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date: 05 August 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Gender identity and sexual orientation are two characteristics that play a significant role in human development. This chapter focuses on the potential role that hormones play in their development. First, a review of the direct effects of hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals is provided with a focus on animal models and persons born with disorders of sex development. Second, some evidence from association studies linking characteristics that are known or suspected of being influenced by hormones is provided. Although biological research has yielded some intriguing findings—especially from neuroimaging studies—scientists have yet to conclude what specific factors contribute to their development.

Keywords: homosexuality, gender dysphoria, human sexuality, sexual behavior, neuroendocrinology, transgender, intersex, diethylstilbestrol (DES), phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA)

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