Abstract and Keywords
The term reserve refers to a constellation of concepts to explain the rather perplexing finding that despite having similar levels of brain damage or pathology, two individuals may be completely different in terms of the clinical and functional impairment they experience and manifest. Although the concept of reserve was originally studied in the context of Alzheimer’s disease, throughout the years it has been applied to a broad range of neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, traumatic and brain injuries, as well as other neurodegenerative conditions and psychiatric conditions. This chapter reviews the concepts of cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. It reviews evidence supporting these concepts and also imaging data exploring their neural implementation. Finally, it explores their clinical ethical implications and discusses potential future directions.
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