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date: 17 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The Jesuits were important actors in the Catholic Church in the 1960s when changes in Catholicism occurred before and after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). The members of the Society of Jesus were active participants in movements calling for the “inculturation” of Christianity and the “liberation theology” coming from the Third World, two sides of the same process of globalization of Catholicism. It is from this time onward that the center of gravity moved away from Rome to South America, Asia, and Africa. The Jesuits also participated in the transition from a triumphant church to a church based on service to the poor. This is the social, cultural, and theological background in which the future pope Francis, the first Jesuit pope, spent the early years of his ecclesiastical career.

Keywords: Jesuits, Second Vatican Council, liberation theology, inculturation, Third World

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