levels of 73–74
measurement of 73
aluminum
neurotoxicity related to 143
Alzheimer’s Association 552, 792, 852
Trial/March through 558, 559
Alzheimer’s dementia. See AD dementia
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 550–574. See also AD dementia
ADLs impact of
tests in assessment of 564
AF and 95–96
age as risk factor for 6
animal models of 838–839
APOE gene and 66
atypical frontal variant of 686
atypical presentation of
FTD overlapping with 686
autosomal dominant 552–553
behavioral/dysexecutive variant of 686
biomarker abnormalities associated with 550, 551f
CBVD and 382–383, 575
classification of 550, 551f
clinical implications 558
clinical manifestations of
racial differences in 857–858
clinical presentation of 553–554
cognitive impairment related to
vs. AUD 319
concussion and 541
costs related to 552
CVD and 382–383, 556
defined 550
revised criteria for 554
dementia in (see AD dementia)
described 318t, 552–553, 802–803, 838
diagnosis of
criteria for 812
systems in 558–559
in vivo biomarkers in 554–556
disparities related to 852–864 (see also cognitive aging, disparities in)
dysexecutive 561
early-onset form of 802
genetics of 802–803
HIV features resembling 44
hypertension and 92
incidence of
in baby boomers 552
insomnia and 349
introduction 550–552, 551f
late-onset form of 556, 802
memory impairment in
vs. hydrocephalus 450–451
neurocognitive changes with 5–6
neurological assessment of 565
neuropathological examination of 552–553, 812–814, 813t, 814t
pathological threshold and clinical correlation in 813–814, 814t
neuropsychological assessment of 559
NFTs in 553, 813
OSA and 169, 342–343
pathophysiology of 552–553
phases of 550, 551f
preclinical phase of 550, 551f, 554
tests in assessment of 563
ValMet and 66
protective factors against 556–557
risk factors for 6, 556
screening for
in primary care setting 558–559
secondary symptoms of
treatment of 557
sleep disruptions and 14
societal implications 552
sporadic 556
staging of 564–565
tau pathology in 816, 817f
treatment of 557–558
future directions in 557
nonpharmacologic 557–558
pharmacologic agents in 557
planning for 565–556
in twins 6
as “type 3 diabetes” 579
vascular contributions to 586–588, 587f
vascular dementia and 578–579
visuospatial impairments in 562–563
Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) Questionnaire 564
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia. See AD dementia
Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) 552, 587
amantadine
for TBI 516, 517
ambulatory impairment
MS and 486
American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria
on HAND 33
American Bar Association 868
American Diabetes Association 128
American Heart Association 577, 590
on hypertension 90
American Medical Association 869
on ethics 865
American Psychiatric Association
on ethics 865
American Psychological Association (APA) 779, 868
on ethics 865
American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society
diagnostic criteria for ILDs 174
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
ASD related to 365–366
in PTSD 278
ammonia
in ALF 153
in HE 149–152
metabolism in GI tract, liver, kidney, and brain 150–152
in Reye’s syndrome 153
amnesia
temporolimbic 563
amniocentesis
in DS diagnosis 380
amphetamines
in ADHD management 405, 407–408
l-amphetamine sulfate
for cognitive dysfunction in MS 493
Amsterdam Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (A-IADL-Q) 564
amyloid
dementia related to 342–343
OSA and 342–343
β-amyloid
in CTE 638
β-amyloid plaques
in DS 381–382
androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)
estradiol following
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management 70–71
anemia
CKD–related cognitive impairment due to 143
An Essay on the Shaking Palsy 600
anesthesia/anesthetics
general
cognitive changes in older patients related to 63
angina
described 89
(p. 888) angina pectoris 89
described 89
neurocognitive effects of 89
animal cognition
described 831–832
animal models
cognition in
defined 833, 834t
of cognitive disorders 828–851
cognitive domains in 833, 834t
considerations for successful 830–831
construct validity of 831
defined 829
described 829–830, 833, 836
face validity of 830–831
of FAS 841–842
of FXS 842–843
of genetic conditions that affect cognition 841–843
history of 830
of human psychiatric and neurologic disorders that impair cognition 833–840
MDD 833, 836
schizophrenia 839–840
of pre-and postnatal lead exposure 842
predictive validity of 831
of TBI 840–841
of toxic exposures 841–842
translational research and 828–831, 829f
usefulness of 829–830
Annual Wellness Visit for all Medicare patients
of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) 558
antagonistic gene–gene interaction 806
anticipation 801, 801f
anticonvulsant(s)
for TBI 517
antidepressant(s)
for TBI 516
tricyclic
in PTSD management 282
anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)
cognitive effects of 476
for lesional epilepsy 466
in seizure control 476
side effects of 476
antihypertensive(s)
for hypertension 90
anti-parkinsonian drugs
for TBI 516–517
antiretroviral therapy (ART)
combination 29
in HAND management 42–43
for HIV
efficacy and tolerability of 30
antisocial behavior
ADHD impact on 398
antisocial personality disorder (APD)
ADHD and 398, 399, 413
anxiety
in HD 664–665, 665t
in MS 486, 492–493
pathophysiology of 665
anxiety disorders 259–263. See also specific disorders
ASD and 361
attention in 255t, 262
clinical presentation of 259–260
cognitive function in 249–273, 254t, 255t, 257t
DSM-5 on 250
EF in 254t, 261–262
epidemiology of 259–260
memory in 257t, 262–263
OCD vs. 260
risk factors for 260–261
structural and functional neuroanatomy related to 261
types of 250, 259–260
aortic valve disorder
neurocognitive effects of 94
apathy
in HD 661
aphasia(s)
primary progressive (see specific types and primary progressive aphasia (PPA))
Apnea Positive Pressure Long-Term Efficacy Study (APPLES) 341, 343
apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment related to 66
apolipoprotein E promoter–219G/T polymorphism
concussion in carriers of 536
apolipoprotein ε4 carrier status
as factor in AD dementia in women 552
aripiprazole
in ASD management 368
Arithmetic subtest 473
Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) 385, 386
arrhythmia(s) 94–98. See also specific types
neurocognitive effects of 94–98
artificial food dyes
ADHD impact of 402
artificial intelligence
deception and 876–877
assent
described 868
ethical issues related to 870–871
asterixis 154
asthma
causes of 169
cognitive impairment related to 169–170
neuroimaging of 179
defined 169
epidemiology of 169
MCI and 169
prevalence of 169
asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) 33–34
HIV and 29
ataxia(s)
AUD and 313–314
cerebellar
in KS 749
optic 563
atherosclerosis
cardiovascular risk factors for 581, 581f
systemic effects of 591
Atherosclerosis in Communities Risk (ARIC) 170
athlete exposures (AEs)
concussion related to 528
atomoxetine (ATX)
in ADHD management 405, 408
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 301
atrial fibrillation (AF)
cognitive impairment associated with 95
CPS deficits in 97
dementia and 95–96
described 94
disorders resulting from 95
EF with 97–98
global cognitive function effects of 95–96
health consequences of 95
long-term retrieval deficits in 97
memory-related effects of 97
mortality related to 95
neurocognitive effects of 94–98
prevalence of 94–95
risk factors for 95
short-term vs. long-term memory deficits related to 97
stroke related to 95
treatment of 95
(p. 889) vascular dementia and 96
visuospatial/constructional functions effects of 97
attention
in anxiety disorders 255t, 262
assessment of
in epilepsy 473
in AUD 309–310
in BD 255t, 259
biased 251
as cognitive process 251
in depression 253, 255t, 256
in HD 659, 659f
hypertension impact on 91
in MCI and AD dementia assessment
cognitive tests in 561–562
in neuropsychological evaluation 785
in OCD 255t, 262
sustained 251
attentional bias 251, 263
PTSD impact on 276
Attentional Matrices
in neurocognitive effects assessment in AF patients 96
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
in adults 396–423
addiction-like pathological screen use among 402
antisocial behavior related to 398, 399
beginning in childhood 401
behavioral systems associated with 403
clinical assessment of 411–412
clinical implications 410–414, 410t
clinical presentation of 401
cognitive dysfunction related to 396
consequences of 398–399
criminal behavior related to 398, 399
current controversies related to 415–418
delay discounting with 403
diagnosis of 410–411, 410t
diagnostic issues related to 415
differential diagnosis 412–413
driving impact on 398
EF deficits in 413
functional consequences of 397–399
future research on 416
genetics in 399–400, 402
heterogeneity of 413
impulsivity with 412–413
inattention with 412
knowledge gaps 416
marital problems related to 397
neuropsychological assessment of 413–414
obesity related to 398
older adults 416
parenting problems related to 397–398
psychosocial environment in 402
STIs related to 398
symptoms of 401
treatment controversies related to 415–416
treatment planning for 414–415
APD and 413
behavioral systems associated with 403
BPD and 413
classification of 396–397
clinical assessment of 411–412
clinical implications 410–414, 410t
clinically administered neurocognitive batteries for 414
clinical presentation of 401
cognitive dysfunction related to 396
cognitive–energetic model in 403
cognitive mechanisms in 403
concussion related to 536
consequences of 399–406
costs related to 398
criminality related to 398, 399, 403
defined 396
delay aversion in 403
delay-discounting theory in 403
described 396, 399–403
developmental theory in 403
diagnosis of 410–411, 410t
differential diagnosis 412–413
DSM-5 on 397
dual pathway models of 403
endophenotypes of
targeting of 399
epidemiology of 397
functional consequences of 397–399
functional neuroanatomy related to 399–401
future research on 416
genetics in 399–400, 402
“hot” and “cold” executive functioning systems in 403
impulsivity and 401
introduction 396–399
lifespan persistence of 413
multifactorial disinhibition model in 403
neuroimaging in 400–401
neurological assessment of 414
neuropathology of 399–401
neuropsychological assessment of 413–414
neurotransmitters in 400
pathophysiology of 401–402
physical assessment of 414
prevalence of 397
protective factors for 404
α2A-receptor expression in 400
reward processing in
probability discounting and deficits in 403
risk factors for 401–403
“screen time” impact on 402
societal implications of 398–399
substance use disorders and 402
symptoms of 396–397, 401
development and maintenance of 401–403
teenage pregnancy and 398
treatment of 404–410
behavioral therapies in 404
CBT in 404
cognitive rehabilitation in 404–405
controversies related to 415–416
emerging medications in 409–410
FDA on 405
neurofeedback in 404
pharmacological 405–410
planning in 414–415
psychosocial interventions in 404–405
Attention Network Test 65
Auditory–Verbal Learning Test (AVLT)
in HF patients 87–88
Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised (ADI–R) 364
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) 367
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 359–377
in adults 359–377
good prescribing practice in management of 370t
outcomes of 360
anxiety disorders with 401
atypical birth and 403
atypical brain structure and 364–365, 364f
atypical neurotransmission and 365–366
causes of 359–360
classification of 359
clinical presentation of 360–361
CNVs and 361
cognitive deficits related to 360–361
costs related to 359, 360
defined 359
described 359
diagnosis of 367–368
ADOS in 367
clinical interview in 367
genetic testing in 368
neurological assessment in 368
neuropsychological assessment in 367–368
standardized observation in 367
standardized parent interview in 367
diet and 362
DS and 380–381
DSM-5 on 360–361
environmental factors in 361–362
epidemiology of 359–360
epilepsy related to 359, 368
feeding selectivity in 361
(p. 890) 5-HT and 366
GABAergic disruptions and 365–366
gastrointestinal disorders with 361
gender predilection for 359
genetics and 359–361
genetic syndromes related to 368
impaired ToM in 360
impairments related to 360–361
insomnia in 361
introduction 359–360
language delay in 361
mechanisms of 361–366
atypical birth 363
atypical brain structure 364–365, 364f
atypical neurotransmission 365–366
diet 362
environmental factors 361–362
exposure to medical drugs and other substances 362
genetics 360
inflammation 362–363
mental illnesses related to 361
MIA and 362–353
MMR vaccination and 360
mood disorders with 361
neuroinflammatory processes and 362–363
outcomes of 360
poor neonatal health and 363
prevalence of 359–360
single nucleotide polymorphisms and 361
sleep disorders with 361, 368
social cognition deficits in 360
social communication in 360
societal implications 360
speech abnormalities in 361
suicide related to 359
targets for future research 369–371
tics with 361
treatment of 368–369, 370t
CBTs in 369
FDA on 368
nonpharmacological approaches to 369
pharmacological approaches to 368
planning in 369, 370t
predictable daily living skills programs in 369
psychological interventions in 369
autobiographical memory
deficits in
AUD and 311
described 251–252, 311
in PTSD 276
Autobiographical Memory Interview 311
autonomy
beneficence/protection from harm vs. 869
defined 866
ethical issues related to 867
in patients without capacity to consent 868–869
autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) 562–563
autosome(s)
defined 798
awareness
in HD 661
B
baby boomers
AD incidence in 552
balance
deficits in
AUD and 313–314
Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) 540
Barkley Functional Impairment Scale for Adults (BFIS) 412
Barkley’s Current Symptoms Scale 411
“battle fatigue” 274. See also post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) 475, 604
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 475, 661
behavior(s)
ADHD impact on 398, 399
antisocial
ADHD impact on 399
criminal
ADHD impact on 398, 399
DS impact on 383–386
in neuropsychological evaluation 785
Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome 309
behavioral interventions
in ADHD management 404
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management 68–69
in concussion prevention 537–538
in FTD management 689, 691
in HAND management 43
in HD management 653, 654t
in insomnia management 349
in OSA management 344
in PD management 612–614
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 299
in seizure control 476–477
in TBI management 513–516
Behavioral Pattern Separation Task 563
behavioral systems
ADHD–related 403
behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) 679
causes of 680–681, 681f
clinical presentation of 681–684, 682f
diagnostic criteria for 690t
neuropsychological assessment of 692
behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) “phenocopy syndrome” 692
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning–Adult Form (BRIEF–A) 412
Belmont Report 866, 871
beneficence/protection from harm
autonomy vs. 869
beneficience
defined 866
Benton Visual Retention Test
in memory assessment in hypertensive patients 92
bias(es)
attentional 251, 263, 276
healthy survivor
in neurocognitive aging studies 15
healthy user 194
biased attention
described 251
bioenergetics
estrogens in maintaining 193–194
biomarker(s)
of AD 550, 551f, 554–556
of cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment 68
of CBVD 584–586
of concussion 532–535, 533t
of CTE 638–639
fluid (see fluid biomarkers)
fof HD 651
of FTD 687–688
of HAND 31
of HIV–associated neuronal injury
NFL 31
of PD and Parkinson-plus syndromes 614–618, 616t
plasma-based
of PTSD 279
of seizures 469
of TBI 511–513
functional neuroimaging 511–512
structural neuroimaging 511–512
of VCI 584–586
“biopsychosocial” disorder
PTSD as 274
biphenyl(s)
polychlorinated
ADHD impact of 402
bipolar disorder (BD) 256, 257t, 258–259
attention in 255t, 259
clinical presentation of 256
cognitive deficits in
course of 296
functional capacity as predictor of everyday disabilities 297–298
functional implications 297
neuroimaging of 296
neuropsychological profile of 294
physical health related to 298
prevalence of 294–295
treatment for 298–301
cognitive function in 254t, 255t, 257t, 258–259
DSM-5 on 292
EFs in 254t, 258–259
epidemiology of 256
memory in 257t, 259
risk factors for 256, 258
structural and functional neuroanatomy related to 258
symptoms of 291
bipolar I disorder
defined 292
bipolar II disorder
defined 292
birth
atypical
ASD related to 363
birth weight
low
ADHD impact of 402
T2D related to 124
bladder dysfunction
MS and 486
Block Design subtest
of WAIS 313, 474
Block Design subtest scores
of WAIS
hypertension effects on 93
blood-based mononuclear cells (BMCs)
in PTSD 279
blood–brain barrier (BBB)
breakdown of
in neurodegenerative disorders 582
disruption of
brain tumors and 430
HIV crossing 30
borderline personality disorder (BPD)
ADHD and 413
“border-zone” regions
of vascular system 583, 583f
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Exam 562
Boston Naming Test 474, 562, 563, 603
in ADHD assessment 414
in CVD–related neurocognitive decline assessment 102
bowel dysfunction
MS and 486
Braak scores 12
brain
age-related vulnerabilities impact on 5–6
aging of
ammonia metabolism in 150–152
CBVD effects on 575
CHD impact on 86
CSF in
hydrocephalus due to 450–452
ER isoforms in 192
estrogen effects on 192–193
HE effects on 152–153
imaging of
privacy and 876
T1D effects on 120
brain abnormalities
brain damage
“reserve against” 761
brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment related to 66
in hippocampus
memory impairment in aging related to 11
brain health
hyperglycemia and 127
mechanisms linking glycemic extremes to 127
T1D effects on 122–123
T2D effects on 125–127
brain injury
brain maintenance (BM)
defined 762t
future directions in 772–773
brain reserve (BR)
defined 762t
described 67, 761–763, 762t, 763f
future directions in 772–773
brain resiliencies
described 5–6
brain structure
atypical
ASD related to 364–365, 364f
brain tumor(s) 427–449. See also specific types
classification of 428, 428f
cognitive dysfunction related to, 427–449
chemotherapy alone vs. with RT 432
clinical findings related to 430–432, 431f
conformal RT related to 430–432, 431f
disease-related 429
genetics in 439–440
high-grade tumors 432–434
introduction 427–428
in long-term survivors 430–432, 431f
low-grade tumors 434–436
metastatic brain tumors 438–439
neuropsychological studies of 432–439
PCNSL 436–438
predictors of 429
prevention of 440–441
research directions in 441–442
RT and chemotherapy and 427
surgical resection and 429
treatment of 440–441
WBRT related to 430–432, 431f
effects of 429–430
high-grade
neuropsychological studies of cognitive impairment related to 432–434
incidence of 820
in long-term survivors
cognitive dysfunction in 430–432, 431f
low-grade
neuropsychological studies of cognitive impairment related to 434–436
metastatic
cognitive dysfunction related to 438–439
described 438
radiosurgery with WBRT for 438–439
survival rates for patients with 438
treatment effects on 438–439
neuropathological examination of 820–821
neuropathology of 820–822, 822f
prevalence of 820
symptoms of 429
treatment effects 429–430
WHO on 428
(p. 892) Brain Tumor Progress Review Group
of National Cancer Institute 427
Brief Assessment for Consent to Clinical Research (BACO) 791
Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) 294
Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments (BEARNI)
in AUD assessment 320
Brief International Cognitive Assessment in MS (BICAMS) 489
Brief Praxis Test (BPT) 386
Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB) 489
Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised (BVMT-R) 488, 489
in CVD–related neurocognitive decline assessment 102
bromocriptine
for TBI 516
bronchiectasis 173–174
causes of 173
CF and 173
cognitive dysfunction with 173–174
defined 173
epidemiology of 173
prevalence of 173
Brown–Peterson distractor test
in alcohol-related cognitive impairment assessment 310
Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test 539
bupropion
in ADHD management 409
Buschke Selective Reminding Test 197
C
caffeine
insomnia related to 347
in reducing normal cognitive and brain aging 13
California Computerized Assessment Battery (CalCAP) 39
California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) 475
in ADHD assessment 414
in HF patients 87–88
California Verbal Learning Test–II (CVLT-II) 102, 488, 494, 495, 540
Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) 265, 385, 784
in ADHD assessment 414
CAMCOG neuropsychological assessment 386
CAMDEX-DS informant interview 386
cancer(s)
cognitive impairment related to 61–83 (see also cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment)
described 63–65
introduction 61–63, 62f
neurodegenerative diseases and
inverse association with 75
non–CNS
cognitive changes associated with treatments for 61–83 (see also cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment)
cancer-associated cognitive decline (CACD)
neuropsychological measures in assessment of 71, 72t
cancer survivors
cognitive changes in
clinical presentation of 63
predictors of 61–63, 62f
self-reported 63–64
memory complaints in 65
prevalence of 61
reduced DLPFC volume in 65
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment 61–83
animal models 67–68
biomarkers for 68
clinical implications 71–73, 72t
clinical presentation of 63
focus on initial registration and encoding 64–65
future research on
challenges and recommendations related to 73
impact on brain vs. accelerated cognitive aging 73
inverse association with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases 75
lack of correlation between self-reported cognitive problems and performances on neuropsychological testing 74
limitations of traditional measures vs. cognitive neuroscience measures 74
introduction 61–63, 62f
neurological assessment for 71
neuropsychological assessment for 71, 72t
for non–CNS cancers 61–83
performance-based cognitive deficits 64
protective factors and treatment for 68–71
behavioral interventions 68–69
pharmacologic interventions 69–71
risk factors for 66–67
age 67
CR 67
genetic 66–67
pathologic tumor markers 67
self-reported cognitive difficulties 63–64
specific therapies–related 63
structural and functional neuroanatomy related to 65–66
treatment planning for 72–73
candidate gene studies 802, 803
capacity
ethical issues related to 867
cardiac arrhythmias
neurocognitive effects of 94–98 (see also specific types)
cardiac rehabilitation
cognitive function effects of 101
cardiogenic thromboembolism
AF and 95
cardiovascular disease (CVD). See also hypertension; specific types and causes, e.g., chronic heart disease (CHD)
AD related to 382–383, 556
cognitive decline related to 575–599 (see also specific types and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD), cognitive decline related to)
costs related to 84
CPS effects of 85
described 84
incidence of 84
introduction 84–85
neurocognitive effects of 84–116
angina pectoris 89
arrhythmias 94–98
assessment tests 102
clinical implications 100–102
future research directions 99–100
heart valve disorders 94
hypertension 89–94
(p. 893) introduction 84
MI 86
unspecified CVD 85
neurocognitive functioning in 85
in neurodegenerative diseases 382–383
prevalence of 84, 85
risk factors for 576
hypertension 89
subtypes of 85
unspecified 85
neurocognitive functioning impairment due to 85
risk factor scores for 85
stroke and dementia with 85
VBI and 586–588, 587f
Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) 170
CARE Consortium 531, 535, 542
catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment related to 66
Category Generation Test 562
CD4 count
neurocognitive decline and 31
CD14
HAND and 31
CD163
HAND and 31
Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression (CES–D) 196, 197
Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression (CES–D) Scale 667
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
on AD dementia 551
on concussion 535
on DS 379
on HIV 29–30
on lead exposure and toxicity 842
National Hospital Discharge Survey by 202
on TBI 505, 511, 527
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
on neuropsychological evaluation 780
central nervous system (CNS)
HIV effects on
animal research on 32
HIV impact on 29–60 HIV–associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND); (see also HIV)
neurotoxicants effects on 213
RT impact on
mechanisms of 430
central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction
medical conditions leading to 4
central nervous system (CNS) injury
HIV–related
mechanisms of 30–32
central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNSVS) 157
central pontine myelinolysis 158
CERAD 10-Word List 559
cerebellar ataxia
in KS 749
cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS) 818
cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)
described 818
cerebral atrophy
T1D and 122
cerebral blood vessels
degenerative changes in 575–576
cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) 179
hypertension and 89
cerebral perfusion
defined 511
for TBI 511
cerebral small vessel disease
cognitive impairment due to 171
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
in brain
hydrocephalus due to 450–452
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers
of AD 554–555
of HD 651
of neuronal damage in HIV 30
of TBI 513
cerebrovascular brain dysfunction
CHD and 86
cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) 575–599. See also specific types and cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive decline related to
AD and 382–383, 575
brain alterations related to 575
in CKD 141–143, 141f, 142f
clinical implications 584–586
cognitive decline related to 575–599
challenges and recommendations for future research 588–590
current models and controversies related to 588–589
future directions in 590–592
introduction 575–577, 577f
knowledge gaps 591–592
limitations in current knowledge 591–592
described 575
diagnosis of 584–586
mortality in late life related to 575
in neurodegenerative diseases 382–383
neuroimaging biomarkers of 584–586
neuropathological examination of 818
neurovascular unit of 582, 582f
risk factors for 575, 576, 588–589
cognition related to 579–580
vascular structure and function related to 575, 577, 577f
small vessel disease 581–582
treatment of 589–590
cerebrovascular small vessel disease 581–582
cerebrovascular system
structural vulnerabilities of 580–582, 581f, 582f
CHARTER Group 34, 39, 46
“chemobrain” 61, 63
chemotherapy
for brain tumors
cognitive dysfunction related to 427, 432
cognitive changes related to
described 63
neurotoxicity of 428
for PCNSL 437–438
RT with
cognitive impairment in brain tumor patients related to 432
for PCNSL 437
chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline (“chemobrain”) 61, 63
Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) 169
children
hydrocephalus in
clinical presentation of 454
lead exposure in 218, 225t
T1D in
incidence of 118
T2D in
brain health related to 126–127
(p. 894) chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
in DS diagnosis 380
chromosome(s)
defined 798
homologous
defined 798
chronic alcoholism
cognitive impairment related to 743
chronic disabilities
TBI–related 504
chronic heart disease (CHD) 85–89. See also specific types, e.g., myocardial infarction (MI)
cerebrovascular brain dysfunction related to 86
hypertension and 86
MI 86
neurocognitive effects of 86
prevalence of 85
risk factors for 86
types of 85–89 (see also specific types, e.g., myocardial infarction (MI))
chronic kidney disease (CKD)
clinical features of 137, 138f
defined 137
neurocognitive impairment in 137–147
anemia and 143
causes of 141
CBVD and 141–143, 141f, 142f
contributors to 143
depression 143
diagnosis of 144
dialysis and 143
epidemiology of 137–141, 139t, 140f
future research directions 145
hemodialysis and 143
hypotension and 143
pathophysiology of 141, 141f
prevention of 144–145
risk factors for 141–143, 141f, 142f
societal implications 141
treatment of 144–145
uremic toxins and 143
stages of 137
chronic lung disease
cognitive impairment in 167
MCI and 167
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 170–172
acute exacerbations of 171–172
causes of 170
cognitive impairment related to 170–172
neuroimaging of 179–182, 180t
comorbidities associated with 170
defined 170
epidemiology of 170
prevalence of 170
chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) 541, 631–644
β-amyloid in 638
axonal pathology of 636
biomarkers of 638–639
causes of 631
clinical features of 631
clinical presentation of 634
concussions and 632–633
defined 631
described 631
diagnosis of 634–635
FTD vs. 687
future directions in 640
genetics of 639
gross pathology of 635
introduction 631–632
microscopic pathology of 635
in military personnel 632
neuroimaging of 638–639
neuroinflammation in 637–638
neuropathological examination of 816, 817f
neuropathological features of 632
neuropathology of 635
NFTs in 632
in players of contact sports 632
prevalence of 632
protective factors for 639–640
risk factors for 639–640
staging of 636
symptoms of 634
tau pathology in 816, 817f
TDP-43 in 638
chronic wasting disease (CWD)
transmission risks related to 722
chronological age
described 14
circadian clock
in sleep–wake regulation 346–347
cirrhosis
HE onset in 148–149
manganese in 153
cisternography
in hydrocephalus diagnosis 456
Classification of Central Nervous System Tumors
of WHO 821
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale 565
clinical ethics 865–866
Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI-I) scale 407
clinical interview
in ASD diagnosis 367
clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)
MS and 484
clinical outcome assessments (COAs)
of HD 670
clinical research ethics 866–867, 870–871
ClinicalTrials.gov website 590
Clock Drawing Test 563, 603, 869
clonidine
in ADHD management 408–409
Cochrane Review 389
on memory rehabilitation in MS 494
“cocoon therapy” 538
Code of Federal Regulations
on ethics 866
Coding and Symbol Search 474
Coding subtests
of WAIS
in CVD–related neurocognitive decline assessment 102
CogMed package 404
cognition. See also cognitive function
in ADHD 403
animal 831–832
cancer effects on 61–83
cancer treatment–related effects on 61–83 (see also cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment)
cerebrovascular risk factors related to 579–580
defined 831
in animal models 833, 834t
DS impact on 378–395 (see also Down syndrome (DS))
estrogen effects on 191–193
genetic conditions affecting
animal models of 841–843
HT effects on 202–201, 202b
hysterectomy effects on 202–203
lung function and 167–169, 168t
menopause effects on
challenges in study design 191–192
transition-related studies of 195–197
in mood and anxiety disorders 249–273 (see also specific disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, cognitive function in)
PCOS effects on 203–204
PD and 609–610, 613
in premenopausal states
fluctuation in 191
reproductive disorders and 202–205
(p. 895) in schizophrenia spectrum disorders 291–306 (see also specific disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, cognitive deficits in)
social
ASD impact on 360
in HD 660
TBI effects on 3
TS effects on 204–205
cognitive aging 852–864. See also cognitive impairment
among minority elders
studies of 858–859
CR in context of 761–777 (see also cognitive reserve (CR))
disparities in 852–864
challenges in studying 854–855
clinical implications 859–860
cross-sectional studies of 853–854
introduction 852–853
longitudinal studies of 855–857
neuroimaging studies of 857
race, cognition, and neuroimaging 857
in older African Americans 862–864 (see also cognitive aging, disparities in)
cognitive aging process
as heterogeneous 6
cognitive assessment
routine
for patients with brain tumors 427
cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs)
in ADHD 404
in ASD 369
in AUD 316
for insomnia 349
in PD 613
in PTSD 281–282
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 299
in seizure control 477
cognitive changes
across variety of cancer types 62
age-related 6–8 (see also specific types and age, cognitive changes with)
in older patients
general anesthesia and 63
cognitive decline
aging-related 6
allostatic load levels and 73–74
cancer-associated cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment); (see also cancer(s))
neuropsychological measures in assessment of 71, 72t
chemotherapy-induced 61, 63
described 3–4
reduction of
drugs in 101
screening by PCPs for 558
cognitive deficits. See also cognitive impairment
performance-based
in cancer survivors 64
cognitive disorders
adult (see specific types and adult cognitive disorders)
animal models of 832–833
neuro-(see neurocognitive disorders (NCDs))
cognitive domains
in animal models 833, 834t
Cognitive Drug Research Computerized Assessment Battery
in memory assessment in hypertensive patients 92
Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) system 156–157
cognitive dysfunction. See cognitive impairment
cognitive–energetic model
ADHD–related 403
cognitive exercise
in reducing normal cognitive and brain aging 14
cognitive function. See also cognition
in anxiety disorders 254t, 255t, 257t, 261–263
in BD 254t, 255t, 257t, 258–259
cardiac rehabilitation effects on 101
in depression 253–256, 255t, 257t
described 3
lung function and 167–169, 168t
in MDD 253–256, 255t, 257t
Mediterranean diet in reducing risk of 590
in mood and anxiety disorders 249–273 (see also specific disorders and mood and anxiety disorders, cognitive function in)
in OCD 254t, 255t, 257t, 261–263
Cognitive Function Index 559
cognitive impairment. See also specific disorders impacted by
ADHD and 396
adult ADHD and 396
AEDs and 476
AF and 95
age impact on 3–4
aging and
disparities in 852–864 (see also cognitive aging, disparities in)
ASD and 360–361
asthma and 169–170
bronchiectasis and 173–174
cancer treatment–related 61–83 (see also cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment)
chronic alcohol consumption and 743–746, 744f (see also alcohol-related dementia (ARD))
concussions and 3–4
COPD and 170–172
covert
pencil-and-paper tests in assessment of 156
described 3–4
disorders resulting in 3–4 (see also specific disorders, e.g., autism spectrum disorder (ASD))
epilepsy and 466, 470
ethical issues related to 865–880 (see also ethical issues)
global
AF and 95–96
HF and 87
hydrocephalus and 454–455
ILDs and 175–176
IPF and 175–176
KS and 307–308
in liver disease 148–166 (see also hepatic encephalopathy (HE))
lung transplantation and 176
moderate
COPD and 166
in mood and anxiety disorders
treatment of 263–265
mood and anxiety disorders and
mechanisms linking 263
NPH and 454–455
OSA and 172–173
PAH and 177
(p. 896) in pulmonary disorders 167–189 (see also specific disorders and pulmonary disorders, cognitive impairment in)
risk and protective factors related to
new developments in 4
in schizophrenia spectrum disorders 291–306 (see also schizophrenia spectrum disorders, cognitive deficits in)
self-reported
in cancer survivors 63–64
severe
COPD and 170
sleep disturbances and 173
SMI and 291–306
subconcussive impacts and 3–4
TBI–related 506
T1D and 120–122
T2D and 124–125
uremia and 143
cognitive liberty 876
cognitive performance
age effects on
increasing variability in 15
PTSD impact on 276–277
cognitive process(es)
attention 249
estrogen in 190
memory 249–252
types of 250–252
cognitive processing speed (CPS)
AF effects on 97
assessment of
in epilepsy 473–474
CVD impacts on 85
in HD 656, 659, 659f
HF impact on 87
hypertension effects on 91–92
cognitive rehabilitation
in ADHD management 404–405
in MS 494–496, 495f
cognitive remediation strategies
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 299
cognitive reserve (CR) 7, 557, 761–777
assessment of
in clinical setting 769–770
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment related to 67
clinical implications 769–772
conditions applied to 761
in context of cognitive aging 761–777
defined 762t
described 761–764, 762t, 763f
in differential vulnerability to neurocognitive disorders in HIV 41–42
epidemiological evidence for 765–769, 767f
ethical issues related to 772
future directions in 772–773
introduction 761–762
measuring 765–769, 767f
neural bases of 768–769
neuroimaging evidence of 768–769
in prevention and rehabilitation 770–772
proxy measures of 765–767, 767f
indirect evidence from 766–767, 767f
residual and networks of
direct evidence from 767–768
Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire 769–770
Cognitive Reserve Scale 769–770
Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS) 387
cognitive screening
in neuropsychological evaluation 783–786, 784t, 786t
cognitive training programs
in PD management 613
CogState Battery 39, 157, 784
Cogstate computerized test battery 157
cohort effects
described 14
in neurocognitive aging studies 14–15
Colorado Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) study 117
combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) 29
in HAND management 43
combined androgen blockade (CAB)
estradiol following
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management 70
Commission for the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology 779
common data elements (CDEs) 540
of NINDS 783
for TBI 517–518, 518t
Common Data Elements (CDEs) Project in Epilepsy 473
Common Data Elements (CDEs) test battery
from NIH 475
common executive functioning
defined 351
communication
social
ASD effects on 360
comorbid disruptive behavior disorders
ADHD and 398, 399
comorbid pathologies
neuropathological examination of 820
compensation
neural 769
competence
ethical issues in 867–868
complex genetic diseases 802–803
complicated mTBI 530
comprehensive rehabilitation
for TBI 515–516
comprehensive tests
in neuropsychological evaluation 783–786, 784t, 786t
comprehensive treatments
goal of 514
computed tomography (CT)
in hydrocephalus diagnosis 454, 456
for TBI 511–512
Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI) 39
computer-based cognitive rehabilitation programs
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management 68–69
computerized cognitive batteries
in neuropsychological evaluation 784
computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs)
in concussion assessment 539–540
computer-mediated cognitive training programs
in ADHD management 404–405
COMT–Val polymorphism
cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment and 66
concussion(s) 526–549. See also sport-related concussions (SRCs); traumatic brain injury (TBI)
AD and 541
ADHD and 536
AEs and 528
biomechanics of 536–537
causes of 527–528
CDC on 535
challenges and research initiatives 542–543
clinical implications 539–542
clinical outcomes of 530–531
clinical presentation of 530
cognitive dysfunction related to 3–4
CTE related to 631–633
described 530, 632–633
introduction 526–529
migraines and 536
National Football League on 528
neurodegenerative disease and 541–542
neuroimaging for 532–534, 533t
neurological assessment of 540–541
neuropsychological assessment of 539–540
pathophysiology of 529–530
PCS following 531–532
physiological and clinical outcomes of 529–532
divergence of 532
prevalence of 632
prevention of 537–538
rehabilitation for 539
risk factors for 535–536
symptom questionnaires related to 530
symptoms of 530, 633
treatment of 538–539
in vivo biomarkers of 532–535, 533t
Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium 531, 535, 542
Concussion Biomarkers Assessed in Collegiate Student-Athletes (BASICS) 535
Concussion in Sport Group 530
conduct disorder (CD)
ADHD and 398, 399
congenital hydrocephalus
untreated
natural history of 457
conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) 191
Conner’s Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview (CAADID) 411
Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) 411
Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale–Screening Version (CAARS-O:SV) 407
consent
autonomy in patients without capacity to
ethical issues related to 868–869
informed
defined 870–871
ethical issues related to 870–871
Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) initiative 873
Consortium for Dementia with Lewy Bodies 815
Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) 552, 812, 813
10-Word List of 559
construct validity
of animal models 831
contact sports
players of
CTE in 632
contextual details
loss of
aging and 7–8
contextual source memory
aging effects on 7
continuous performance test (CPT)
in ADHD assessment 414
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
for OSA 343–344
controlled cortical impact (CCI) model 841
Controlled Oral Word Association
in CVD–related neurocognitive decline assessment 102
of Multilingual Aphasia Examination
on neuropsychological assessment for cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment 71
conversion/somatization
ethical issues related to 869–870
Copenhagen City Heart Study 179
copy number variants (CNVs)
in ADHD 399–400
ASD related to 361
Corsi Block-Tapping Test 88
corticobasal degeneration (CBD) 601
clinical presentation of 607
incidence of 680
Creutzfelt–Jakob disease (CJD). See Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease (JCD)
criminal behavior
ADHD impact on 398, 399
criminality
ADHD impact on 398, 399, 403
CR theory 772
crystallized abilities
aging effects on 6
crystallized intelligence 6
CSF continuous drainage
in hydrocephalus diagnosis 456
CSF outflow resistance/lab infusion test
in hydrocephalus diagnosis 456–457
CSF shunt surgery
in hydrocephalus management 457
CSF tap test
in hydrocephalus diagnosis 456
CTE tau
molecular profile of 636–637
Cube and Pentagon Copying 604
cube drawing 563
cued memory decline 563
“cumulative head impact index” 639
cystic fibrosis (CF)
bronchiectasis related to 173
cytokines
as biological correlates of PTSD 279
D
daily living skills programs
in ASD management 369
Dallas Heart Study 179
dasotraline
in ADHD management 409–410
davunetide
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 301
Deception
artificial intelligence and 876–877
decision-making processes
AUD impact on 314–315
decline
“functional”
Frascati diagnostic criteria for 41
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
in controlling aspect of the mind 867
in PD management 612
default mode network (DMN) 277
Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
on TBI 527
delay aversion
in ADHD 403
delay-discounting theory
ADHD–related 403
Delis–Kaplan Executive Functioning System (D–KEFS) sorting test 489, 604
in ADHD assessment 414
Semantic Fluency 604
dementia
AD–related (see AD dementia)
AF and 95–96
age as risk factor for 6
alcohol-induced persisting
DSM-IV on 745
alcohol-related 743–746, 744f (see also alcohol-related dementia (ARD))
amyloid and 342–343
AUD and 319
dialysis-related
aluminum and 141
DS–related 378–386
aging and 378, 379
diagnosis of 383
neuropsychological assessment for 385–386
frontotemporal 679–704 (see also frontotemporal dementia (FTD))
HIV–associated 29
hysterectomy and 202–203
(p. 898) insomnia and 349
MI and 86
multi-infarct 578
OSA and 342–343
post-stroke 578
rapidly progressive 705–742 (see also specific types and Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease (JCD); rapidly progressive dementias (RPDs))
staging of 564–565
stroke and 90
T1D and 122
T2D and 125
unspecified CVD and 85
vascular 576, 578–579 (see also vascular dementia)
AF and 96
WHO on 167
dementia in PD (PDD) 600–601
prevalence of 601
“dementia pugilistica” 631
Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation (DMR) 383
Dementia Scale for Down Syndrome (DSDS) 383
dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) 601
risk factors for 608
dementing disorders
neuropathological examination of 812–818, 813t815t, 817f (see also specific disorders)
depression 252–256, 254t, 257t. See also major depressive disorder (MDD)
“agitated”
vs. ADHD 412
attention in 253, 255t, 256
CKD and 143
clinical presentation of 252
cognitive function in 253–256, 254t, 255t, 257t
described 252
DSM-5 symptoms of 292, 293t
EFs in 253, 254t
epidemiology of 252
in HD 653, 661–662, 662f664f
long-term 11
MDD 252–256, 254t, 255t, 257t
memory in 256, 257t
MI and 86
in MS
cognitive impairment related to 492
MS and 486
PD and 606–607, 610
PTSD and 283
risk factors for 252
structural and functional neuroanatomy related to 252–253
Design and Verbal Fluency test
in ADHD assessment 414
dextroamphetamine
in ADHD management 407
diabetes
gestational
DS related to 380
type 5
AD as 579
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) 121–122
diabetes mellitus 117–136. See also type 1 diabetes (T1D); type 2 diabetes (T2D)
“adult-onset” (see type 2 diabetes (T2D))
challenges and recommendations for future research 129
clinical implications 128
defined 117
economic impact of 118
epidemiology of 117–118
global burden of 117
introduction 117–118
prevalence of 118
protective factors and treatment for 128
societal implications 118
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 128
diacylglycerol (DAG) 127
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
on clinical neuropsychological dysfunction associated with lead exposure 240
on HAND 33
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third ed. (DSM-III)
on PTSD 274
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth ed. (DSM-IV)
on alcohol abuse 307, 308f
on alcohol-induced persisting dementia 745
on DS 383
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth ed. (DSM-5)
on ADHD 397
on ADHD’s conceptualization
changes in 410–411, 410t
on “alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders” 308
on anxiety disorders 250, 259–260
on ASD 360–361
on AUD 307–308, 308f
on BD 292
on depression 292, 293t
on diagnostic classification of adult cognitive disorders 792
on differential diagnosis of TBI 509
on hypomania/mania 292, 293t
on KS 318, 319
on NCDs 565
on panic disorder 260
on PTSD 274–275, 281
on schizoaffective disorder 292, 293
on schizophrenia 292
on sleep disorders 338
Structured Clinical Interview for 508, 782
on substance use 745
on VCI 577
dialysis
CKD–related cognitive impairment due to 143
extracorporeal albumin
in overt HE management 159
dialysis-related dementia
aluminum and 143
DIAMOND Project 117–118
Diary of Samuel Pepys 274
diet(s). See also specific types
ADHD impact of 402
ASD related to 362
“Feingold” low-sugar 402
Mediterranean 13–14, 590
MIND 14
in reducing normal cognitive and brain aging 13–14
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
in concussion assessment 532–534, 533t
in KS 751
in relationship between brain abnormalities and neuropsychological impairments in AUD 324
for TBI 512
diffusion-weighted MRI
in KS 751
Digit Span Backward (DSB) 195
of WAIS 88, 89
Digit Span Forward
of WAIS 88
in attention assessment in hypertensive patients 91
in memory assessment in hypertensive patients 92
Digit Span subtest
of WAIS 473
in CVD–related neurocognitive decline assessment 102
in neurocognitive effects assessment in AF patients 96–98
Digit Span Test
of WAIS-IV 561
Digit Symbol Coding
in attention assessment in hypertensive patients 91
Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) 197, 579
in attention assessment in hypertensive patients 91
in neurocognitive effects assessment in AF patients 96, 97
dihydrexadine
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 301
(p. 899) disability(ies)
chronic
TBI–related 504
everyday
in schizophrenia spectrum disorders 297–298
HF–related 87
intellectual
DS and 378
Disability for the Assessment of Dementia (DAD) 564
discrimination
aging effects on 7
disease-modifying agents
for cognitive dysfunction in MS 493
disease prevention
CR in 770–772
disease stage
clinical symptoms with
clinicopathological correlation of 814, 814t
diversity
cognitive aging and issues of 852–864 (see also cognitive aging, disparities in)
DNA
damage to
ARD–related 752
DNA methylation 808
donepezil
for cognitive dysfunction in MS 493
in FTD management 688
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) volume
reduced
in cancer survivors 65
Down syndrome (DS) 378–395
adults with
full trisomy 21, 381
ASD and 380–381
behavioral changes with 383–386
behavioral symptoms of 380
causes of 379
CDC on 379
classification of 378–379
clinical evaluation recommendations in 384
cognitive effects of 378–395
controversial issues related to 390
defined 378
dementia in 378
aging and 378, 379
diagnosis of 383
neuropsychological assessment for 385–386
diagnostic screening for 380
DSM-IV on 383
future directions related to 391
gait in
cognitive performances related to 388, 388t, 389f
“slow and shuffling” 387
genetics and 380
human growth hormone in 390
ICD-10 on 383
identification of 380–381
ID in 378
informant reports of changes in 387
introduction 378
knowledge gap 391
management of
cognition-enhancing medications in 389–390
societal implications in 389–390
treatment planning in 390
mortality related to 381
National Birth Defects Prevention Network on 379
neurological assessment of 387–388, 388t, 389f
neuropathology of 381–382
neuropsychological findings in 384–385
nondisjunction trisomy 21, 379
partial trisomy 21, 379
personality changes with 383–386
prevalence of 378, 379
protective factors and treatment for 381
psychiatric symptoms with 384
risk factors for 379–380
seizures in 384
symptoms in newborns 378–379
types of 379
WHO on 378
XIST RNA in 391
Down Syndrome Medical Interest Group 391
doxycycline
for PrDs 726–727
drinking
interim 317
driving
ADHD impact on 398
MS effects on 492
drugs
in ADHD management 405–410 (see also specific types)
in AD management 557
in ASD management 368
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management 69–71
in cognitive decline reduction 101
for cognitive dysfunction in MS 493
exposure to
ASD related to 362
in FTD management 688–689
in HAND management 43
in HD management 653, 654t, 669
in hydrocephalus management 457
for insomnia 349–350
in OSA management 344–345
in PD management 611–612
in PTSD management 282–283
in PTSD prevention 283
as risk factor for TBI 510
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 300–301
in seizure control 476
for TBI 516–517
Z-
for insomnia 349–350
dual pathway models
of ADHD 403
dye(s)
food-related
ADHD impact of 402
Dyspraxia Scale for Adults with Down Syndrome 386
E
early-onset form of AD (EOAD) 802
familial form of 802
Early Versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol (ELITE) 190, 201
East Boston Memory Test (EBMT) 195
Edinburgh Handedness Inventory 474
educational attainment
ADHD impact on 397, 399
epilepsy and 466
elderly
ADHD in 416
falls by
TBI related to 505
hydrocephalus in
clinical presentation of 454
minority
cognitive aging studies among 858–859
electroclinical syndromes 466, 467t
electrocortical mapping
in epilepsy diagnosis 471
electroencephalography (EEG)
in epilepsy diagnosis 464–465, 470–471
Embedded Figures Test
in ASD diagnosis 368
emotion(s)
in neuropsychological evaluation 785
emotional abilities
deficits in
AUD and 312–313
emotional decoding impairment
facial expression–related
AUD effects on 312
emotionally neutral tasks
neuropsychological performance on
in PTSD patients 275–276
emotionally relevant stimuli
information processing abnormalities related to
PTSD impact on 276
empathy
AUD effects on 312
encephalitis
paraneoplastic
neuropathology of 821–822, 822f
encephalopathy(ies)
portosystemic 149
progressive traumatic 631
radiation
classification of 430
toxicant-induced 214, 215t
endocrine therapy
described 63
“end of treatment”
defined 62
endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)
in hydrocephalus management 457–458
complications of 458
“energy pills”
during World War II 407
enhancement
in neuroethics 875–876
environment(s)
psychosocial
ADHD impact of 402
environmental factors
in ASD 361–362
in MS 485
environmental toxins
ADHD impact of 402
ependymomas 428
“epigenetic drift” 6
epigenetic mechanisms 807–808
epigenetic modifications
aging MTL and 11
epigenetic regulation
in neuropathological examination 823
epigenetic risk factors
for PTSD 279–280
epilepsy 464–481. See also seizure disorders; specific types and seizure(s)
ASD and 359, 368
causes of 466
challenges and recommendations for future research 477–478
clinical implications 470–477
cognitive impairment related to 466, 470
costs related to 465
defined 464
described 464, 466–469, 467t, 469t
diagnosis of 464–465
EEG in 470–471
electrocortical mapping in 471
special procedures in 471–472
structural imaging in 471
Wada test in 471–472
economic burden of 465
genes associated with 469–470
incidence of 465
lesional
AEDs for 466
mechanisms of 469–470
mood disorders in 475
neuropsychological assessment of 472–475, 472t, 473t
attention 473
EFs 474
intellectual functioning 473
language 474
memory 475
mood 475
motor functioning 474
processing speed 473–474
visuospatial skills 474–475
post-traumatic
pTBI and 508
prevalence of 465
protective factors for 470
risk factors for 466
“seizure focus” in 477
temporal lobe
with hippocampal sclerosis 468
treatment of 464, 475–476
AEDs in 466
episodic memory
aging effects on 7
in BD 257t, 259
deficits in
AUD and 310–311
described 251, 310
epistasis 802, 806–807
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection
MS and 485
Epworth Sleepiness Scale 172
estradiol
in cancer treatment–related cognitive impairment management, 70–71
cognitive effects of 172–173
neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress provided by 194
in perimenopause
levels of 191
estrogen(s). See also estradiol; hormone therapy (HT)
benefits of
studies related to 192–194
brain actions of
cognition related to 191–193
brain function improvement with 191
cognitive effects of 191–193
efforts to address post–WHI gaps in understanding 201–202, 202b
in cognitive processes 190
conjugated equine 191
defined 190
history of 190–191
in maintaining bioenergetics and neuroprotection 193–194
in metabolic function 193–194
neuroprotective actions of 194
types of 190
estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms
in brain 192
ethic(s)
clinical 865–866
clinical research 866–867, 870–871
informed consent and assent in 870–871
in clinical trials 871–873
deception 872–873
patient selection and screening 871–872
quality assurance, implementation, and dissemination 873
(p. 901) randomized assignment and controls 872
therapeutic gap 873
neuro- 873–877 (see also neuroethics)
ethical issues 865–880
action/responsibility 867
in adult cognitive disorders 865–880
approaches and basic principles 865–867
autonomy 867
in patients without capacity to consent 868–869
capacity 867
competence 867–868
conversion/somatization 869–870
CR–related 772
functional independence 869
malingering 869–870
personhood 867
poor effort 869–870
validity testing 869–870
ethnicity
as risk factor for TBI 510
EURODIAB ACE study 117–118
European iNPH Multicentre Study 459
European Medicine Agency
on PTSD management 282
European MRI-CJD Consortium 710, 714
European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC) randomized studies
on low-grade gliomas 434–435
European Society of Hypertension 90
Evans’ index 456
“Every Breath We Take: The Lifelong Impact of Air Pollution” 178
Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog) rating scale 564, 667
everyday disabilities
functional capacity as predictor of
in schizophrenia spectrum disorders 297–298
executive dysfunction
defined 488
executive function(s) (EFs)
in adults with ADHD
deficits in 413
in AF patients 97–98
in anxiety disorders 254t, 261–262
in BD 254t, 258–259
as cognitive process 250–251
common
defined 251
in depression 253, 254t
in epilepsy 474
in HD 655–656, 659f
HF impact on 88
in hypertensive patients 93
in KS 748–749
in MCI and AD dementia assessment 561–562
in MS 488–489
in neuropsychological evaluation 785
neuropsychological impairments in
attentional EF and working memory 309–310
in OCD 254t, 261–262
executive functioning systems
“hot” and “cold”
ADHD–related 403
executive function (EF) rehabilitation
for TBI 514–515
exercise
home
in PD management 613
impact on cognitive function 101, 178
in MS 496
in PD management 612–614
in reducing normal and cognitive brain aging 14
for schizophrenia spectrum disorders 300
exon(s) 800
Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 489
exposure(s)
lead (see lead exposure)
neurotoxicant
neuropsychological consequences of 213–246 (see also neurotoxic disorders)
toxic
animal models of 841–842
exposure-based therapies
in PTSD management 282
extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD)
in overt HE management 159
F
Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) 563
face validity
of animal models 830–831
facial expression
emotional decoding impairment for
AUD effects on 312
Fake Bad Scale (FBS-r) 789
fall(s)
by elderly
TBI related to 505
familial form of EOAD (EOFAD) 802
familial JCD (fJCD) 716–717
familiarity
described 7
fatal familial insomnia (FFI) 718
fatigue
“battle” 274
MS and 485–486
fatty acids
in Reye’s syndrome 153
fear conditioning/extinction
in PTSD 280
feeding selectivity
ASD and 361
“Feingold” low-sugar diet 402
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
animal models of 841–842
described 841
final menstrual period (FMP) 191
Financial Capacity Instrument 564
FINGER study 556
5-HT. See serotonin (5-HT)
“flashback” 836
fluid abilities
aging effects on 6
fluid biomarkers
of concussion 533t, 534
of CTE 638–639
of PD and Parkinson-plus syndromes 615, 618
“fluid cognition” tests 39
fluid intelligence 6, 178
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
in DS diagnosis 380
18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)
as AD biomarker 555
in uncomplicated AUD 323–324
fluoxetine
in PTSD management 282
Flynn effect 14–15
focal epilepsy syndromes
clinical presentation of 466–468, 467t, 469t
focal seizures
degree of impairment–related 468, 469t
Folstein’s Mini-Mental State Examination 39
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
on AD biomarkers 555
on ADHD management 405
on ASD management 368
on FTD 688
on functional assessment 789
on HD 669, 670
on melatonin for insomnia 350
(p. 902) on neuroethics 875–876
on overt HE management 159
on PD management 611
on PTSD management 282
food dyes
ADHD impact of 402
forgetfulness
post-cancer treatment–related 63–65
founder effect 800
fractional anisotropy (FA)
of DTI 532
fragile X syndrome (FXS)
animal models of 842–843
Framingham general cardiovascular disease profile 85
Framingham general coronary risk scores 85
Framingham Offspring Study
on neurocognitive effects in AF patients 96, 97
Framingham Risk Score 576
Framingham stroke risk profile 85
“Frascati” classification system
on HAND diagnostic criteria 33
Frascati criteria 29
controversies related to 45, 46
for “functional decline” 41
in HAND diagnosis 33–34
Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) 561, 563
Frequent Hemodialysis Network study 144–145
Frith–Happé animations
in ASD diagnosis 368
Frontal Systems Behavior Scale 667
frontotemporal dementia (FTD) 679–704
age as factor in 680
atypical presentations of AD with 686
caregiver support for 694
challenges and recommendations for future research 694–695
clinical implications 691, 691t, 692t
clinical presentation of 681–684, 682f, 684f, 685f
clinical syndromes associated with 685–686
cognitive impairment related to
vs. AUD 319
CTE vs. 687
described 318t, 679–681
diagnostic classifications 691, 691t, 692t
genetics in 686–687
incidence of 680
introduction 679–680
mechanisms of 688
motor neuron disease with 686
neuroimaging in 687–688
neurological assessment of 693
neuropathological examination of 816–818
neuropathology of 680–681
neuropsychological assessment of 692–693
parkinsonism in 685–686
Pick’s disease and 680–681
prevalence of 679–680
protective factors and treatment for 688–691, 690t
proteomics in 687–688
risk factors for 686–687
safety considerations for 693–694
syndromes of 679–681, 681f
treatment planning for 693–694
in vivo biomarkers of 687–688
frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) 680
neuropathological examination of 816–818
Fuld Object Memory Test 388
full trisomy 21, 381
Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) 564
functional adequacy
measure of 472
functional assessment
FDA on 789
in neuropsychological evaluation 789–791
functional connectivity
in PD 609
T2D and 126
“functional decline”
Frascati diagnostic criteria for 41
functional imaging
in MS 491–492
functional independence
ethical issues related to 869
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
in ADHD 400–401
in AUD 322–323
of brain abnormalities in AUD 322–323
in HD 646
in KS 751
in MS 491
resting state
in neural connectivity in PTSD assessment 277
for TBI 512
functional neuroimaging
for TBI