Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 20 February 2020

(p. 612) Index

(p. 612) Index

(p. 613) Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f’, respectively, following the page number.

A
Aarts, H. 597
ability(ies)
one’s personal 289
Abler, B. 105, 167
Abramson, L.Y. 171, 173
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) 438, 543, 552
accuracy
empathic
positive emotion and 106
Ackerman, R.A. 74
action selection
described 316–317
in reward processing in CD 319–320
action selection/preference-based decision-making 255f, 257
described 316–317
in reward processing in APD 323
in reward processing in CD 319–320
in reward processing in CD+CU/CD+PP 321
in reward processing in psychopathy 324–325
Adams, R. 414
adaptive emotion goals 40
adaptive emotion regulation strategies
bipolar disorder and 44
depression and 41
Adcock, R.A. 89
addiction(s)
behavioral
positive urgency and 204t, 209
delay discounting in 371
adolescence. See also adolescent(s)
complex social environments during 486–487
defined 485–486
depression during 482–495 (see also depression)
development in behavioral, neural, and subjective aspects of reward function during 485–486
formation of stable identity during 488
reward function during
self-development and 487–488
social context and 486–487
social stress during
social reward paradigms and 487
adolescent(s). See also adolescence
depression in 482–495 (see also depression)
life span consequences of disrupted reward, self, and social systems in 488–489
mPFC and 484
reward circuitry and 484–485
NSSI among 453–454
reward sensitivity in 486–487
sexual risk behaviors in 357
vulnerability to NSSI reinforcement 458–460
adolescent social orientation
social stress and 460
adult antisocial psychopathology
reward processing in 312–332 (see also specific disorders)
adversity
early-life (see early-life adversity)
affect(s)
defined 139
in emotion 184
goal regulation and 139–140, 139f
hierarchical model of 65
ideal 29
mixed
in response to sexual stimuli 360
negative (see negative affect)
positive (see positive affect)
positive future fantasies and 599–600
state 240–241
positive urgency and 212
subjective
in initial and sustained responsiveness to reward 510
trait 240–241
positive urgency and 212
“affect as information” accounts 540
affect balance styles
pain and 450
affective balance
described 450
affective coping
broad-minded 550–551
affective decision-making
in GD 371–373
affective-eliciting stimuli
in initial responsiveness to reward in schizophrenia 257–258
affective forecasting
affective forecasting errors 18
affectively negative information
attentional bias to
negative emotional disposition related to 122–123
increased attention to
in attenuating maladaptive patterns of behavior 125–126
affectively positive information
attentional bias to
positive emotional disposition related to 123–125
increased attention to
in eliciting maladaptive patterns of behavior 126–131
affectively toned information 119
defined 133
affective processing
in depression 561–562
affectivity
positive
diminished vs. heightened levels of 3
aggressive behaviors
positive urgency and 207t, 210–211
Aknin, L.B. 584
alcohol use behaviors and disorders
positive urgency and 200t, 209
Aldao, A. 298, 425
Alden, L.E. 287
Aldridge, J.W. 304
alexithymia
bulimia nervosa and 434
described 30
Allen, N.B. 483
Alloy, L.B. 161, 165, 171–173, 412
Almeida, J.R.C. 166
(p. 614) Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRMS) 70, 71t
Alzheimer disease (AD)
DA in 88
positive emotion disruption in 471–472
ambitious life goals
bipolar disorder and 144
Amir, N. 130–131
Amodio, D.M. 29, 31
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
positive emotion disruption in 471
anal contractions
in orgasm assessment 355–356
Ang, C. 125
angst 533
anhedonia 82, 575–595. See also depression; major depressive disorder (MDD)
adapting CBT for depression to better target 542–552, 553f
building learning 550–551
building liking 544–548
building wanting 549–550
engaging clients in positive agenda 543
mechanisms blocking pleasure during behavioral activation 544–548
modifying session structure, therapist’s personal style, and outcome monitoring 543–544
behavioral evidence of 241–242
CBT for 539–560, 553f
success of 541–542
defined 99, 225, 239, 539, 576, 577
in depression 225–227, 239–243, 482, 562
clinical importance of 540–541
conceptualizing 540
prevalence of 540
described 224, 225, 239–240, 576
DSM-5 on 539
introduction 539–540, 575–577
in MDD 99
described 551
mechanisms maintaining 548
neurophysiological evidence of 242–243
psychological treatments for 575–595 (see also specific types)
appreciative joy 582–583
behavioral activation 584–585
cognitive interventions 585–586
compassion 582
generosity 584
gratitude 583–584
introduction 575–577, 579–580
laughter/humor 586
loving-kindness 581–582
MBCT 580
MBSR 580
mindfulness 580–581
reconceptualizing 225–227
self-report evidence of 241
Anhedonia–Asociality subscale
within SANS 99
anhedonic behavior
DA function related to 225–226
anhedonic disturbances
in depression
conceptualizing 540
anorexia nervosa
defined 425
described 434
positive emotion dysregulation in 424–443
anorgasmia
described 358
SSRIs and 358
antecedent-based strategies 39
antecedent-focused strategies 39
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) 138, 381, 498
anticipated positive affect 549
anticipation
reward (see reward anticipation)
anticipation/approach motivation
in PVS 578–579
anticipation of reward
defined 577
anticipatory positive affect 549
Antic, N. 414
antidepressant(s)
sexual functioning effects of 358
antisocial behavior 312–332
adverse outcomes related to 312–313
CD and 313
described 312–314, 465
future research related to 327–328, 327f
introduction 312–314
reward processing and
across development 312–332
risk factors for 313
in youth
reward processing in 318–322 (see also specific disorders and reward processing, in youth antisocial psychopathology)
“antisocial-only” trajectory 328
antisocial personality disorder (APD) 313
described 322
reward processing in 322–324
action selection/preference-based decision-making 323
reward learning 323
reward valuation 322–323
Antisocial Process Screening Device 313
anxiety
prevalence of 575
social
malleability of 289
Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule (ADIS) 529
anxiety disorders
attentional selectivity in individuals diagnosed with 122
disability related to 575
anxiety sensitivity 29
apatheia 533
appetitive stimuli
defined 133
Appleton, S. 414
appraisal(s)
dampening
pleasure blocked by 545
appreciative joy
in anhedonia management 582–583
approach goals
avoidance goals vs. 137
approach motivation
avoidance motivation vs. 137–138
described 138, 540
reward learning and 508–510
behavioral findings 508–509
neurobiological findings 509–510
approach-related mood disorders
symptoms of
reward hypersensitivity and 173–175
Aristotle
on emotion 51
Armstrong, T. 123
arousal
ANS
NSSI in modulation of 455–456
arrhythmia(s)
respiratory sinus 102
Ataraxia 532
attention
selective (see selective attention)
attentional bias
to affectively negative information
negative emotional disposition related to 122–123
to affectively positive information
positive emotional disposition related to 123–125
defined 133
future directions related to 131–133
well-being and 119–136
attentional bias modification (ABM) approach 123, 125, 126, 128, 131
attentional blink task 581
(p. 615) attentional deployment
described 285
attentional probe task 121
attentional processes
in GAD 302–303, 306
attentional selectivity
assessment of 122–123
in individuals diagnosed with GAD 122
attentional style
pleasure blocked by 545–547
attention to emotion 30
attitude(s)
toward pleasant emotions
eating disorders influenced by 32
automatic emotion regulation
defined 22
automatic negative reinforcement (ANR)
in NSSI 454, 454t
automatic positive reinforcement (APR)
in NSSI 454, 454t
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
PNS of 101–102
autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal
modulation of
NSSI in 455–456
avoidance
experiential (see experiential avoidance)
avoidance goals
approach goals vs. 137
avoidance motivation
approach motivation vs. 137–138
Axis I disorders
DSM-5 on 473
Axis II disorders
DSM-5 on 473
B
Bachmann, S. 344
Baer, R.A. 580
Bajoghli, H. 400
balance
affective
described 450
frontostriatal
unusual 484
Ball, D. 127
Balleine, B.W. 147
balloon analogue risk task (BART) 316, 323
Balodis, I.M. 367
Banki, C.M. 83
Barch, D.M. 253
Barlow, D.H. 525, 530, 531
Barnett, W. 341
Barrett, L.F. 103
Baskin-Sommers, A. 312
Beach, F. 354
Beblo, T. 244, 339
Beck, A.T. 91, 542
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores 46
“be happy” 245
behavior(s)
aggressive
positive urgency and 207t, 210–211
anhedonic
DA function related to 225–226
antisocial (see antisocial behavior)
early-life adversity effects on
animal studies 500–505, 501f, 502t
eating-related
positive urgency and 206t, 210
maladaptive (see maladaptive behavior(s))
maladaptive patterns of (see maladaptive patterns of behavior)
motivated
hedonic experience leading to 254–257, 255f
nonverbal
of positive emotion 100–101
NSSI–related
positive urgency and 206t, 210
regulation of
mental contrasting of positive future fantasies in 601–604 (see also behavior regulation, mental contrasting in)
reward
aspects of 381
risk-taking
positive urgency and 200t
risky sexual
positive urgency and 205t
in young adolescents 357
social
positive emotion in 465–466
substance use disorders and
positive urgency and 200t, 209
suicidal
positive urgency and 206t, 210
behavioral activation
in anhedonia management 584–585
behavioral activation methods
in CBT
for depression 544–548
Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS)
Drive subscale of 315
Reward Responsiveness subscale of 315, 324
self-rated 141, 143
behavioral activation therapy (BAT)
in reward circuit management related to mood disorders 232
behavioral addictions
positive urgency and 204t, 209
behavioral approach system 162
behavioral approach system dysregulation theory 161–183. See also reward hypersensitivity model of bipolar spectrum disorders
behavioral approach system/reward hypersensitivity model of bipolar disorder 161–183. See also reward hypersensitivity model of bipolar spectrum disorders
behavioral coding
of positive emotion 99–101
Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS) 99, 138, 147
Reward Responsiveness subscale of 99
Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale (BIS/BAS) questionnaire 242
behavioral tagging 87–88
behavior regulation
mental contrasting in 601–604
for achievement, health, and everyday life 602
coping with setbacks in 603–604
evidence for 601–602
in interpersonal relationships 601–602
nonconscious cognition in 602–603
nonconscious energization in 603
obstacle recognition in 602–603
processes in 602–604
“be in the moment” 20
belief(s)
inaccurate
in GD 369–371
Bender, R.E. 165
Bentall, R.P. 108, 148, 165, 228
Berenbaum, H. 27, 30, 335
Berger, R.H. 399
Bermpohl, F. 167
Berridge, K.C. 184, 304
bias(es)
attentional (see attentional bias)
emotional memory
in adults with unipolar depression 81
matching 198–199, 213
reduced positive information–processing
pleasure blocked by 547–548
reward-dependent response 168
salience 198, 217
selection attention–related 121–122
binge-eating disorder (BED)
defined 425
(p. 616) positive emotion dysregulation in 424–443
biological rhythms
abnormalities in
in at-risk populations 412–413
described 380
positive affect and 380–423 (see also positive affect)
bipolar continuum theory 447–449
bipolar disorder. See also specific types
adaptive emotion regulation strategies and 44
BPD vs. 340
characteristics of 38
circadian involvement in 412–413
cognitive reappraisal and 44–45
emotion goals and 44–45
emotion regulation strategies and 44–45
extremely ambitious life goals with 144
features of 367–368
GD and 367–368
positive emotion states as predictive of greater risk of 52
positive urgency and 205t, 209–210
reward hypersensitivity in 228–231
sensitivity to reward in 143–144
sleep involvement in 412–413
valuing happiness and risk for 16
volatile emotional experiences in people with 45
WHO on 161
bipolar disorder depression 228, 230
bipolar disorder mania
DAT dysfunction in 230
bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BD-NOS) 161–162
subtypes of 228
bipolar I disorder 161–162
bipolar II disorder 161–162, 228
hypomanic episode in 162
bipolar spectrum
diagnoses in 161–162
bipolar spectrum disorders 143. See also bipolar disorder
introduction 161–162
Birk, J.L. 57, 58
bivalence theory 447–448
Blechett, J. 104
Bliss-Moreau, E. 103
blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) activity
gain-related fMRI
in striatum 229
blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) contrast 103
“blunting” personal style
pleasure blocked by 548
bodily expressive coding systems
in behavioral coding of positive emotion 100–101
Boettcher, H. 525
Bohus, M. 338
Boland, E.M. 173
Bonanno, G.A. 50, 51, 53, 54, 56–58
Borbély, A.A. 383
Borbély’s two-process model of sleep regulation 383
borderline personality disorder (BPD) 333–352
bipolar disorder vs. 340
case example 333–334
clinical features of 334–335, 335t
cognitive processing of positive emotional stimuli in 344
costs related to 334
Depue-Lenzenweger model of 334
described 333
diagnostic criteria for 334–335, 335t
emotional suppression in 339–340
emotional switching in 337
emotion differentiation in 338–339
emotion regulation in
challenges related to 335
EOI and 345
epidemiology of 334–335, 335t
experiential avoidance in 339–340
facial expressivity to positive stimuli in 343–344
impulsivity in 338–339
negativity and 333
polythetic
diagnosis of 334–335, 335t
positive emotional information in
response to 340–341
positive emotion in 333–352
introduction 333–334
neural processing of 345
psychotherapy and 345–346
positive facial emotion processing in 341–343
public health burden of 334
self-reported emotion in 335–338
Borkenau, P. 124
Borkovec’s foundational cognitive avoidance model of worry 299
Borkovec, T.D. 299
Bos, E.H. 566
Boutelle, K.N. 130–131
Bradley, B.P. 127, 306
Bradley, M.M. 355
Braet, C. 129
brain
DA pathways in
depression linked to dysfunction in 82–92
emotion and 184–196
liking vs. wanting perspective on 184–196
Brain, K.L. 455
brain studies
of emotion 185
Brand, S. 400
Brandsma, R. 566, 580
Brazil, I.A. 325, 326
Breen, W.E. 284
Brickenkamp, R. 325
Brinkmann, K. 578
broaden-and-build theory of positive emotion 51, 198, 564
broad-minded affective coping (BMAC) 550–551, 586
Brown, J. 406
Brown, L.H. 108
Brown, T.A. 530
Bruce, G. 127
Buchholz, A. 339
Budhani, S. 325, 326
bulimia nervosa
adverse effects of 433–434
defined 425
positive emotion dysregulation in 424–443
Burton, C.L. 53, 54, 57, 58
Byrne, J.E.M. 380, 385
C
callous–unemotional and psychopathic traits (CD+CU/CD+PP) 320–322
reward processing in 320–322
action selection/preference-based decision-making 321
expectancy/reward prediction error 321
initial responsiveness to reward attainment 321
reward learning 321–322
Cambridge gamble task (CGT) 372
Cameron, L. 406
Campbell, L. 123
Capuron, L. 85
card-playing tasks 372–373
Cares, C.R. 399
Carl, J.R. 527, 530, 531
Carlson, J. 130–131
Carver, C.S. 137–139, 165
Casement, M.D. 482
Caseras, X. 167, 228
Castellanos, E.H. 130
casualty
adversity-related disruptions to positive emotion 500–512, 501f, 502t
catecholamine(s)
lust and romantic love associated with 360
catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) 507
CD with callous–unemotional (CU) traits (CD+CU)
antisocial behavior associated with 313
DSM-5 on 313
CD with psychopathic (PP) traits (CD+PP)
antisocial behavior associated with 313
Ceumern-Lindenstjerna 343
Chambless, D.L. 245
Chandler, C. 127
Chan, M.Y. 445
Chapman, A.L. 338
Chapman Anhedonia Scale 99
Chase, H.W. 167, 230
Cheavens, J.S. 55, 336
Chentsova-Dutton, Y.E. 101
Cheung, M.W.L. 534
Chida, Y. 445
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) 510n
Chmielewski, M. 76
Chow, P.I. 27, 30, 33
Chu, C. 337
Cicchetti, D. 511
circadian modulation
of positive affect 383–385, 384f, 385f
of reward function 383–385, 384f, 385f
circadian reward rhythm 383–384, 384f
circadian rhythm
in positive affect 384–385, 385f
circadian system
in bipolar disorder 412–413
described 382–383, 382f
factors impacting 383
function of 383
sleep processes and
interplay between 383
sleep–wake neurobiology and 381–383, 382f
Clark, L.A. 65, 225
“clean” positive emotional state(s)
positive urgency influence on subsequent maladaptive behaviors in 215–216
clinical psychology
positive 527, 532
clinical science measures
Clinton, H. 596, 609
Coffey, K.A. 406
cognition
nonconscious
in mental contrasting in behavior regulation 602–603
cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) 548
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
for depression 539–560, 553f
behavioral activation methods in 544–548
success of 541–542
in goal dysregulation management 150
mindfulness and 567
for reward hypersensitivity model of bipolar spectrum disorders 171
for SAD 293
cognitive bias modification (CBM) procedures 547–548
cognitive change
described 285
cognitive control
“motivated”
described 257
cognitive distortions
described 369
in GD 369–371
positive and negative valence effects of 370–371
cognitive flexibility alterations
incentive salience and 373
cognitive interventions
in anhedonia management 585–586
cognitive processing
positive emotions effects on 52–53
cognitive reappraisal
bipolar disorder and use of 44–45
depression and 41–42
cognitive theories of depression 81
cognitive therapy
Cohen, S. 445
Cohn, M.A. 406
Coifman, K.G. 56, 338
Cole, P.M. 54
comfort eating
described 427
positive emotion dysregulation and 427
compassion
in anhedonia management 582
self-
benefits of 582
compassionate mind training (CMT)
in anhedonia management 582
competitive memory training (COMET) procedure 551
Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 71
Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder (CAT-PD) 76, 78t
computational modeling
of positive emotion 109
conduct disorder (CD)
antisocial behavior associated with 313
DSM on 313
prevalence of 313
reward processing in 318–320
action selection/preference-based decision-making 319–320
effort valuation/willingness to work 319
expectancy/reward prediction error 320
initial responsiveness to reward attainment 319
reward valuation 319
youth with 313
congruence
emotion
positive emotion and 106
Connelly, M. 447
Connolly, P-S 50
conscious feelings
as emotional 190–192
consolidation 82
constructionism theory 447–449
consumption
in PVS 579
reward 4
consumption of reward
defined 577
contagion
emotion
positive emotion and 106
contentment
increasing experience of
emotion regulation strategies and situation selection in 32
(p. 618) context sensitivity
defined 53
in regulatory flexibility model of positive emotions 54–55
contraction(s)
anal
in orgasm assessment 355–356
contrasting
mental
of positive future fantasies 600–607 (see also mental contrasting of positive future fantasies)
reverse
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 601
control theory 57
coping
affective
broad-minded 550–551
coping with setbacks
in mental contrasting in behavior regulation 603–604
Corral-Frias, N.S. 514
Correia-Neves, M. 504
correlate(s)
measures vs. 97
Costa, V.D. 355
cost–benefit analysis 256
Cowdry, R.W. 337
Cox, W.M. 128
Craske, M.G. 575
Crespi, B.J. 342
Crombez, G. 129
Crosby, R.D. 425
cross-cultural value
of happiness 14–15
of positive emotion 14–15
cue(s)
Cue X, 326
Cue Y 326
gambling-related
neural responses to 374
cultural diversity
well-being and 534–535
Cummings, E.M. 107
Cunningham, W.A. 105, 166–167
Curious Experiences Survey (CES) 77, 78t
Current Opinion in Psychiatry 224
Curtis, W.J. 511
cyclothymia 161–162
cyclothymic disorder
defined 143
Cyders, M.A. 197, 211–213
D
Dahl, R.E. 411, 483
daily diaries
positive emotion examples in 107–108
Damasio, A. 584
Damasio, H. 584
Damme, K.S. 230
dampening appraisals
pleasure blocked by 545
DAT depletion 229
DAT dysfunction
in bipolar disorder mania 230
DAT function
abnormalities in 229
DAT inhibition 229–230
Davey, C.G. 483
Davidson, L.E. 385
Davidson, R.J. 242
Davis, M.C. 445
Daw, N.D. 91
Dayan, P. 91
decision-making
affective
in GD 371–373
preference-based (see preference-based decision-making)
Declaration of Independence
pursuit of happiness as inalienable right in 15
delay discounting
in addiction 371
described 315, 371
in GD 371
delay-discounting tasks 317
Deliberto, T.L. 456
dementia
frontotemporal
positive emotion disruption in 470–471
Dennison, M. 496
De Panfilis, C. 341
depression. See also specific types, e.g., major depressive disorder (MDD)
in adolescents 482–495 (see also adolescent(s), depression in)
affective processing in 561–562
anhedonia in (see anhedonia, in depression)
bipolar disorder 228, 230
CBT for 539–560, 553f (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), for depression; major depressive disorder (MDD); see also anhedonia)
characteristics of 40
clinical symptoms of 140
cognitive reappraisal and 41–42
cognitive theories of 81
costs related to 239
course of
altered reward systems and 485
deficits associated with 540
described 239
disability related to 575
dysfunction in DA pathways related to 82–92
emotion goals and 42–44
emotion regulation difficulties in 239
emotion regulation strategies and 40–42
episodic memory in
effects of 81
reward responses and 89–90
expressive suppression and 40–41
features of 239–240
FRN in 259–260
goal-directed action in 268–269
goal dysregulation and 140–143 (see also goal dysregulation, in depression)
goal progress in
reactivity to 142
goal setting in 141–142
HVA in 83
IGT in 266
impairments across constructs in 260t
inability to disengage in 142
initial responsiveness to reward in 259–262, 259f, 260t
monetary rewards 259–261, 259f, 260t
primary rewards 261
vs. schizophrenia 261–262
introduction 539–540
Lewinsohn’s influential behavioral model of 584–585
maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and 40–42
management of
sleep deprivation in 400
motivational neuroscience in 269–270
negative affect in 562
poor memory for positive material in 81–95
caveats 90–91
future directions in 90–91
introduction 82–83
neuroscientific hypothesis concerning 81–95
overview 81–82
terminology related to 81–82
positive emotion as protective factor against development of 563–565
positive emotion regulation in 239–250
positive memory deficit in 81–95
prevalence of 40, 140, 239, 575
(p. 619) problem-solving regulation strategies and 41
reduced DA function with 85–88
reinforcement learning in 264–265
reward anticipation in 264
reward disruption in development of 482–495
affective neuroscience of 484–485
backdrop of 485–486
clinical relevance of 485
converging empirical evidence of 483–484
developmental integration needs in 489–490
introduction 482–483
transdiagnostic issues related to 489–490
reward prediction error in 264
reward valuation in 266
rumination and 41
strategies and goals in 40–44
stress in 82
suicide related to 239
symptoms of 482, 539, 562
unipolar 168
emotional memory bias in adults with 81
valuing of happiness and 16
Depression Retardation Scale 227
deprivation
early-life adversity and
dimensions of 497–498
Depue-Lenzenweger model of BPD 334
Depue, R.A. 143
Derryberry, D. 343
“desire context” block 229
development
antisocial behavior and reward processing across
connection between 312–332
of depression
reward disruption in development of 482–495 (see also depression, reward disruption in development of)
positive emotion in psychopathology and 4
of sensitivity to sexual rewards 356–357
Devlin, H.C. 96
De Vries, P. 597
diagnostic analyses
in internalizing psychopathology 72–74, 73t
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
on CD 313
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Ed. (DSM-5) 67
on anhedonia 539
on Axis I and II disorders 473
on BPD diagnostic criteria 334–335, 335t
on CD+CU 313
Feeding and Eating Disorders section of 425
on GD 367
on MDD 576
on negative affect 199
on psychological disorders 292
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed. (DSM-IV) 67
on sexual responses 358
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed., Translated (DSM-IV-TR)
on systematic coding of psychological disorders 286
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Ed. (DSM-III) 83
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
differentiating emotional experiences in 339
diary(ies)
self-reported sleep 386
Dichter, G.S. 585
Dickens, G.L. 342
Diener, E. 445
digest
rest and 455
Dijksterhuis, A. 581, 597
Dillon, D.G. 81
Dinges, D.F. 386
Dinsdale, N. 342
disability(ies)
depression and 575
disengaging
inability for
in depression 142
in mania 145
dispositional forgiveness 532
dispositional gratitude 532
dissociation
psychoticism with 69t, 76–77, 78t
Dissociative Processes Scale (DPS) 77, 78t
distortion(s)
cognitive (see cognitive distortions)
hot hands 370
distraction 39
Dixon-Gordon, K.L. 338
Doane, L.D. 406
Domes, G. 344
dopamine (DA)
in AD 88
depression and 83–85
inflammation impact on 84–85
metabolites in 83
postmortem data and PET studies 84
dysfunction of (see dopamine (DA) dysfunction)
LTP and 85–86
memory and 85–88
behavioral tagging in 87–88
synaptic tagging and capture in 86–87
sexual behaviors and 355
in typical affective response to reward 486
dopamine (DA) dysfunction 90–91
inflammation and 84–85
dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) 193
dopamine (DA) function
anhedonic behavior related to 225–226
reduced
depression related to 85–88
dopamine (DA) pathways
in brain
depression linked to dysfunction in 82–92
dopamine (DA)-related regions
neural structure in 512
dopaminergic pharmacotherapy
in reward circuit management related to mood disorders 231
dopamine (DA) system
positive emotionality and 498–499, 498t
dopamine (DA) system alterations 486
dopamine transporter (DAT). See also DAT
dopamine transporter (DAT) gene 399
dorsal striatum 506–507
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) 498
Dour, H.J. 456, 575
downregulation
meta-emotions in influencing 31–32
of positive emotion
mania and impulsivity related to 56
psychosocial interventions targeting 4–5
downward spirals 577
Drive subscale
of BAS 315
drug(s)
in reward circuit management related to mood disorders 231–232
drug use
positive urgency and 204t, 209
Drukker, M. 562
d2 test
Brickenkamp’s 325
(p. 620) Duchenne smile 100, 106
Duka, T. 127
Dunn, B.D. 539
Dunner, D.L. 83
Duque, A. 124
Dutra, S.J. 96, 105, 166–167, 230
dwelling
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 601
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) 139, 148
dysregulation
in goal pursuit 140
E
early-life adversity
animal models of 499
behavioral effects of
animal studies 500–505, 501f, 502t
clinical implications 515
deprivation and
dimensions of 497–498
described 496
disorders associated with 496
future directions related to 515
introduction 496–497
methodology 497–500, 498t
neurobiological effects of
animal studies 505–507
prevalence of 496
psychopathology related to 496–522
positive emotionality as moderator of risk for 512–515
PVS in 496–522, 498t
terminology related to 497–500, 498t
threat and
dimensions of 497–498
Eastwood, B. 128
eating
comfort 427
emotion as consequence of 429–431
eating disorders 424–443. See also specific disorders, e.g., anorexia nervosa
attitudes toward pleasant emotions influencing 32
described 425
negative emotion dysregulation and 426
interplay with positive emotion dysregulation 426–427
overview of 425–426
positive emotion dysregulation in 424–443 (see also specific disorders and positive emotion dysregulation)
clinical implications for remediating 437–439
interplay with negative emotion dysregulation 426–427
introduction 424–425
research directions in 437
positive urgency and 206t, 210
terminology related to 425
types of 424
Ebner-Priemer, U.W. 336–338
Ebsworthy, G. 123
ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods 430, 436, 455
Edge, M.D. 165
efficient treatments
defined 577
effort
in reward valuation 266–267
effort allocation
in schizophrenia 267–268
effort computation
in depression 267–268
in schizophrenia 267–268
effort expenditure for reward task (EEfRT) 226
effort relative to reward value
computing 255f, 256–257
“effort” task 226
effort valuation/willingness to work 315
in reward processing in CD 319
Ego Resiliency Scale 446
Ehlers, C.L. 412
Eidelman, P. 244
Ekman, P. 344
El-Deredy, W. 228
electroencephalography (EEG) 138
of positive emotion 104–105
electromyography (EMG)
in behavioral coding of positive emotion 100
electronically activated recorders (EARs)
positive emotion examples in 108
Emmons, R.A. 583
emotion(s)
affect in 184
as antecedent to palatable food intake in normal weight adults 427–428
Aristotle on 51
attention to 30
basic function of 51
brain and
liking vs. wanting perspective on 184–196
brain studies of 185
conscious feelings and 190–192
as consequence of eating in normal weight adults 429–431
defined 28, 52, 184–185, 425
described 184–185, 561
difficulties associated with
in psychopathology 4
dimensional approach to 28
experience of 27–28
psychopathology related to 32
fearful responses to 29
fear of 245
goals of (see emotion goal(s))
happiness 342
Hume on 51
introduction 561–563
meta- (see meta-emotion(s))
negative (see negative emotion(s))
outcomes of
as variable rather than constant 52
perceived utility of 30
Plato on 51
pleasant (see also pleasant emotion(s))
meta-emotions regarding 27–36 (see also positive emotion)
positive (see positive emotion)
positive and negative goals related to
in psychopathology 37–49
regulation of (see emotion regulation)
Rousseau on 51
self-reported
in BPD 335–338
social functions of 51
specific
emotional responses to 29
unconscious
as example of objective emotional reaction, separable from subjective emotional feelings 188–190
ways in which people feel and think about 31
without judgment
experiencing 33
“emotional cascade” 455
emotional clarity
deficits in
bulimia nervosa and 433
emotional context sensitivity
of positive affect in GAD 305
emotional disclosure with positivity 586
emotional disorders
psychological treatment for
well-being in 526–527
well-being and positive affect dysregulation in 527
(p. 621) emotional disposition(s)
negative 122
positive 122
emotional experiences
differentiating of
in DBT 339
volatile
bipolar disorder and 45
Emotional Expressive Behavior (EEB) coding system
in behavioral coding of positive emotion 100
emotional granularity
enhancing 586
emotional intensity
of positive affect in GAD 304–305
emotionality
positive (see positive emotionality)
emotional memory bias
in adults with unipolar depression 81
emotional overinvolvement (EOI)
BPD–related 345
emotional reactions
reconciling views of 192–193
emotional reactivity
described 241
emotional responses
to specific emotions 29
emotional standards
minimizing
in pursuit of happiness 21
emotional state(s)
measuring of
monomethod approach to 215
emotional stimuli
positive
in BPD 344
emotional Stroop task 303, 373
emotional suppression
in BPD 339–340
emotional switching
in BPD 337
emotional understanding
of positive affect in GAD 306
emotional utility
perceptions of 30
emotional well-being 119
defined 133
emotion congruence
positive emotion and 106
emotion contagion
positive emotion and 106
emotion context insensitivity 579
emotion differentiation
in BPD 338–339
described 338
emotion dysregulation
defined 425
emotion-eliciting situation 38
emotion generation
in SAD 286–287
emotion goal(s)
adaptive 40
assessment of 42–44
bipolar disorder and 44–45
defined 14
depression and 42–44
in emotion regulation 39–40
higher order 39–40
positive and negative
in psychopathology 37–49
psychopathology and 39–40
emotion preferences
in MDD 245–246
emotion process(es)
theoretical model of
contributing to diminished positive emotion in MDD 247, 247f
emotion regulation 37–49, 243
activity in PNS implicated in 101–102
automatic
defined 22
in BPD
challenges related to 335
clinical implications 45–46
defined 22, 370, 425
described 37, 243, 285–286, 334
emotion goals in 39–40
extended process model of 285
valuation system of 285–286
future research and clinical practice related to 45–46
general features of 285–286
goals in 37–49
Gross’s model of 425
instrumental approach to 39
introduction 37–38
NSSI for 455
process model of 38–39, 285
psychopathology related to 32
in regulatory flexibility model of positive emotions 55–57
in SAD 286–287
“scattershot” approach to 19
strategies for (see emotion regulation strategies)
theoretical implications 45
emotion regulation deficits
introduction 37–38
emotion regulation difficulties
in depression 239
emotion regulation strategies 40–44, 243
adaptive
bipolar disorder and 44
depression and 41
described 39
bipolar disorder and 44–45
counterproductive
in attaining happiness 19
depression and 40–42
described 38
importance of 39
in increasing experience of contentment 32
maladaptive
depression and 40–42
psychopathology and 38–39
research on 37–38
emotion regulation tools
in pursuit of happiness 22
empathic accuracy
positive emotion and 106
employment
MCII in 607–608
endogenous opioids
NSSI and 458
types of 458
energization
low
positive future fantasies and 599
nonconscious
in mental contrasting in behavior regulation 603
environment(s)
complex social
during adolescence 486–487
episodic memory
in depression 81
reward responses and 89–90
Epstein, R. 399
equifinality
pathological mechanisms causing 232–234
Erk, S. 167
Ernst, M. 144
Estrada, S. 312
eudaemonic well-being 567
defined 563
eudaimonia 533
Euphoria scale
of IDAS-II 66
Euser, A.S. 130
event-contingent recording 108
event-related potentials (ERPs) 104, 138
Evershed, K. 165
Expanded Form of the PANAS (PANAS-X) 65
Expanded Version of IDAS (IDAS-II) 65–66
Euphoria scale of 66
in examining externalizing psychopathology 74
(p. 622) in examining internalizing psychopathology 67–74, 67t, 69t73t (see also psychopathology, internalizing)
in internalizing psychopathology 67–68, 67t
PANAS-X and
relationship between 66–67, 66t
positive mood scales of 65–66
in psychoticism 69t, 75–77
Well-Being scale of 65–66
Expanded Version of PANAS (PANAS-X)
in examining internalizing psychopathology 67–74, 67t, 69t73t (see also psychopathology, internalizing)
in externalizing psychopathology 74–75
IDAS-II scale and
relationship between 66–67, 66t
in psychoticism 75, 76t
expectancy
described 317–318
expectancy/reward prediction error
described 317–318
in reward processing in CD 320
in reward processing in CD+CU/CD+PP 321
in reward processing in psychopathy 325
experience(s)
reward
defined 563
experience sampling
of positive emotion
outside laboratory 107–108
experience sampling method (ESM) 546
defined 563
experiential avoidance 29
aspects of 29
in BPD 339–340
defined 29
psychopathology related to 29
Experiential Permeability Inventory (EPI) 76–77, 78t
expressive flexibility (EF) task 56
expressive suppression
depression and 40–41
expressivity
facial
in BPD 343–344
reduced 472–473
externally oriented thinking 30
extremely ambitious life goals
bipolar disorder and 144
extreme valuing
of happiness 15–16
F
Facial Action Coding System (FACS) 100, 241–243, 344
facial expression(s)
in behavioral coding of positive emotion 99–100
facial expressivity
to positive stimuli
in BPD 343–344
reduced 472–473
facial mimicry 511
facies
masked 472–473
Fadardi, J.S. 128
Fairburn, C.G. 435
fantasy(ies)
needs and 597
positive
indulging in 604–605
needs and 597–598
positive future 597–607 (see also positive future fantasies)
fantasy realization theory (FRT) 600
Fava, M. 242
fear
of emotion 245
of fear 29
wanting and
sharing between 187–188
“fearing weight gain” 435
feedback
defined 53–54
in regulatory flexibility model of positive emotions 57–58
feedback-related negativity (FRN)
in depression 259–260
feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude 226
Feeding and Eating Disorders section
of DSM-5 425
feeling(s)
conscious
as emotional 190–192
feeling overly challenged
positive future fantasies and 599
female sexual interest/arousal disorder 357
Field, M. 127, 128
“fight-or-flight” response 455, 465
Fillmore, M.T. 128
film(s)
sex
motivation of 355, 356
finding the silver lining 586
Finkel, S.M. 406
Fischer, P.M. 126
Fischman, M.W. 189–190
“fit in,” 458
Fitzgerald, R.G. 83
Fitzmaurice, G. 335–336, 340
Fletcher, J.E. 126
flexibility
repertoire
in regulatory flexibility model of positive emotions 55–57
flexible self-regulation
model of 53
flow
concept of 527
described 20
state of 20
Flux, M.C. 1
Folkman, S. 445–446
Fonzo, G.A. 302
food intake
palatable
emotional correlates of 431–432
positive emotion as antecedent to 428–429
Forbes, E.E. 384–385, 482, 483
Ford, B.Q. 13
forgiveness
dispositional 532
four modes of thought
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 604–605
Fox, G.R. 584
Fox, R.J. 126
Frank, E. 171, 412
Franken, I.H. 129, 130
Frank, G.K.W. 436
Franklin, J.C. 457
Franklin, M.S. 547
Franzen, J. 578
Franzen, P.L. 384–385
Franz, P.J. 453
Frazer, A. 83
Fredrickson, B.L. 51–52, 406, 445, 446, 564, 581
Friesen, W.V. 344
Froh, J.J. 583
“from feeling good to doing good” 596–611. See also mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII); positive future fantasies
introduction 596–597
positive future fantasies 597–607 (see also positive future fantasies)
frontostriatal balance
unusual 484
frontotemporal dementia (FTD)
positive emotion disruption in 470–471
Fulford, D. 150
functional imaging
of positive emotion 103
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 138
functioning
positive affect’s role in 445
future-directed thinking (FDT) 550
future obstacle associative links 603
(p. 623) G
Gable, P.A. 29, 31
gain-related fMRI BOLD activity
in striatum 229
gambler’s fallacy 370
gambling
positive and negative motivations for 367
reasons for 368–369
gambling disorder (GD)
bipolar disorder and 367–368
cognitive distortions in 369–371
delay discounting in 371
described 367
DSM-5 on 367
IGT in 371–373
inaccurate beliefs in 369–371
introduction 367
mood disorders and 367–369
negative mood states and 368–369
positive mood states and 367–379
epidemiological and phenomenological links between 367–369
future directions related to 375–376
positive valence disturbances in 367
prevalence of 367
PVS alterations in
neural basis of 373–375
neuropsychological 371–373
PVS in 367
reward, loss, and affective decision-making in 371–373
gambling-related cues
neural responses to 374
Gao, Y. 319, 319n
Garland, E.L. 561, 566–569, 581, 586
Garland, J.K. 98
Gebhard, R. 341, 344
gene(s)
DAT 399
General Behavior Inventory (GHI) 70, 70t
generalization
negative 142
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
attentional selectivity in individuals diagnosed with 122
central feature of 31
described 298–300
introduction 298–300
MDD with 299–308
negative affect in 298–299
positive affect in 298–302
affective forecasting 303–304, 306–307
attentional processes 302–303, 306
emotional context sensitivity of 305
emotional intensity of 304–305
emotional understanding 306
extant research on 300–304
future directions related to 304–307
limitations of 304–307
negative affect and 305–306
reward learning 304, 307
state-level 301–302, 304–306
trait-level 300–301, 304–306
positive emotion in 298–311
treatment of
problems related to 298
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale (GADSS) 529
general reward processing
neural responses during 373–374
general risk-taking behaviors
positive urgency and 200t
generosity
in anhedonia management 584
genital response
measurement of 358–359, 359f
genital stimulation reward 356
Geraghty, A.W. 583
Geschwind, N. 561, 562, 564–566
Gilbert, D.T. 565
Gilbert, K.E. 1
Gilbert, T. 547
Giovanelli, A. 56
Glazer, J. 161
glutamatergic pharmacotherapy
in reward circuit management related to mood disorders 231–232
goal(s)
approach vs. avoidance 137
defined 14, 137
described 137
emotion (see emotion goals(s))
in emotion regulation 37–49
priorities of 137
setting of 138–139
goal appraisal(s)
in mania 144–145
goal-directed action
in depression 268–269
in schizophrenia 268
goal-directed action plans
generate and execute 255f, 257
goal dysregulation 137–160. See also goal(s); goal regulation
in depression 140–143
appraisals of goal progress 142
goal setting for 141–142
inability to disengage 142
reactivity to goal progress 142
sensitivity to incentives in MDD 140–141
future directions in 150–151
in goal pursuit 140
introduction 137
management of
CBT in 150
in mania 143–146
goal appraisals in 144–145
goal setting in bipolar disorder 144
inability to disengage in 145
reactivity to goal progress 145
sensitivity to reward in bipolar disorder 143–144
in schizophrenia 146–149
appraisals of goal progress 148
goal setting 148
reactivity to goal progress 148–149
sensitivity to incentives 146–148
treatment implications 149–150
goal progress
in depression
appraisals of 142
reactivity to 142
in mania
reactivity to 145
in schizophrenia
appraisals of 148
reactivity to 148–149
goal pursuit
defined 14
dysregulation in 140
goal-pursuit process 14
goal regulation 137–140, 139f
affect and 139–140, 139f
approach vs. avoidance motivation in 137–138
described 137–140
goal setting in 138–139
introduction 137
problems associated with 137–160 (see also goal dysregulation)
goal setting 138–139
in bipolar disorder 144
in depression 141–142
in schizophrenia 148
goal setting and planning (GAP) 549
GOALS program 214
Goff, B. 515
Goldstein, A.J. 245
Goldstein, A.N. 399
Gollwitzer, A. 606
Gollwitzer, P.M. 596, 607, 608
Gomez, J.J. 335
Goodwin, F.K. 83
Gordon, E.K. 83
Gotink, R.A. 566
Gotlib, I.H. 101, 124, 227
Gottman, J.M. 98
Gradin, V.B. 262
Graf, M. 585
Grafton, B. 119, 124, 125
granularity
emotional
enhancing 586
gratitude
in anhedonia management 583–584
dispositional 532
Greenhouse, I. 105
(p. 624) Green, M.J. 147
Greer, S.M. 399
Gregory, S. 325
Griffiths, K.R. 147
Grilo, C.M. 425
Gross, J.J. 104, 243, 284, 425
Gross’s model of emotion regulation 425
Gruber, J. 1, 99, 102, 105, 166–167, 244
Gruber, M.J. 89
Guadagni, V. 399
guaranteeing high expectations of success
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 605–606
Gujar, N. 399, 400
Gunderson, J.G. 334
Guo, C.C. 470
Guzmán-Ramos, K. 88
H
Haack, M. 386
habit
reward
described 540
Hagenhoff, M. 342
Haines, J. 455
Hallett, L.A. 242
Hamann, S. 103
Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) 529
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) 529
Han, H. 84
Hanson, J.L. 508, 510n, 515
happiness
“be happy” 245
counterproductive emotion regulation strategies in attaining 19
cross-cultural value of 14–15
defined 14
as easiest emotion to detect 342
extreme valuing of 15–16
as goal 14–15
goal of
reasons for 15
humanities on 532–533
less
pursing positive emotion and 56
monitoring of 19–20
experience of happiness disrupted by 22
pursuing 13–26
pursuit of (see pursuit of happiness)
unproductive attempts to achieve 18–19
unrealistic standards for 17–18
valuing of
bipolar disorder related to 16
depression-related outcomes of 16
extreme 15–16
greater psychological health related to 21
loneliness related to 18–19
social costs related to 19
social isolation and 19
as widely studied positive emotion 14
Hare, R.D. 313–314
Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) 313–314
Harmon-Jones, C. 29, 31
Harmon-Jones, E. 29, 31, 145
Hasler, B.P. 384–385
Hassett, A.L. 444
Hausmann, L.R. 447
Havermans, R. 108
Hayden, E.P. 143
Hayes, S.C. 29
Hazlett, E.A. 345
health
MCII in 607–608
negative affect effects on 444
psychological (see psychological health)
sexual stimulation in improving 360–361
Heckers, S. 105
hedonic impairments 253–254
hedonics 257–262, 259f, 260t
described 253, 255, 255f
Heimberg, R.G. 290
Heisenberg uncertainty principle 19–20
Heiy, J.E. 55, 336
Heller, A.S. 449
Henriques, J.B. 242
Herpertz, S.C. 344
Heyn, K. 344
Higgins, E.T. 307
high-arousal positive affect items 411
high expectations of success
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 605–606
high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)
in noninvasively measuring PNS activity 102
Hikosaka, O. 448
hippocampus
volumetric reductions of 81–82
Hitchcock, E. 444
Hobson, C.W. 319–320
Hofmann, B.U. 52
Holker, L. 123
Hollitt, S. 130
homovanillic acid (HVA)
in depression 83
Hooley, J.M. 333, 342, 344
Ho, S.M.Y. 534
hot hands distortion 370
hot hands fallacy 370
“hot hands” phenomenon 370
Houben, M. 337
Huettel, S.A. 103
Huffcutt, A.J. 399
Hughes, M.E. 385
Hull, T.D. 50, 58
humanities
on happiness and well-being 532–533
Hume
on emotion 51
humor
in anhedonia management 586
Hu, P. 400
Huys, Q.J.M. 91
hypersensitivity
hypoactive sexual desire disorder 357
Hypomania Checklist-32 70, 70t
hypomanic episode
in bipolar II disorder 162
defined 209–210
Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) 70, 70t, 71t, 99
hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis 82
I
Iacono, W.G. 143
IDAS-II Euphoria 64
IDAS-II Well-Being 64
ideal affect 29
identification
in extended process model of emotion regulation 285, 286
identification stage
in SAD
difficulties with 288–289
identity(ies)
stable
formation of 488
imagining the positive 586–587
implementation
in extended process model of emotion regulation 285, 286
implementation intentions
described 607
(p. 625) implementation stage
in SAD
difficulties with 290–291
impulsivity
in BPD 338–339
positive emotion–based
as transdiagnostic endophenotype 197–222 (see also positive urgency)
positive emotion–related downregulation and 56
reward-related 317
inaccurate beliefs
in GD 369–371
incentive(s)
sensitivity to
in MDD 140–141
in schizophrenia 146–148
“incentive motivation”
sex as 354–355
incentive salience 82, 189
cognitive flexibility alterations related to 373
described 355
neural substrate of 381
reward in sexuality vs. 355
Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale 292
indulging
in mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 601
inflammation
DA dysfunction related to 84–85
influential behavioral model of depression
Lewinsohn’s 584–585
initial responsiveness to reward
adversity-related disruptions to positive emotion–related 510–512
expression and experience 511–512
neural structure in DA-related regions 512
neurobiological findings 510–511
subjective affect 510
described 255, 255f
initial responsiveness to reward attainment 315–316
in reward processing in CD 319
in reward processing in CD+CU/CD+PP 321
in reward processing in psychopathy 324
Inoué, S. 386
insensitivity
emotion context 579
insomnia
relationships between sleep and positive affect related to 399
integrative cognitive-affective therapy (ICAT) 438
interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT)
for reward hypersensitivity model of bipolar spectrum disorders 171
interpersonal measures
interpersonal relationships
mental contrasting in behavior regulation in 601–602
interpersonal situations
in SAD 284
interval-contingent sampling 107
Interview for Mood and Anxiety Symptoms (IMAS) analysis
in internalizing psychopathology 71–72, 72t
“in the moment”
being 20
Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits (ICU) 313
Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS)
Expanded Version of (see Expanded Version of IDAS (IDAS-II))
Iosifescu, D. 242
Iowa gambling task (IGT) 316, 316n, 323, 371–373
in depression 266
in schizophrenia 265–266
Ironside, M.L. 223
J
Jackowska, M. 406
Jacob, G.A. 339, 346
James, S.W. 360
James, W. 532
Jay, M. 608
Jazaieri, H. 284
John, K. 126
Johnson, S.L. 137, 150, 165, 215, 385
Johnson, V. 358
Joiner, T.E., Jr. 425
Joiner, T.J. 338
Jones, B.T. 127
Jones, S.H. 165
Joormann, J. 239
Joseph, S. 583, 584
Joshanloo, M. 28
joy
appreciative
in anhedonia management 582–583
judgment
experiencing emotions without 33
K
Kahn-Greene, E.T. 399
Kaida, K. 386
Kakoschke, N. 131
Kalak, N. 411
Kalmbach, D.A. 406, 411
Kaplan, J. 584
Kappes, A. 603, 608
Kappes, H.B. 597–599, 605
Kashdan, T.B. 284, 287
Katz, A.N. 124
Keel, P.K. 425
Keltner, D. 51, 54, 99–101
Kemps, E. 130, 131
Kendall, A.D. 301
Kickertz, J.M. 130–131
Kiehl, K.A. 324
Kierkegaard, S. 533
Kiken, L.G. 568
Killingsworth, M.A. 547, 565
Kirk, D. 607
Kirwan, C.B. 385
Kleiman, E.M. 453
Klein, D.N. 264
Klenk, M.M. 307
Klimek, V. 84
Klonsky, E.D. 337
Knowles, R. 108, 165
Knutson, B. 399
Kober, H. 103, 105, 166–167
Koenigsberg, H.W. 340, 345
Koenigs, M. 324
Koole, S.L. 581
Korfine, L. 344
Kouros, C.D. 107
Krugman, D.M. 126
Kuo, J. 337
Kupfer, D.J. 412
Kwapil, T.R. 108
L
Lai, M.H. 535
Lalande, K. 56
Lam, D. 145
Lang, P.J. 215, 355
Latin, H.M. 525
laughter
in anhedonia management 586
Lavie, P. 399
Layous, K. 584
Lazarus, R.S. 445–446
learning
building
in targeting anhedonia 550–551
neurobiology of 224–225
probabilistic and reinforcement 256
in PVS 579
reinforcement (see reinforcement learning (RL))
reward (see reward learning)
LeBeau, R.T. 575
Lebourgeois, M.K. 399
LeChiminant, J.D. 385
LeDoux, J.E. 190–193
left hemisphere predominance
positive emotion and 469–470
Leknes, S. 457
Lengua, L.J. 513
Le, T.N. 535
Levenson, R.W. 98, 465
Lewinsohn, P.M. 584–585
Lewinsohn’s influential behavioral model of depression 584–585
Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) 529
life events
positive affect states effects of 380
life span development
positive urgency and 212–213
Lijffijt, M. 322
liking 257–262, 259f, 260t
building of
in adapting CBT for depression to better target anhedonia 544–548
described 255, 255f
neural generator of 186–187
neurobiology of 224–225
in schizophrenia 258–259, 259f, 260t
wanting vs. 184–196
on emotion and the brain 184–196
limbic areas 381
Lindquist, K.A. 103
Lindsay, G. 126
Linehan, M.M. 335, 338
Linley, P.A. 584
Llera, S.J. 299, 301
Loeber, S. 130
Loft, M. 406
loneliness
valuing happiness and 18–19
Long, A.C. 513
long-term potentiation (LTP)
DA and 85–86
late-phase 82
Lösel, F. 325
loss
in GD 371–373
love
romantic
catecholamines and 360
loving-kindness
in anhedonia management 581–582
low-arousal positive affect items 411
low energization
positive future fantasies and 599
low sexual desire
subtyping of 360
Luders, E. 580
Luking, K. 253
Luo, Z. 386
Lusher, J. 127
lust
catecholamines and 360
M
Macht, M. 429
MacLeod, C. 119, 122–125, 302
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
of positive emotion 103–104
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 104
major depressive disorder (MDD) 90. See also depression
anhedonia in 99
described 551
characteristics of 38
described 225–227, 239–240, 539
diminished positive emotion in
theoretical model of emotions processes contributing to 247, 247f
DSM-5 on 576
emotional responses to positive stimuli in 241–243
behavioral evidence of anhedonia 241–242
neurophysiological evidence of anhedonia 242–243
self-report evidence of anhedonia 241
emotion preferences in 245–246
GAD and 299–308
negative affective states in 240–241
positive affect in 240–241
positive affective states in 240–241
positive emotion as protective factor against development of 563–565
positive emotion in 240
positive emotion regulation in 243–245
prevalence of 239, 539
reconceptualizing anhedonia in 225–227
reward sensitivity in 141
sensitivity to incentives in 140–141
trait and state positive affect in 240–241
maladaptive behavior(s)
multiple
positive urgency as distinctive personality pathway to 216
subsequent
in “clean” positive emotional states 215–216
maladaptive emotion regulation strategies
depression and 40–42
maladaptive patterns of behavior
increased attention to affectively negative information and 125–126
increased attention to affectively positive information and 126–131
male hypoactive sexual desire disorder 357
Malison, R.T. 375
Maltby, J. 583, 584
mania
bipolar disorder
DAT dysfunction in 230
defined 143
goal dysregulation in 143–146 (see also goal dysregulation, in mania)
inability to disengage in 145
in internalizing psychopathology 69–70, 70t, 71t
positive emotion–related downregulation and 56
positive emotion states as predictive of greater risk of 52
manic episode
defined 209–210
Mansell, W. 145
Marmot, M. 400
Martinmäki, S. 561
masked facies 472–473
Masland, S.R. 333
Mason, L. 228
Masterson, T.D. 385
Masters, W. 358
matching bias 198–199, 213
Mathews, A. 122, 302
Matsumoto, M. 448
Matzke, B. 344
Maudsley Model of Treatment for Adults With Anorexia Nervosa (MANTRA) 436–437
Mauer, N. 124
May, C.J. 581
Mayer, D. 598, 599
McCarthy, G. 103
McCrae, C.S. 386
McCullough, M.E. 583
McEvoy, D. 414
McFarland, B.R. 264
McLachlan, A.L. 124
McLaughlin, K. 496, 497
McMakin, D.L. 411
measure(s)
correlates vs. 97
mechanism(s)
defined 577
medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) 138
medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) 381, 506–507
adolescent depression related to 484
Mehl, P.J. 605
(p. 627) memory(ies)
emotional
bias related to 81
enhanced
for negative material 81
episodic
in depression 81, 89–90
mood and
interactions between 81
poor
reward-enhanced
in healthy humans 88–89
Mendels, J. 83
Mendes, W.B. 456
Mennin, D.S. 298
mental attainment
positive future fantasies and 598–599
mental contrasting
as metacognitive tool 605–606
mental contrasting of positive future fantasies 600–607
four modes of thought in 604–605
guaranteeing high expectations of success in 605–606
indulging, dwelling, and reverse contrasting 601
as metacognitive tool 605–606
personal variables in 605
in regulating behavior 601–604 (see also behavior regulation, mental contrasting in)
situational variables in 605
mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) 596, 607–609
described 607
in health, work, and relationships 607–608
in regulating positive affect 608
Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF) 530
mental health problems
prevalent 575
Mesquita, A.R. 504
metabolite(s)
DA and depression related to 83
metacognitive tool
mental contrasting as 605–606
meta-emotion(s)
broad construct of 27
case example 27
constructs relevant to 29–30
defined 30
described 17, 27
guiding framework for 30–31
importance of 27–36
in influencing upregulation and downregulation of emotion 31–32
of pleasant emotion 31–33
in psychopathology 27–28, 31–33
regarding pleasant emotion 28
Meyer, B. 144–145
Meyer, T.D. 52
Michel, M.K. 54
Miller, A.L. 399
Miller, M.A. 128
Millgram, Y. 37, 246
mimicry
facial 511
Mindful Awareness Research Center (MARC)
at University of California at Los Angeles 587
mindfulness
in anhedonia management 580–581
mechanisms of 580–581
CBT and 567
defined 562, 580
facilitation of positive emotions through 561–574 (see also specific techniques and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), facilitation of positive emotions through)
running training and 567
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) 543, 546
in anhedonia management 580
defined 562
described 562
facilitation of positive emotions through 561–574 (see also mindfulness)
clinical implications 570
introduction 561–563
research recommendations 570–571
from temporary savoring to long-term benefits 567–570
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) 566
in anhedonia management 580
mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement (MORE)
defined 563
mindfulness-to-meaning theory
defined 563
mindful self-compassion (MSC) program 582
mind wandering
pleasure blocked by 545–546
Mitchell, A.E. 342
Mitchell, D.G. 324, 325
mixed affect
in response to sexual stimuli 360
Modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES) 98
modified Stroop task 121–124, 127, 129
Moeller, F.G. 322
Mogg, K. 127
Moller-Levet, C.S. 383
Moltó, J. 324
momentary positive affect 383
Moncada, D. 87–88
Monetary Choice Questionnaire 315
monetary incentive delay (MID) paradigm 317
monetary incentive delay (MID) tasks 262, 373–374
monetary rewards
initial responsiveness to
in depression 259–261, 259f, 260t
in initial responsiveness to reward in schizophrenia 258
monitoring
in extended process model of emotion regulation 285, 286
monitoring stage
in SAD
difficulties with 291
Montaldi, D. 228
mood(s)
memory and
interactions between 81
next-day
REM sleep abnormalities impact on 399–400
positive (see positive mood)
Mood Disorder Questionnaire 70, 70t
mood disorders
approach-related
reward hypersensitivity and 173–175
GD and 367–369
reward processing abnormalities in 223–238 (see also reward processing abnormalities, in mood disorders)
treatment of
targeting reward circuitry in 231–232 (see also reward circuitry, in mood disorders management)
Moreno-Castilla, P. 88
Morgenstern, J. 608
Morrison, A.S. 284, 290
Morris, R.W. 147
Moskovitz, D.S. 337
motivated behavior
hedonic experience leading to
components of 254–257, 255f
“motivated” cognitive control
described 257
motivation(s)
approach (see approach motivation)
avoidance
vs. approach motivation 137–138
described 253
for gambling 367