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date: 03 August 2020

(p. 515) Index

(p. 515) Index

This index follows indexing best practices as laid out by the Chicago Manual of Style and Oxford University Press. The use of commas and prepositions are provided to ease the reader in the presentation of the entries.

References to tables, figures, and boxes are denoted by an italic t, f, or b following the page number.

Abbott, L. J., 258
Abernethy, M. A., 464, 472
absorptive capacity, 24–25
Academy of Management, 358
accounting-based control systems, 4, 12–14
accuracy, 429
Ackerman, P. L., 192, 205–6, 375, 379
acquisitions, 12–13, 22–23, 32
alliances and, 25–26, 34–37
evolution of, 35
external knowledge and, 28–29
future research, 34–37
innovation and, 29
of IPOs, 94
research directions in, 29–34
risks, 28
strategies, 499–501
success of, 29
active management-by-exception, 241
Adams, R. B., 257
Adams, S. M., 244
Adler, P. S., 400, 401
adult entertainment, 148
adverse selection, 103
agency cost, 157
agency theory, 4–6, 87, 394
behavioral, 119
cognitive assumptions of, 106–9
in contracting phase, 111–15
critiques of, 101
delegation in, 102–3
epistemic assumptions of, 106–9
intent-based trust in, 117
mentalizing in, 111–18
in post-contractual phase, 115–18
rationality in, 108
standard, 103–5, 107t
Agenda for Change (UK Department of Health, 2005), 323
aging
attitudes towards, 190–91
bias, 201–2
career development and, 211–13
changes during, 181–84
cognitive ability and, 183–84
cultural norms and, 191
employee health and safety and, 218–20
employee selection and, 200–203
explanatory mechanisms, 224–25
globalization and, 222–23
goal-setting theory and, 382–83
HR and, 196–99
interdisciplinary research, 221
intervention research, 221–22
job design and, 217–18
job performance and, 195
job placement and, 203–5
longitudinal studies on, 220–21
mediating mechanisms, 224–25
meta-analysis of, 193
(p. 516) moderators, 222
motivation and, 205
performance management and, 205–8
personality and, 184
physical health and, 181
social context, 188–89
stereotyping and, 183t, 188, 201
subjective, 183t, 191–92
teams and, 213–16
technology and, 223
training and, 208–11
in United States, 179–80
work attitudes and, 194
work outcomes and, 194–96
Agle, B. R., 135
Aguilera, R., 87
Aguzzoni, L., 165
Ahrendts, Angela, 244
Alexander, J., 329
Ali, M., 262
Allcock, D., 85
Allen, E., 490, 491
alliances, 22–23
acquisitions and, 25–26, 34–37
evolution of, 35
external knowledge and, 25–28
future research, 34–37
networks, 25–28
portfolios, 27–28
research directions in, 29–34
technical, 35
Altman’s Z, 55, 60
in measurement, 61
Amabile, T. M., 396
American Association of Nursing, 325
American Bar Association (ABA), 167
American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), 56
American National Standard for Performance Management, 367
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 346–47, 355
investor reporting metrics, 351t
meta-analytics findings, 364t
Angelucci, C., 157
Ansic, D., 242
antitrust compliance
bounties in, 168–69
compliance culture, 166–67
culture in, 163–67
enforcement of, 160–61
firm indicia and, 158–59
middle management in, 163–64
norm creation in, 163–64
organizational design and, 159
organizational environment, 156–58
scholarship on, 155
senior management in, 161–63
stock-based cartel event studies and, 165–66
strict liability regime, 161
survey evidence on, 167–68
antitrust laws, 6
antitrust legislation, 166
architectural knowledge, 30, 35–36
core, 33
Arlen, J., 160
Armstrong-Stasser, M., 199, 319–20
Arshoff, A. S., 381
Arthurs, J., 85
Ashford, S. J., 378
assets, 27–28
financial, 502–3
hypothesis testing and, 65t
influence of capabilities-based resources on, 62–68
in low-technology industries, 67t
post hoc analysis, 66t
in stable industries, 67t
assurance of reports, 437–40
Athy, S., 475n8
Aubert, C., 157
Auditing Enforcement Release (AAER), 487
Australian Stock Exchange, 244
autism, 110
Aw, Y., 438
Babakus, E., 246
Baber, W., 489
baby boomers, 194
(p. 517) Baer, J. C., 285, 362
Baert, C., 510
Baiman, S., 462, 464, 467
Baird, L., 504
Baker, W. E., 168
Bal, A. C., 199
Baldenius, T., 467
Baldes, J. J., 375, 380
Ball, R., 485, 486, 493
Barbeitte, F. G., 209
Barger, L., 327
Barney, J. B., 289
Barocci, T., 318
Barra, Mary, 244
Barrick, M. R., 3, 504
Barron, F., 395
Bartram, T., 320
Baughn, C. C., 26
Bazerman, M. H., 384
Beatty, R., 82, 84
Beckenstein, A. R., 167
behavioral agency theory, 119
Beier, M. E., 205–6, 209
Bell, G., 87, 92
Benabou, R., 470
Beorkrem, M., 396
Bergeron, D. M., 207
Bernard, V., 484
Bernardi, R. A., 257
Bernasek, A., 242
Bertolino, M., 202
Berwick, D., 323
best interests, 334
Bharath, S., 488
Biemann, T., 206
Bierman, L., 15
big data, 352
Birkett, B., 402
Blacconiere, W., 436
black box studies, 269
Blackburn, V. B., 259
blame culture, 326
blood pressure, 323
Bloom, J., 329
Bloom, N., 264
Blum, T. C., 263
Blume, B. D., 360
board composition
in IPOs, 81–83
untested, 83
Bobko, P., 376
Boehm, S., 190, 199
bonuses, 158
Boone, J., 374
Borgogni, L., 381
Bosch, J.-C., 165
boundary crossings, 143–46
bounties, 168–69
Bourhis, A. C., 201
Bouwens, J., 467, 472
Bowen, D., 325, 357
Bowen, F., 428
Bowen, R. M., 169
Bowen, W., 374
Bowers, C., 213
brand equity, 51, 52
defining, 55
marketing expenditures, 73
measurement of, 60
Brett, J. M., 292
Brochet, F., 502
Brockner, J., 116, 117
Brown, D., 436
Brown, M., 322
Brown, N., 324
Bruch, H., 190
Bruton, G., 87
Brynjolfsson, E., 455, 459
Buchan, J., 312
bundling, 286
Burlacu, G., 208
Bushman, R. M., 459, 467
business activities, 128–29
business practices, 128–29
Business Source Premier, 290
business-to-customer (B2C) focus, 57
marketing expenditures, 71
Cadiz, D. M., 190, 218–19, 222
Calabrò, A., 255
Campbell, D., 396
Campion, M. A., 188
Cannon-Bowers, J. A., 213
Cao, J. X., 82
(p. 518) capabilities, 5
capabilities-based resources, 48
analysis of, 62
assets and, 66t
competitive advantage and, 52–53
competitive intensity in, 69–70
control variables, 69–70
customer equity and, 49–50
defining, 50
firm size in, 69–70
in high-technology industries, 67t
hypothesis development, 51–53
influence of, on assets, 62–68
innovation-focused resources and, 54
investment opportunity set, 51
in low-technology industries, 67t
market orientation and, 50–51
measurement of, 56–59
post hoc analysis, 66t, 67t
resource-based view on, 50–51
in stable industries, 67t
strategic assets and, 53, 54
supply chain-focused resources and, 53
supported hypotheses, 62–68
capability configurations, 289–90
Caprar, D. V., 380
Capron, L., 28
carbon emissions, 428
career development
aging and, 211–13
future research in, 212–13
career embeddedness, 213
career timetables, 183t, 190–91
Caremark, 161
Carlin, B., 471
Carnes, C., 505
Carroll, G. R., 144
cartels
detection, 155–56
firm indicia and, 158–59
shaping behavior of, 160
Carter, C., 402
Carter, M., 209
Cascio, Wayne F., 368n2
casino gambling, 145
causal mechanisms, 375
Cavanagh, T., 210, 223
Cellar-Kefauver Act, 141–43
CEOs, 83
abnormal returns, 247
firm financial performance and, 245–46, 249
tenure, 162
theory of mind and, 120
women leadership roles, 243–49
women’s representation as, 244
Cerin, P., 434
certainty, in integrated reporting, 429
Certo, S. T., 80
ceteris paribus, 112, 115, 119, 455
Chadwick, K., 262
Chahine, S., 85
Chan, C., 430
Chang, L., 402
Chapple, L., 444n21
Chen, C. X., 400, 401
China, 246
unofficial economy in, 133
Chng, D. H. M., 111
Cho, C., 431
Christensen, T., 435, 444n23
Christie, A. A., 468
Chua, W. F., 437
Chua Sock Koong, 244
Chung, Y., 362
civil law, 87
Clarkson, P., 436, 444n21
Clayton Act, 142
Cleveland, J. N., 195
clusters
boundaries, 37
external knowledge and, 23–25
future research, 34–37
lead firms in, 35
organization of, 34–35
reinforcing, 37
research directions in, 29–34
spillovers and, 34–36
vertical, 36
Coca-Cola, 443n11
code breaking, 140
coercive systems, 400
cognitive ability, aging and, 183–84
(p. 519) cognitive assumptions of agency theory, 106–9
cognitive biases
to mentalizing, 120
theory of mind and, 120
cognitive changes, 182t
cognitive distortion, 110
Cohen, Debra, 354, 368n1
Cohen, J., 430
Cohen, L. E., 264
coherent clusters, 454
Collins, D., 486
collocation, 24, 37, 461
Colorado, 141
Combs, J. G., 47, 291
commitment, 376
common knowledge assumption, 108
common law, 87
competitive advantage
capabilities-based resources and, 52–53
future research in, 37–38
women leaders and, 261
competitive intensity
in capabilities-based resources, 69–70
control variables, 69
competitive structure, 2, 4
complementarities, 452
empirical evidence on, 459–60
empirical testing and, 455–59
estimation in presence of, 457–58
organizational design and, 453–60
testing for, 458–59
component knowledge, 30, 32
Compustat, 56
computer management, goal-setting and, 382
conciseness, 420
conglomerate strategy, 2
connectivity, 420
Connor, J. M., 166
conservation of resources, 182, 186
consistency, 429
Consultation Draft of the Framework, 443n7
Contextual Moderators, 246
continuous improvement, 321
contracting phase
agency theory in, 111–15
theory of mind in, 111–15
control choices
empirical evidence on, 472–73
social preferences and, 469–73
controllability principle, 114
control systems, 12, 13
control variables
capabilities-based resources, 69–70
competitive intensity, 69
firm size, 69–70
measurement of, 62
Cooper, J. T., 378
cooperative structures, 2
copyrights, 57
core knowledge, 30–32
architectural, 33
spillovers and, 33
tacit, 33
corporate board
demographics of, 250–52
internal activities, 257–58
women leaders on, 249–58
corporate crime, as agency cost, 157
corporate governance, 15
bundles of, 92–93
firm types and, 89–91
IPOs and, 79–88
life-cycle, 83
PE and, 82
processes, 93–94
signals, 92
worldwide, 88–89
corporate reputation, 52–53
defining, 55
measurement of, 60
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 257, 429–30
correlation matrix, 63t
co-specialization, 36–37
costless redesign, 459
cost-per-hire
human resource standards and, 348–49
investor reactions to, 349
Courtright, S. H., 3, 504
Craft Morgan, J., 319
Cramer, A., 429
Crawford, J. O., 220
(p. 520) creativity
controlling, 407–9
enablers of, 402
future research, 403–10, 411
in goal-setting theory, 381
individual, 395–96
innovation compared with, 393
inspiration, 400–401
literature on, 395–99
management control systems and, 400–403
measurement of, 406
in organizations, 398–99
teams, 397–98
work environment for, 396–97
criminality, 163
criminal quadrant, 128, 129t
critical mass, 242
Crook, T. R., 187, 291
Croson, D. C., 117
cross-cultural sensitivity, 243
cultural differences, globalization and, 222–23
cultural looseness, 144
cultural norms, aging and, 191
cultural tightness, 144
culture, in antitrust compliance, 163–67
customer equity, 48
capabilities-based resources and, 49–50
defining, 49
customer-focused resources
in hypothesis development, 51–53
measurement of, 57
customer lifetime value (CLV), 49
customer satisfaction
defining, 55
marketing expenditures, 72
measurement of, 60
Cycyota, C. S., 260
Dahl, K., 383
Dalmia, S., 247
Darmadi, S., 256
data sources, 56
Davila, T., 400, 401
Davis, P. S., 246
DeAngelo, L., 482
DeBruyne, M., 510
decentralization, 456f
Dechow, P., 481–82, 484, 487, 489–90, 493
decision-facilitating role, 466
decision-influencing role, 466
decision-making
critical mass in, 242
information-decision-making perspective, 249
TMTs in, 243
women leaders in, 242
Deegan, C., 431
DeFond, M., 482, 483, 494n3
Delaware, 161
Del Brio, E. B., 117
Dellinger, K., 140
Dello Russo, S., 381
Deming, W. Edwards, 354
demographics, 7
workforce, 9
DeNisi, A., 208
Department of Justice (DOJ), 155, 160
dependability, 188
De Stobbeleir, K. E. M., 378
Detre, M. J., 166
De Vaan, M. B., 397
developmental psychology, 184
Dezsö, C. L., 259
Dhaliwal, D. S., 436
Dichev, I., 490
Dietworst, R. C., 10
differentiation strategy, 501
Dikolli, S. S., 472
Dill, J., 319
Dimaggio, P., 86
discovery expenditures, 59
discretionary accruals, 482
economic determinants, 491–92
future research in, 492–94
model estimation, 486–88
reversals, 489–91
time-series properties, 489–91
Dishman, R. K., 382
Ditillo, A., 400, 401
diversification strategy, 2
Dobbin, F., 265
domestic standards, 356–57
(p. 521) Dopuch, N., 487, 493
Dossett, D. L., 373
Drazin, R. M., 399
dual identity model, 214
Durand, R., 144
Du Rietz, A., 246
Dussauge, P., 28
Dwyer, S., 261, 262
Dyck, A., 169
Dyer, J. H., 26–27, 35
Eagly, A. H., 241
earnings management, 14
Eberly, M. B., 379
Eckard, E. W., Jr., 165
Ecker, F., 487, 488
economic determinants, 491–92
economic value, 377
economies of scope, 2
education, goal-setting theory and, 383
18th Amendment, 143
elastic coordination, 394
Elvira, M. M., 264
empathy, 109–10
employee health and safety. See also healthcare
aging and, 218–20
HR and, 218–20
research findings, 218–19
employees
relative to number of firms, 344f
stress, 335
employee selection
aging and, 200–203
bias in, 201–2
differential validity, 202
HR and, 200–203
mean age differences in, 202
endogeneity, 456, 485–86
Energy Consumption Outside the Organization, 433
Englis, P. D., 246
entrepreneurship, 381
in informal quadrant, 130
innovation, 508–10
strategic, 509
epistemic assumptions of agency theory, 106–9
Epstein, M., 433
EquiTrend, 56
equity joint ventures, 22, 27, 32
equity ownership, 118
Erez, M., 376, 383
Erhardt, N., 216
estimation, complementarities and, 457–58
European Commission (EC), 160
European Union
gender quotas in, 251
healthcare in, 317–18
women consumers in, 243
European Working Time, 328
evidence-based management, 343–46
evolutionary anthropology, 108
executive compensation, IPOs and, 84–85
explanatory mechanisms, of aging, 224–25
explicit knowledge, 30
external knowledge, 5, 39
acquisitions and, 28–29
alliance networks and, 25–28
alliances and, 25–28
clusters and, 23–25
incorporation of, 21–22
organizational learning and, 23–29
external learning mechanisms, knowledge types and, 31–34
extrinsic motivation, 399
Fahrenkopf, A., 327
Faleiro, F., 86
Fang, X., 436
Faulkner, R. R., 168
feasibility standards, 348
predictive standards and, 350–52
feedback, 376
Feldman, D. C., 181, 194, 195, 213, 221
Felin, T., 47
Ferrante, C. J., 260
Ferreira, D., 257
field research, 404
Fields, D. L., 263
Filatotchev, I., 83, 85, 87, 88
financial assets, 502–3
financial capital, 422
financial performance variables, measurement of, 60–61
(p. 522) firm financial performance
CEOs and, 245–46, 249
definition, 292
employees relative to numbers of, 344f
future research in, 37–38
gender diversity and, 253–55, 269
human resource standards and, 367
hypothesis testing and, 65t
strategic assets and, 68–69
TMTs and, 259
in United States, 344f
women leaders, 245–46, 252, 259
firm indicia
antitrust compliance and, 158–59
cartel detection and, 158–59
firm size
in capabilities-based resources, 69–70
as control variable, 69–70
marketing expenditures and, 73
firm types
corporate governance and, 89–91
IPOs and, 89–91
Fischer, P., 470
Flinders Medical Centre, 322
fMRI, 110
Ford, C. M., 398
Ford Motor Company, 381, 434
Foreman, David, 354
formal quadrant, 128, 129t
Fortune, 56
Foster, Maria das Graças Silva, 244
Fraccaroli, F., 202
Francis, J., 487
Frederick, E., 376
Freedman, M., 436
Frese, M., 215–16, 379
Frooman, J., 137, 138
Frost, G., 437
Fuller, John, 168
Gabel, H. L., 167
Galinsky, A. D., 384
Gallup Organization, 360
Ganesh, U., 27
garbling, 113
Gatfaoui, H., 256
Ge, W., 481
gender diversity, 239. See also women’s representation
firm financial performance and, 253–55, 269
IPOs and, 260
social value of, 270
on TMTs, 267–68
in United Kingdom, 252
in United States, 252
gender quotas, 239, 270
controversy of, 251
in European Union, 251
in Norway, 255–56
gender stereotypes, 241, 247
General Assembly Resolution 55/56, 147
General Electric, 388
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), 502
General Motors, 33
general practitioners (GPs), 312
Genesove, D., 168
Gerakos, J. J., 489, 492, 493
Gerbert, D., 215
Germany, retirement in, 222
Gerstner, Lou, 380
Gervais, S., 471
Gilson, L. L., 398
Gittell, J., 322
Glass Cliff, 244, 248
Global 500, 344
globalization, 21
aging and, 222–23
cultural differences and, 222–23
nationality and, 222–23
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), 431, 436, 443n16
goal-setting and computer management, 382
goal-setting theory, 11–12
aging and, 382–83
attributions in, 377–78
commitment in, 378
computer management, 382
creativity in, 381
cross-cultural goals, 383
determinants in, 379
(p. 523) economic value in, 377
education and, 383
feedback in, 378
goal attainment in, 379
goals and strategies in, 378
health behavior and, 382
high-performance cycle, 381
history of, 373–74
human resource management, 381
leadership in, 381
learning goals in, 379–80
long-term goals in, 380
macro-level goals, 380
multiple goals in, 379
negotiation in, 381
new findings in, 377–85
pitfalls, 384
psychotherapy, 383
questionnaire, 384
self-efficacy in, 379, 380
self-regulation in, 379
sports and, 382
subconscious priming, 384
support for, 374–75
Goffman, E., 402
Goldberg, C., 199, 222
Golub, A., 166
Gonalekar, V., 247
Goodman, J. S., 263
Goodnight, Jim, 296
goodwill, 57
Gorman, E. H., 265
Gould, J. A., 263
Gove, S., 16, 284
governance
corporate, 15
in strategy implementation, 3–6
Grabner, I., 403
Grant, A., 322
gray economy, 149n1
Great Depression, 143
Greece, 127
Greve, H., 140
Griffin, P., 436
Griffiths, P., 330
Grimshaw, D., 323
gross domestic product (GDP), 314
unofficial economies and, 127
grouping, 486–88
Grund, C., 471
Gryskiewicz, N. D., 396
guided goal setting, 382
Günster, A., 165
Gupta, A., 244
Hambrick, D. C., 112
Han, M. A., 157
Hannan, M. T., 144
Hansson, R. O., 219
Harden, E. E., 362
Harrington, D. M., 395
Harter, J. K., 360
Hatcher, L. T. L., 396
Hayes, L., 330
Hayes, R., 436
Hayes, T. L., 360
healthcare
in European Union, 317–18
evaluation of research streams, 330–31
future research, 332–36
goal-setting theory and, 382
HRM in, 311–14
medical errors in, 326
new pressures in, 317–18
new research agendas, 334–36
nurse-patient ratios, 327–28
nurse turnover, 329–30
past limitations of, 332–34
performance in, 314–18
public policy and, 314–16, 331–32
skill mix, 328
staffing levels, 327
staffing stream of research, 326–30
variability in pay, 323
Healy, P., 435, 482
Heneman, H. G., 373
Henkens, K., 199
Henrekson, M., 246
Henri, J. F., 402
Henriques, I., 138
Herling, J., 168
Heslin, P. A., 379, 380
(p. 524) hidden action, 103, 115
hidden characteristics, 103
high commitment practices, HRM and, 319–20
high-performance work practices (HPWPs), 223–24
definition, 292
high-performance work systems and, 288–89
human capital and, 287
high-performance work systems
definition, 292
high-performance work practices and, 288–89
human capital and, 287–88
high-technology industries
capabilities-based resources in, 67t
post hoc analysis of, 70
Hill, C. W. H., 2
Hitt, M. A., 2, 12, 15–16, 284, 289, 500, 505
Ho, S. S., 248
Hodge, K., 438
Hofmann, C., 472
Holcomb, T. R., 80, 284, 287
Holder-Webb, L., 430
Holmes, R. M., Jr., 80
Holweg, H., 322
Hoskisson, R. E., 2, 12
Hothausen, D., 86
Howard, A., 380
Hrebiniak, L. G., 2–3, 14
Hribar, P., 487
Hu, J., 285, 362
Hua, S. S., 379
Huddart, S., 470
Hughes, K., 435, 444n23
Hui, C., 384
Hult, G. T. M., 284
human capital, 7–12, 283–84, 423
coding, 291
data analyses, 291–92
definition, 292
discussion on, 295–99
high-performance work practices and, 287
high-performance work systems and, 287–88
managing, 503–5
mediating role of, 297–99
meta-analysis, 293t
path model results, 294f
relationships, 296–97
sample studies, 290–91
human capital theory, 182t, 187
human resource (HR), 180
aging and, 196–99
certification, 352–53
employee health and safety and, 218–20
employee selection and, 200–203
future research agendas, 200
investor standards, 350–52
job design and, 217–18
job placement and, 203–5
mediating model of, 363
performance management and, 205–8
recruitment and, 196–99
standards, 343
teams and, 213–16
training and, 208–11
human resource management (HRM), 7–12
evaluation of research streams, 330–31
future research, 332–36
in healthcare, 311–14
high commitment practices and, 319–20
high performance practices, 321–25
institutional context and, 313–14
lean principles and, 322
literature, 312–13
new research agendas, 334–36
nurse-patient ratios, 327–28
nurse turnover, 329–30
organizational climate and, 325–26
past limitations of, 332–34
patient safety and, 326
public policy and, 331–32
reward and appraisal, 322–25
skill mix, 328
staffing levels, 327
staffing stream of research, 326–30
stream of research, 318–26
work organization, 321–22
Human Resource Management Journal, 312
human resource standards
cost-per-hire and, 348–49
(p. 525) current status of, 355
definition, 346–47
development efforts, 353–59
dialogs on, 365–66
feasibility standards, 348, 350–52
firm performance and, 367
goal setting, 367
history of, 353–59
HR certification and, 352–53
implications for research, 357–58, 366
ISO certification and, 353
linkage research in, 359–66
measurement standards, 347–48
meta-analysis, 359–66
performance management, 349–50
positive and negative consequences, 357–58
practice standards, 347–48
predictive standards, 348, 350–52, 359–61
scholarly researchers, 357–58
Humphrey, S. E., 217
Huse, M., 255
Hutchinson, S., 325
Hutton, A., 435, 489
Hwang, Y. C., 463, 465
hypothesis development
analysis, 62
assets and, 65t
capabilities-based resources, 51–53
contraindicated, 68
customer-focused resources in, 51–53
data sources in, 56
financial performance and, 65t
post hoc analysis of, 66t
prominent industries, 64t
results, 62
strategic assets in, 51–53
testing, 56–59
Iles, P., 259
illegality
incentive pay and, 159–60
organizational design and, 159
social constructionism of, 140–41
illegitimacy, social construction of, 139–40
incentive pay
illegality and, 159–60
organizational environment and, 159–60
incremental innovation, 405–6
India, 133
individual creativity, 395–96
Indjejikian, R. J., 460
Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 312
informal quadrant, 128, 129t
entrepreneurship in, 130
information asymmetries, 104
IPOs and, 80–81
information-decision-making perspective, 249
Ingram, P., 264
initial public offerings (IPOs), 4–6
acquisition of, 94
board composition, 81–83
corporate governance and, 79–88
executive compensation and, 84–85
firm types and, 89–91
gender diversity and, 260
information asymmetries and, 80–81
national institutions and, 86–88
ownership concentration and, 85–86
PE-backed, 80
performance of, 80
risk-taking and, 85
VC-backed, 80
worldwide governance and, 88–89
Inkpen, A. C., 26
innovation, 13
acquisition and, 29
creativity compared with, 393
entrepreneurship, 508–10
firm, 22–23
incremental, 405–6
overall, 59
radical, 405–6
innovation-focused resources
measurement of, 59–60
strategic assets and, 54
inspiration, 400–401
intangible resources, 57
(p. 526) integrated reporting, 13, 419
accuracy, 429
assurance of reports in, 435–37
background, 421–26
certainty, 429
challenges to, 427–40
consistency in, 429
future initiatives, 441
information in, 422
intended users, 427–30
mandatory, 435–37
materiality in, 432
objective audit, 435–37
stakeholders in, 432
standards, 430–35
sustainability context in, 432
voluntary, 435–37
integrated thinking, 420
intellectual capital, 422
intellectual property, 57
intent-based trust, 117
interdisciplinary research, 221
International Accounting and Auditing Standard Board, 438
International Accounting Standards Board, 433
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), 502
International Integrating Reporting Council (IIRC), 420, 431
International Journal of Human Resource Management, 312
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 346–47
certification, 353
50000 Energy Management standards, 353
9000 Quality Management standards, 353
9001 Quality Management standards, 353
26000 Social Responsibility standards, 353
international standards, 356–57
international strategy, 498–99
interpersonal attraction, 189–90
intervention research, 221–22
intrinsic motivation, 395–96
inventory readiness, 58
investment opportunity set, 48
capabilities-based resources, 51
defining, 51
investor reporting metrics
ANSI, 351t
SHRM, 351t
investors
on cost-per-hire, 349
metrics, 350–51
women leaders and, 246–48, 260
invisible workers, 333
Isaksen, S., 398
Italy, 127
Itoh, H., 467
Iweins, C., 214, 222
Jackson, S. E., 216, 264, 318
Jacobides, M. G., 117
Jalbert, T., 244
James, E. H., 244, 247
James, L. R., 292
Japan, 127
Jeacle, I., 402
Jelic, R., 82
Jensen, M. C., 461, 462
Jensen, R., 383
Jensen-Meckling-type incentive alignment effect, 85
Jiambalvo, J., 483
Jianakoplos, N. A., 242
Jiang, K., 285, 288, 291, 295, 297, 299n2, 362–64
job attitudes, 183t
job demands-control theory, 182t, 186
job demands-resources theory, 219
job design
aging and, 217–18
future research in, 218
HR and, 217–18
research findings in, 217–18
job performance, 183t
aging and, 195
job placement, 203–5
Jobs, Steve, 405
Joecks, J., 255
Joh, S. W., 157
Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., 241
Jones, J., 482, 491
(p. 527) Jones model, 483–85
solutions, 485–92
Joshi, A., 216, 264
Joye, M., 468
JSTOR, 290
Jurkus, A. F., 260
Kachelmeier, S. J., 402
Kale, P., 26–27
Kalev, A., 265
Kanfer, R., 192, 200, 205–6, 375, 379
Kang, S., 489
Kark, R., 271
Karpinska, K., 199
Karpof, J. M., 166
Kaserman, D. L., 166
Katz, S., 82
Katz-Navon, T., 327
Kearney, E., 215
Kelan, E., 244, 263
Kelly, Gail, 244
Kerr, S., 377
Ketchen, D. J., 284
Kim, S., 265, 489
King, N., 397
Kirby, S. L., 262
Klein, B., 165
Klein, H. J., 378
Kluger, A. N., 208
Knechel, W. R., 503
knowledge
architectural, 30, 33, 35–36
common knowledge assumption, 108
component, 30, 32
core, 30–33
explicit, 30
external, 5, 21–29, 39
external learning mechanisms and, 31–34
locally embedded, 38
noncore, 31, 32
specific, in organizational design, 461–65
strategy implementation, 2–3
tacit, 30, 33
types, 30–31
Kochan, T., 318
Kogut, B., 27
Kolev, G. I., 248
Kooij, D. T. A. M., 193, 206
Kor, Y., 296
Kothari, S. P., 481, 482, 484, 487
Kovrijnykh, A., 492
KPMG, 438
Kraakman, R., 160
Kraiger, K., 210, 223
Kramer, V. W., 242
Kretschmer, T., 264
Krishnan, H. A., 259, 499
KSAOs, 286, 289, 298
Kulik, C. T., 201, 262, 263
Kumar, U., 506
Kunze, F., 190, 199
Kuratko, D. F., 509
Kuron, L., 194
Kurtulus, F. A., 264
Kwan, H. K., 384
Lagarde, Christine, 270
laissez-faire leadership, 241
Lam, K. C. K., 246
Lamont, M., 145
Lande, R. H., 166
Lane, P. J., 27, 500
Lang, M., 435, 502
Langus, G., 165
Larcker, D., 86, 462, 485
Larson, C., 490
Latham, G. P., 373–75, 379–81, 385
Lawler, E. E., III, 359
Lawrence, B. S., 191
Lawrence, P. R., 168, 467
Lawson, Nigel, 315
leadership. See also women leaders
in goal-setting theory, 381
laissez-faire, 241
male, 241
transactional, 241
lean principles, 322
Leblebici, H., 296
Lee, C., 376, 384
Lee, E., 3, 15
Lee, P. M., 244, 247
Leeth, J. D., 244
Leffler, K., 165
(p. 528) legality, 128. See also illegality
social constructionism of, 140–41
in unofficial economies, 137f
Leggat, S., 320
legitimacy, 128
in unofficial economies, 137f
Leone, A., 482
Lepak, D. P., 285, 362
LePelley, D., 377
Lerner, J., 82
Lev, B., 493
leveraged buyouts (LBOs), 80, 90
Levis, M., 82, 86
Li, A. Y., 248
Li, X., 435
Li, Y., 436, 489
Liao, H., 264, 362
licensing, 32
lifespan development theories, 182t, 184–86
linkage research
in HR standards, 359–66
predictive standards and, 359–61
reflection of, 361–62
Liyanage, J. P., 506
loan loss provisions (LLP), 113
locally embedded knowledge, 38
Locke, E. A., 373, 375, 381, 385
longitudinal studies, 220–21
Lont, D., 436
Lorch, J., 467
Lowry, M., 85
low-technology industries
assets in, 67t
capabilities-based resources in, 67t
Lundholm, R., 435
Luo, J., 430
Lusch, R. F., 508
Lyles, M. A., 27
Lyons, S., 194
MacKenzie, S. B., 360
MacLean, A., 223
magnet hospitals, 325
Makhija, M. V., 27
Makri, M., 500, 509
male leaders, women leaders compared with, 241
management control systems, 393
adapting, 409–10
communication in, 410
creativity and, 400–403
future research, 403–10
idea generation, 410
preparation, 410
problem identification in, 409–10
traditional topics in, 405–7
validation, 410
managerial short-termism, 12
managers, women as, 260–63
mandatory reporting, 435–37
manufactured capital, 422
Marano, V., 499
marginal quadrant, 128, 129t
marijuana, 141
market-based strategic resources, 48
marketing expenditures
B2C focus, 71
brand equity, 73
customer satisfaction, 72
firm size and, 73
overall innovation creativity, 72
market orientation, 50–51
Marshall, A., 24, 376
Marshall, S., 436
Martin, A. D., 247, 248
Martinov-Bennie, N., 437
Maskell, P., 37
Matĕjka, M., 460
materiality, in integrated reporting, 432
Matre, P. J., 383
Matsa, D. A., 263
Maurer, T. J., 209, 213
Mayer, Marissa, 244
Mayew, W. J., 472
MB, 256, 269
McGinn, K. L., 264
McGuinness, P. B., 246
McNichols, M. F., 485
mean age differences, employee selection, 202
measurement standards, 347–48
Meckling, W. E., 461, 462
mediating mechanisms, 224–25
mediators, 375
women’s leadership and, 267–68
(p. 529) medical errors, 326
Meier, S., 430
Meisinger, Sue, 354
Melero, E., 261, 262
Melumad, N., 462
mentalizing, 109
in agency theory, 111–18
cognitive biases to, 120
in principal-agent relations, 111–18
process of, 110–11
Meshoulam, I., 504
meta-analysis, 360
meta-stereotypes, 183t, 189
Metz, I., 262
Meuleman, M., 510
Michaely, R., 80
middle management, 163–64
Miklos, S. M., 193
Milgrom, P., 454, 455, 459
Milkman, K. L., 264
millennials, 194
Miller, A. R., 263
Miller, B., 335
Milne, M., 430
mind, theory of. See theory of mind
Miner, J. B., 373, 374
Mirvis, P. H., 359
mistrust, 169
Mitchell, R. K., 135, 136
Mitchell, T. R., 373
Mitchell, W., 28
Mittendorf, B., 470
moderators
aging, 222
variables, 375–76
women’s leadership and, 269–70
Moers, F., 464
Molnar, V., 145
Monahan, C. A., 378
Monin, P., 144
Mookherjee, D., 462
moral hazard, 28, 81, 85, 103, 105
moral shaming, 164
Morgan, N. A., 508
Morgeson, E. P., 217
MORI, 431
Morisano, D., 383
Moroney, R., 438, 439
Motchenkova, E., 165
motivation, 193–94
aging and, 205
extrinsic, 399
intrinsic, 395–96
motivational foundations, 101–2
Motowidlo, S. J., 376
Motta, M., 165
Mulaik, S. A., 292
Mullin, W. P., 168
multinational firms, 39
multitasking jobs, 117
Mundy, J., 402
Murphy, K. J., 85
mutual hostages to good behavior, 26
Nagar, V., 464
Nakajima, C., 88
Naranjo, P., 502
Nash equilibrium, 469
Nath, L., 430
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), 56
National Health Service (NHS), 314–15, 333–34
employee appraisal in, 324
national institutions, IPOs and, 86–88
nationality, globalization and, 222–23
Naveh, E., 327
Nekhili, M., 256
neuroscience, 108
New Economics Foundation, 431, 434
New Labour government, 315, 327
new public management (NPM), 315
New Right Conservative government, 315
Ng, T. W. H., 181, 194, 195, 221
Nichols, C., 487
Nieminen, T., 431
Nigeria, 127
Niskanen, J., 431
Nonaka, I., 30
non-antitrust literature, 157
noncore knowledge, 31, 32
Nooyi, Indra, 244
(p. 530) Nordahl, H. M., 383
norm creation, in antitrust compliance, 163–64
North, D., 86
Norway, gender quotas in, 255–56
Novo Nordisk, 425, 439
Nuchols, B., 329
NUMMI, 33
nurse-patient ratios, 327–28
nurse turnover, 329–30
Oberholzer-Gee, F., 430
objective audit, 437–40
O’Dwyer, B., 429, 437
official economies, 6
model of, 131f
unofficial economies linked to, 132–33
official quadrant, technology in, 148
O’Kane, M., 168
Olsson, P., 487
omitted variable bias, 485–86
operations, managing, 505–7
opportunistic learning races, 26
Ordonez, L. D., 384
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), 202, 206–7, 360
organizational climate, HRM and, 325–26
organizational design, 13–14, 451
antitrust compliance and, 159
complementarities and, 453–60
concepts in, 461–63
empirical evidence in, 464–65
illegality and, 159
social preferences, 469–73
specific knowledge and, 461–65
spillovers and, 465–68
organizational effectiveness, 10–11
organizational environment
antitrust compliance, 156–58
incentive pay and, 159–60
senior management within, 161–63
women’s representation, 240f
organizational learning, 21–22
external knowledge and, 23–29
Osborn, R. N., 26
Oslo Stock Exchange, 244
Ostroff, C., 325, 357
overall innovation creativity, 59
marketing expenditures, 72
Overell, M., 444n21
Owen, D., 429, 438
Owens, E., 488
ownership concentration, IPOs and, 85–86
Oxley, J. E., 26
Oyebode, E., 324
Palepu, K., 433, 435
parallel economy, 149n1
Park, D., 259, 494n3
Park, J. C., 260
Parker, C., 167, 168
Parker, S., 258
Parry, E., 324
passive management-by-exception, 241
Patel, P. C., 38
path model results, 294f
patient safety, HRM and, 326
Patten, D., 431, 436
performance management
aging and, 205–8
HR and, 205–8
human resource standards, 349–50
Performance Management Taskforce, 350
performance pay, 323–24
performance-predicting standards, 345
Perrow, C., 114
Perry, E. L., 201
persistence, 375
personality, aging and, 184
personality changes, 182t
person-environment fit theory, 219
Pett, T., 246
Pflugrath, G., 438
Phene, A., 26
philanthropy, 266
physical health, aging and, 181
Pitt-Watson, D., 429
Plemmons, S. A., 379
Plumlee, M., 436
Podsakoff, N. P., 360
Podsakoff, P. M., 360
(p. 531) Polos, L., 144
Porter, M. E., 134
positional advantage, 48
Post, C., 257
post-contractual phase
agency theory in, 115–18
theory of mind in, 115–18
post hoc analysis
of assets, 66t
capabilities-based resources, 66t, 67t
of high-technology industries, 70
of hypothesis development, 66t
Posthuma, R. A., 188
Powell, M., 242
Powell, W., 86
practices/systems-human capital relationships, 296–97
practice standards, 347–48
predictive standards, 348, 362–63
feasibility standards and, 350–52
linkage research and, 359–61
Premack, D., 109
Prendergast, C., 463
Presley, T. J., 258
Preuss, G., 322
PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PWC), 439
principal-agent relationship, 108
mentalizing in, 111–18
private equity (PE), 90, 91
certification role, 82
corporate governance and, 82
in IPOs, 80
problem identification, in management control systems, 409–10
production capacity, 58
prohibition, 143
prosocial preferences, 470
prostitution, 148
psychotherapy, in goal-setting theory, 383
public choice theory, 315
public policy
developments, 314–16
healthcare and, 314–16, 331–32
HRM and, 331–32
research streams and, 331–32
Pull, K., 255
Pungaliya, R., 486
Puranam, P., 3, 15
Purcell, J., 325
racketeering, 146
Radhakrishnan, S., 436
radical innovation, 405–6
Radnor, Z., 322
Ragozzino, R., 94
Rahman, N., 257
Raith, M., 463
Rajan, M. V., 462
Rankin, M., 431
Rantakari, H., 461
Rao, H., 144
rationality, in agency theory, 108
recruitment
HR and, 196–99
research on, 196–99
Reichelstein, S., 462
relational demography, 183t, 189–90
research and development (R&D), 3, 51, 501
research directions
in acquisitions, 29–34
in alliances, 29–34
in clusters, 29–34
research streams
evaluation of, 330–31
public policy and, 331–32
staffing, 326–30
resource-based theory (RBT), 283–84
resource-based view, 3, 9, 49
on capabilities-based resources, 50–51
resource management, 502–10
resource portfolios, 3
resources, in strategy implementation, 3–6
retirement
in Germany, 222
literature, 213
in United States, 222
return on assets (ROA), 55, 256
measurement, 60–61
of women leaders, 245
return on equity (ROE), 245, 256
of women leaders, 246
(p. 532) return on investment (ROI), 256
women leader’s and, 245
Reuer, J., 94
Revelation Principle, 475n9
Richard, O. C., 262
Richardson, G., 436
Richardson, S., 485
RICO Act, 146
ring-fencing, 90–91
risk-incentive trade-offs, 84–85
risk-taking, IPOs and, 85
Rizzuto, T. E., 210, 223
Roberts, J., 454, 459, 475n8
Roberts, R., 431
Robinson, J. A., 464
Robson, S. M., 219
Rodger, B. J., 167
Rodgers, M. S., 111
Roebuck, P., 438
Roemer, M., 313
role conflict, 187
role theory, 182t, 187
Rondeau, K., 319
Rosing, K., 215–16
Ross, D. G., 259
Ross, S. A., 106
Royal College of Nursing, 320, 328
Rubow, E., 257
Saari, J. M., 380
Saguy, A. C., 140
Salk, J. E., 27
sample selection, 485–86
Sampson, R. C., 26
Sardeshmukh, S., 263
Schalk, R., 211
Scharfstein, D., 157
Scheitzer, M. E., 384
Schipper, K., 487
Schippers, J., 199
Schlosser, F., 199, 319–20
Schmidt, F. L., 360
Schmidt, K. M., 157
Schneider, B., 360
ScholarGoogle, 284
Schrand, C., 481
Schuler, R., 318
Schwab, D. P., 373
Schwartz Centre Rounds, 321
ScienceDirect, 290
Sectish, T., 327
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 166, 251, 434, 487
Seijts, G. H., 379
selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) theory, 182t, 185, 217
self-determination, 398
self-efficacy, 379, 380
self-expression, 210
self-regulation, 379
senior management
in antitrust compliance, 161–63
criminality in, 163
tenure, 162
women’s representation in, 239–41
service-dominant logic, 508
sex industry, 148
shadow economy, 149n1
Shalley, C. E., 381, 398
Shamir, B., 271
shared mental models, 298–99
shareholders, women leaders and, 246–48, 260
Sharfman, M., 141
Sharma, S., 138
Shaw, W., 80
Shephard, R. J., 220
Shih, E., 111
Shilts, M. K., 382
Shimizu, K., 15
Shivakumar, L., 485, 486, 493
Shore, L., 195
Shrader, C. B., 259, 261
Siegel, P., 116, 117
similarity-attraction paradigm perspective, 249–50
Simmering, M., 322
(p. 533) Simnett, R., 437, 438
Simonin, B. L., 26
Simons, R., 400, 412
Simons, T., 264
simultaneous equation models (SEMs), 457
Singh, H., 26–27
Sirmon, D. G., 16, 284, 287, 289, 295
situational constraints, 376
skill mix, 328
Skinner, D., 435, 484
Slater, S. F., 284
Sliwka, D., 471
Sloan, R., 482, 489, 490
Smith, F., 244
Smith, K. G., 381
Smith, T. A., 3, 504
Smithfield Foods, 424
social constructionism, 130
of illegality, 140–41
of illegitimacy, 139–40
of legality, 140–41
of legitimacy, 139–40
social identity theory, 182t, 187
teams and, 214
socially responsible behavior, women leaders and, 256–57
social performance, 426f
social preferences
control choices and, 469–73
empirical evidence on, 472–73
organizational design, 469–73
social psychology, 108
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), 350–51, 356
certification, 352–53
investor reporting metrics, 351t
meta-analytics findings, 364t
standard setting procedures at, 354
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 358
socioeconomic selectivity (SST) theory, 182t, 185, 217
Soderstrom, N., 434
Soh, D. S. B., 437
Sojo, V., 378
Sokol, D. D., 164
Song, X.-B., 111
Sonnenfeld, J., 168
sourcing attentiveness, 72
South Korea, 169
Spagnolo, G., 157
specific knowledge, organizational design and, 461–65
spillovers, 453
clusters and, 34–36
core knowledge and, 33
definition, 24
impact of, 24
organizational design and, 465–68
sports, goal-setting theory and, 382
stable industries
assets in, 67t
capabilities-based resources in, 67t
staffing stream of research, 326–30
stakeholders, 4, 9
definition, 135
inclusiveness, 432
influence of, 138
in integrated reporting, 432
in unofficial economies, 134–39, 137f
Stamov-Roßnagel, C., 206
standard agency theory, 103–5, 107t
Standard Industry Classification, 488
standard-setting, 345–46
Stanton, P., 320
Steensma, H. K., 27
Steffen, T. D., 472
stereotypes
aging and, 183t, 188, 201
gender, 241, 247
meta-stereotypes, 183t, 189
of women leaders, 241
Stern, Z., 327
Sterns, H. L., 193
Stewart, J., 438
Stice-Lawrence, L., 502
stock-based cartel event studies, antitrust compliance and, 165–66
Stocken, P. C., 464
(p. 534) strategic assets, 48
capabilities-based resources and, 53, 54
financial performance and, 68–69
in hypothesis development, 51–53
innovation-focused resources and, 54
measurement of, 59–60
supply chain-focused resources and, 53
strategic entrepreneurship, 509
strategic human capital, 284
strategy analysis, women leaders and, 261
strategy development, top management teams in, 3
strategy implementation, 1
governance in, 3–6
knowledge about, 2–3
research on, 497
resources in, 3–6
top management teams in, 3
strategy selection, 1
Sturman, M., 322
subconscious priming, 384
subjective aging, 183t, 191–92
Subramaniam, N., 438
Suchman, M. C., 139, 140
Sun, Y., 436
Sunder, J., 488
Sunder, S., 488
supply chain-focused resources
capabilities-based resources and, 53
measurement of, 58
strategic assets and, 53
supply chains, 37
sustainability context, 442n5
in integrated reporting, 432
Sweeney, A., 482
Switzerland, 167–68
synchronization, 295, 297
tacit knowledge, 30
core, 33
Tallman, S., 26, 30
Tam, K., 248
Taylor, Frederick, 353–54
teams
aging and, 213–16
faultlines, 215
HR and, 213–16
research findings in, 213–14
social identity theory and, 214
transactive memory in, 215
technology
aging and, 223
development, 22
high-technology industries, 67t, 70
low-technology industries, 67t
in official quadrant, 148
tenure
CEOs, 162
senior management, 162
Teoh, S., 485
theory of mind (ToM), 108
accuracy of, 116–17
CEOs and, 120
cognitive biases and, 120
in contracting phase, 111–15
defining, 109–10
imperfect, 114
measuring, 110
in post-contractual phase, 115–18
Thompson, J. S., 166
Thornley, C., 333
Thurgood, G. R., 3, 504
Tirole, J., 470
Tobin’s Q, 55–56, 60, 252, 256, 269
in measurement, 61
women leaders and, 245
Tohmé, N. S., 85
token status theory, 247
Tomaskovic-Devey, D., 264
top-down dynamics, 142
top management teams (TMTs), 240
in decision-making, 243
firm financial performance and, 259
gender diversity on, 267–68
women leaders in, 258–60
Torchia, M., 255
Toubia, O., 403
Townsend, M. S., 382
Toyota, 33, 35, 321
training
aging and, 208–11
HR and, 208–11
(p. 535) transactional leadership, 241
transactive memory, in teams, 215
Travers, C. J., 383
trustworthiness, 189
Truxillo, D. M., 202, 218–19, 222
Tsang, A., 436
Tuna, I., 485
Al-Tuwaijri, S., 435, 444n23
Twenge, J. M., 193
Uhlenbruck, K., 15
UK Competition Act 1998, 167
uncertainty, 451
United Kingdom (UK), 82
gender diversity in, 252
healthcare in, 315–16
United Nations, 147
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 147
United States, 143
aging in, 179–80
employees in, 344f
firms in, 344f
gender diversity in, 252
retirement in, 222
women consumers in, 243
unofficial economies, 6
in China, 133
economic significance of, 131–32
existing management theories and, 132
GDP and, 127
in India, 133
legality in, 137f
legitimacy in, 137f
model of, 131f
official economies linked to, 132–33
organizations shaping institutions, 133–34
quadrants of, 128, 129t
revised model of, 137f
social significance of, 131–32
stakeholder axis, 134–39
stakeholders in, 137f
studies of, 130–34
theoretical model, 134–45
untraded interdependencies, 24
value-adding activities, 39
Van den Steen, E., 456
van der Laan, R., 165
van Dijk, M. A., 165
van Engen, M. L., 241
van Lent, L., 472
van Reenen, J., 264
Vanstraelen, A., 437
Vantilborgh, T., 196
Vargo, S. L., 508
venture capital (VC), 82, 90, 91
in IPOs, 80
vertical clusters, 36
Vetter, K., 255
Vieito, J. P., 246
Vijh, A., 486
Voelpel, S. C., 215
voluntary reporting, 435–37
Von Drathen, C., 86
Vorhies, D. W., 508
Wager, T., 319
Waismel-Manor, R., 271
Wang, K. L., 379
Wang, M., 244, 263
Waring, J., 322
Warr, P. B., 216
Washington (state), 141
Wasley, C., 482
Watts, R., 468, 487
Webster, Lee, 354
Wegge, J., 215
Weiner, B., 319
Weiss, E. M., 209
Weiss, H. M., 379
Welbourne, T. M., 260
Welch, I., 485
Whelan, J., 378
whistleblowing, 166, 169
Whiting, S. W., 360
Widener, S. K., 460, 464
Williams, C. L., 140
Windsor, C., 438
Wiseman, J., 431
Witt, L. A., 396
Wittneben, B., 428
Wolfers, J., 247, 248
Wolfson, N., 210, 223
(p. 536) women consumers, 242
in Europe, 243
in United States, 243
women leaders
board internal activities and, 257–58
CEOs, 243–49
competitive advantage and, 261
on corporate board, 249–58
in decision-making, 242
differences made by, 252–58
firm financial performance, 245–46, 252, 259
investors and, 246–48, 260
as majority, 242
male leaders compared with, 241
as managers, 260–63
mediators and, 267–68
moderators and, 269–70
organizational practices of, 262
percentages of, 250–52
proliferation of, 263–65
ROA and, 245
ROE and, 246
ROI and, 245
scarcity of, 247
shareholders and, 246–48, 260
signals sent by, 243–45
socially responsible behavior and, 256–57
stereotypes of, 241
strategy analysis and, 261
style preferences, 241
in TMT, 258–60
Tobin’s Q and, 245
trickle-down effects, 264
underperformance of, 248
women’s representation, 8. See also gender diversity
as CEO’s, 244
context of, 266
emerging research agenda, 266–70
organizational outcome relationships, 240f
practical implications of, 270–71
in senior roles, 239–41
Wong, M., 378
Wong, T. J., 485
Wood, D. J., 135, 318, 430
Wood, R. E., 378
Woodard, L. S., 260
Woodman, R. W., 398
Woodruff, G., 109
Woodwark, M., 379
Wooldridge, J. M., 457
work
aging and, 192–96
attitudes, 194
motivation, 192–94
organization, 321–22
outcomes, 194–96
Work Design Questionnaire, 217
worker-patient relationship, 312
workforce demographics, 9
working capital accruals (WCA), 494
Wowak, A. J., 112
Wright, M., 510
Wright, P. L., 384
Wu, J., 488
Xu, K., 505
Yang, G., 436
Yasser, Q. R., 256
Yassi, A., 335
Young, G., 380, 381
Yu, G., 502
Zacher, H., 215
Zajac, E., 82, 84
Zakolyukina, A., 495
Zerin, M., 503
Zhang, F., 248
Zidon, I., 376
Zimmerman, J., 486, 488