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date: 16 April 2021

(p. 419) Index

(p. 419) Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by ‘t’ and ‘f’ respectively, following the page number.

A
abandonment 149
Abrahamic religions 229
accommodation 79–80
acculturation
among immigrant families 220–21
among US Latinos 255–56
ACM (adaptive calibration model) 93–94
active monitoring 309
activity 279, 405
adaptation 93–94
adaptive calibration model (ACM) 93–94
adjustment behavior 215
adolescents 156–57. See also children
behavior problems 331
conversations with mothers about volunteering 269–70, 272–84
disclosure 325, 327–29, 331–33
future directions for research 207–8
life narratives 273
prosocial behavior 199–208, 202t, 204t
reasons for not volunteering 278–80
reasons for volunteering 274–78
selection by 271
types of behavior 342
volunteering 270–73
adulthood, emerging 355–73
affect, moral 181
affectionate touch 96
affective communication 150
affective dialogues 405
affective empathy 112–14, 113f
affective monitoring 405
affective morality 109
heritability and environmental contributions to 111–14, 113f
research on 109, 111–14, 113f
Africa 65
African Americans
cultures 11
ethnic-racial socialization 305–6
mothers’ and adolescents’ conversations about volunteering 274, 276
parenting 165–67, 305–6
prosocial behaviors 167
age differences
in links between parental discipline and child behavior 345
moderator effects 51
agency 404
aggressive behavior 385
future directions for research 349–50
genetics of 93
parental discipline practices associated with preventing 339–54
Ainsworth, Mary 77
Aka 65
Alevi Muslims 230
Algeria 235
allomothers 96
altruism 60, 248, 410
genetics of 114–15
parenting and 216–17
American Families of Faith Project 188
analogy usage 281–82
animals 91
antipathetic relationships 385
antisocial behavior
advances and new directions 333–35
child disclosure of 319–38
genetic research on 109–10
inhibition of 83–84
parental knowledge and 319–38, 322f
types of 342
apathy 283
Arabian countries 233. See also specific countries
Arabs 229, 235–37
arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1a) 115
polymorphisms associated with moral development 116–17, 116t
rGE correlations 118
Asians and Asian Americans 11, 151, 156, 213
child disclosure 326
cross-cultural research 218–19
immigrant families 220–21
moral development 218–20
parenting 217–20, 326
recommendations for future research 222–23
within-culture studies 219–20
assimilation, cognitive 405
attachment
insecure 101
moderator effects of 50
attachment theory 21–39, 402
Austen, Jane 397
Australia 167, 188
authoritarian parenting 42, 151, 198, 236, 250
and moral development 217
in Muslim countries 235
types of discipline 341–42
authoritative and competent parenting 198
authoritative parenting 42–43, 151–52, 236, 250
generativity 411
and moral development 216–17
in Muslim countries 235
and sexuality 306–7
types of discipline 341–42
autobiographical memory 35, 402–4, 412–13
autonomy 76
controlling parenting and 362–64, 363t, 365t
Ethic of Autonomy 76, 362–64, 363t, 365t
granting 357
support for 181
avoidance, functional 403
B
Bangladesh 229, 233
behavior(s)
adjustment 215
aggressive 93, 339–54
child disclosure of 319–38, 322f
comparative studies of 164–67
future directions for research 349–50
genetics of 114–16
helpful 83–84
helping 154
heritability of 113
immoral 339–54
indicators of internalization 329
inhibition of 83–84
interventions for effective discipline for 348–49
learning 85
parental control and 83–84, 366–67
parental discipline practices associated with preventing aggressive and immoral behavior 339–54
and parent-child relationship 343
(p. 420) predictors of problems 331–32
regulation of 96
research on 65–66, 74–75, 109–10, 113f
responses to misbehavior 377–80
rule-breaking 379–80
socialization of 57–71, 152–53
of Spanish adolescents 199–203, 202t
teaching 169–70
behavioral control 5–6, 44–45, 250, 357
in emerging adulthood 359, 362
and moral behavior 367
and moral development 217, 362
and moral outcomes 362–64, 365t
beneficiary consequences 275
benign attribution bias 9
Berlin, Germany 153
bias 241
benign attribution bias 9
hostile attribution bias 9
preparation for 305
biculturalism 256–57
bien educado (well educated) 254
Big Five approach 401–2
biology
associated with prosocial behaviors 249
evolutionary developmental 94
neurobiology 129–44
boys
disclosure 325–26
parenting styles for 207
prosocial behavior 201–3, 202t, 206–7
brain, social 114
brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) 117–18
Brazil 169–70
breastfeeding 96
Bronfenbrenner, Urie 91–92
bullying 100, 310, 385
C
California 252–53
capability 277
CAPS model 400–2, 413
capture-and-rumination 403
care-based or prosocial moral reasoning 9
caregiver-infant interactions 405
caregiving 95–96
CaR-FA-X model 403–4, 413
caring 272–73
Catholics and Catholicism 187–89, 199, 219
Caucasians
mothers’ and adolescents’ conversations about volunteering 274
proactive parenting 305–6
causality 93
cautionary challenges 283
cell phones 311
challenges, cautionary 283
channeling 271
character 406
character attributions 409–10
charity 136, 248
chiao shun (training) 151, 171
child behavior. See behavior(s)
child disclosure 319–38
advances and new directions 333–35
antecedents and outcomes 321–22, 322f, 323–33
and knowledge 330–31
measurement of 322–23
and moral outcomes 331–33
research directions 333–35
children. See also adolescents
characteristics of 63–64
cross-cultural studies of 157–58, 167
cultural learning environments 168–69
effects on parents 12, 48–49, 51, 64
emotion knowledge 62–63
interpretation of parental behaviors 218
moral development 180f, 182–83, 186–87
neurobiology of 131–38
parental monitoring of 320–21
parental responses to 62
parent-child discussions 7, 45–47, 290–93
parent-child relationship 58–59, 78–80, 293–94
parenting features important for 357–58. See also parenting
prosocial behaviors 163–77
religiosity 180–83, 180f, 185–86
socialization 287–300
spiritual development 188
temperamental features 50–51, 135–36, 345–46
young 404–6
Child’s Report of Parental Behavior Inventory 201
Chilean Latinos 253
Chinese and Chinese Americans 151–52
child behavior 342, 346, 348
child disclosure 329
Christians 188
immigrant families 215, 221
moral crisis 172
moral socialization 172
mothers 96, 152, 156
parent-child relationships 343, 383
personal concept development 383
prosocial behaviors 166–67, 172, 215, 220
within-culture studies 219–20
Chinese-Malaysian families 216
Christians and Christianity 188–89, 229–31
citizenship 272–73
class differences 201–3, 202t
climate 99
cocooning 6, 302–3, 305–11
cognition
child 328–30
ethical thought 76
moral reasoning 9–10, 33, 109–14, 113f, 363t, 364–66, 365t
parent 326–28
research on 109–11, 113–14, 113f
cognitive assimilation 405
cognitive development 395, 397–98, 402–4
cognitive empathy 112–15, 113f
collectivism 218–19, 239
Colombia 166–67, 343
communal practice 393–95
communication. See also conversations between parents and children
disciplinary talks 340–41
family discourse and narratives 380–81
silence about race 305
community benefits 76, 275
Ethic of Community 76
receiving community 257–58, 257f
comparative studies 164–67
compassion 136, 275
compassionate parenting 130–31
competition 92–94
compliant prosocial behavior 112–14, 113f
COMT 115
conflict 51, 293–94
conflict avoidance 24
conflict discourse 297
conscience 22, 25–26
development of 22, 348
FLAM scores and 96
conservatives 399
constructive interactionism 95
consulting 46, 308
contemporary issues 171–72
contempt 283
context
power of 168–69
temporal 171–72
control, parental 59–60, 78, 82–84, 250
behavioral 5–6, 44–45, 217, 250, 357, 359, 362–64, 365t, 367
of conversations 283
in emerging adulthood 355–73
future directions for research 367–69
and moral behavior 83–84, 366–67
and moral development 217, 362–64
and moral outcomes 362–66, 363t, 365t
in Muslim countries 239–40
and prosocial behavior 202–5, 202t, 204t, 239–40
psychological 5–6, 202–5, 202t, 204t, 217, 239, 250, 359–60, 362–67, 365t
Convention on the Rights of the Child 346
conversations between parents and children. See also discussions
analogy usage 281–82
child disclosure 319–38, 322f
conflict 293–94, 297
(p. 421) disciplinary talking 340–41
during discipline 288–89
about emotions 252, 297
during everyday interactions 287–88
family discourse and narratives 380–81
future directions for research 295–98
about moral conflicts 294
about moral issues 294–98
moral or prosocial reframing 282
about moral values 252
between mothers and adolescents 269–70, 272–84
non-sequitur sequences 283
patterns that facilitate reflection 281–82
patterns that support personal narrative 282–83
proactive 304–7
and prosocial behavior 203–4, 204t
reminiscing 290–93
sequential elaborations 281
about sexuality 307
Socratic questioning 297
types of discourse 289–94
undermining processes 283
about volunteering 269–70, 272–84
coping strategies 304–5
co-play/use 309, 311
corporal punishment 60, 340–41
and child behavior 346–47
in Muslim countries 235, 238–39
country differences 346–47
co-viewing 309, 311
creativity 399
Cubans and Cuban Americans 253, 261
cultural change 220–21
cultural differences 101
contemporary issues 171–72
in helping behavior 154
in human behavior 228
in moral-related behavior 219
in parenting 150–52, 217–18
in parenting and child behavior 346–47
in parenting and moral development 187–89
in prosocial behaviors 169–70, 248
recommendations for future research 222
in socialization of moral behavior 152–53
in socialization of moral emotions 147–50
in views of legitimacy of parental regulation 155–57
cultural learning environments 168–69
cultural socialization 305
cultural studies 167–71
comparative studies 164–67
cross-cultural studies 157–58, 163–77, 218–20
future directions 157–58, 173
cultural values. See also values
and moral development 218–19
parental 170–71
that promote prosocial behaviors 260–62
traditional 253–55, 260–62, 393–95
culture(s) 11–12, 64–65, 164, 167–68, 173, 198–99. See also specific cultures
and child disclosure 323–26
and moral development 147–61
culture-specific parenting 247–66
curiosity 399
cyberbullying 310
Cybernetic Big Five approach 401
D
Darwin, Charles 97
decision-making 136
deference 302–3, 307, 309–11
demographics 252–53, 323–26
devaluation 283
development 93
baselines for 94–97
child 167, 180f, 182
cognitive 395, 397–98, 402–4
cross-cultural studies of 167
early 406
evolved developmental niche (EDN) 95–97, 99–101
of prosocial behavior 129–44, 197–211, 213–26, 253–57
sociomoral 96
sociopersonality 399–404
species-atypical 94, 98–101
species-typical 94
spiritual 188
developmental biology, evolutionary 94
developmental niches 95–97, 99–101, 252
developmental psychology 189–90
directive parenting 151
discipline 6, 82, 377–80
aspects relevant to moral development 45
and child behavior 344–48
discourse in 288–89
future directions for research 349–50
gentle 26
hallmarks of effectiveness 341–42
interventions for effectiveness 348–49
in Muslim countries 235
parental practices 251, 339–54, 378
power assertive 33, 47, 240, 251, 340–42, 378
research on 83
sensitive 349
types of 340–42
disclosure. See child disclosure
discourse 406. See also discussions
discrimination 261
discussions 45–47. See also conversations between parents and children
conflict discourse 297
consulting 46
during discipline 288–89
about emotions 46–47, 62
everyday discourse 287–300
family discourse 380–81
and guided learning 82
about moral issues 7, 46, 294
about peer relationships 46
retrospective conversations 32–34
types of discourse 289–94
about volunteering 7, 273–83
dispositional praise 410
distraction 340
diverse contexts 147–266
divinity 76
divorce 230
Dominicans 261
donating
gift economy 92
heritability and environmental contributions to 113–14, 113f
reciprocal gift giving 172
dopamine 114–15
dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) 63–64, 114–15, 120, 136
GxE interactions 117
polymorphisms associated with moral development 116–17, 116t
Durkheim, Emile 232
Dutch 188
E
early childhood 34–35, 404–6, 412
early development 21–39, 406
early emotion understanding 31
Early Head Start 167
East Asians 218–21, 239
East-North Africa 229
ecocultural stress 257–60, 257f
ecology, parenting 91–106
EDN (evolved developmental niche) or evolved nest 95–97, 99–101
educacion (moral education) 152
egalitarianism 305
egocentric concerns 279–80
Egypt 229, 233, 235, 239
elaboration, sequential 281
Eliot, T.S. 393, 395
Emde, Robert 405
emerging adulthood 355–73
controlling parenting 359–61
developmental features 357–58
future directions for research 367–69
helicopter parenting 361–62
moral development 361–64
parental control 361–64
emotion(s)
children’s knowledge of 62–63
conversations about 252, 297
discussion of 46–47
future directions for research 65–66
parental control and 363t, 364–66, 365t
refueling 405
regulation of 50–51
(p. 422) socialization of 61–63, 147–50
systems related to staying alive 99
understanding 24–25, 31
empathy 7–8, 24–25, 41–42, 111, 399
affective 112–14, 113f
cognitive 112–14, 113f, 115
development of 348
environmental contributions to 112–14, 113f
FLAM scores and 96
genetics of 111–15, 113f, 120
modeling 150
parental 60–61, 406
research on 111–14, 113f
socialization of 150
empathy routines 150
enculturation
among immigrant families 220–21
among US Latinos 255–56
engagement ethical orientation 99
environment
cultural learning environments 168–69
facilitating 405
future directions for research 386
gene-environment correlations (rGE) 108t, 118–21
gene-environment interactions (GxE) 108t, 117–18, 120
epigenetics 93, 95, 97, 108t
EST (evolutionary systems theory) 94
ethical orientations 99
ethical thought 76
Ethic of Autonomy 76, 362–64, 363t, 365t
Ethic of Community 76
Ethiopia 230
ethnic differences 189
ethnic identity 221, 256–57
ethnic socialization
family practices 259
proactive parenting and 304–6
ethnotheories, parental 170–71
ethogenesis 92
Euro-American cultures 11
Europe 229
European Americans 65, 151, 154–56
parenting styles 165–67
prosocial behaviors 167, 169
evangelical Christians 188–89, 399
event representations 402–4
everyday discourse 287–300
evocative rGE (gene-environment correlations) 118–19
evolution 91–106
evolutionary systems theory (EST) 94
evolved developmental niche (EDN) or evolved nest 95–97, 99–101
executive control, impaired 403
experiential learning 48
F
Facebook 309
facilitating environment 405
fairness 406
faith commitments 406
faith traditions 187–89
familismo (familism) 65, 152, 170–71, 254, 259–61
family 198–99, 395–96
actions that foster messages regarding the importance of family 252
characteristics of 257–58, 257f
and child disclosure 323–26
discourse and narratives 380–81
ethnic socialization practices 259
generativity 411
immigrant 220–21
moral formation in 393–418
Family Life Attitudes and Behavior Measure (FLAM) 96
Family Life Course perspective 369
family narratives 380–81, 411–12
family religiosity 187
family studies 189–90
Family Systems perspective 369
fanaticism 241
fathers
disciplinary practices 342, 344–45
generativity 411
in Muslim countries 235
parenting styles 203–6, 204t, 258, 307. See also parenting
feedback 408–10
file drawer problem 43–44
Filipinos
disciplinary practices and child behavior 346, 348
parent-child relationships 343
parenting and prosocial behaviors 166–67, 171
within-culture studies 219–20
FLAM (Family Life Attitudes and Behavior Measure) 96
Flourishing Families Project 362–64, 365t
forgiveness 8–9
France 229
Franklin, Benjamin 397
freedom riders 60
free play 96
friendships 308, 384–85
functional adaptation 93–94
functional avoidance 403
future directions 138–40, 157–58, 189–90, 207–8, 391–418
adolescent selection of life paths 271
research agenda 393–418
research recommendations 222–23
G
GCTA (genome-wide complex trait analysis) 108t, 116–17
gender differences
in child disclosure 325–26
in links between parental discipline and child behavior 344–45
moderator effects 51–52
in parenting styles 207
in prosocial behavior 201–3, 202t, 206–7
gender roles 207, 254, 260–62
gene-environment correlations (rGE) 108t, 118–21
gene-environment interactions (GxE) 108t, 117–18, 120
generativity 410–12
genetics 63–64, 92–94
of antisocial behavior 109–10
epigenetics 93, 95, 97, 108t
molecular research studies 114–17, 116t
and moral development 107–27, 116t
quantitative research studies 110–14, 113f
terminology 108, 108t
genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 108t, 116–17
genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) 108t, 116–17
gentle discipline 26
Germans
Muslims 229
parenting 166, 169–70
prosocial behavior 169–70, 214–15
Gewirtz, Jacob 77
gift economy 92
gift giving
heritability and environmental contributions to 113–14, 113f
reciprocal 172
girls
disclosure 325–26
parenting styles for 207
prosocial behavior 201–3, 202t, 206–7
globalization 221–22
good-enough mothering 405
Gospels 229
gratitude 8–9
utang na loob (debt of gratitude) 171
group participation 78, 80–81, 85–86
guan (to govern) 171, 218
guanxi 172
guided learning 78, 81–82, 85
guiding 308
guilt 5–6, 8, 111, 148
GWAS (genome-wide association studies) 108t, 116–17
GxE (gene-environment interactions) 108t, 117–18, 120
H
Habitat for Humanity 272
Hanafi Muslims 230
Hanbali Muslims 230
hard work 399
Harlow, Harry 93–94
harmony 171
(p. 423) hedonistic reasoning 75
helicopter parenting 355–57
in emerging adulthood 360–62
future directions for research 367–68
and moral outcomes 362–64, 365t
helpful behavior 83–84, 399
instrumental helping 30
moral status of 154
heroism 247
high tension faiths 189–90
Himmel, George 74
Hindu Indians 12, 154–55
Hispanics 205
historical considerations 395–99
historiography 393–95, 398
Hong Kong 342
hostile attribution bias 9
HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis 131–32, 136, 330, 349–50
human development. See development
Humane Society 272
human nature 91, 407–9
hunter-gatherers 100
childhood model 95
small-band hunter-gatherers (SBHG) 97
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis 131–32, 136, 330, 349–50
hypothesis testing 111
hypothetical conflicts 294
I
identification 74–75
identity
development of 34–35
ethnic 221, 256–57
moral 34–35
moral values and 10
narrative 273
parent-child interactions and 382–83
immigrant paradox 171
immigrants 220–21
adjustment behavior 215
Asian 213–26
Chinese American 215
Latinos 252–53
parenting 213–26
prosocial behavior 213–26
immoral behavior. See also behavior
parental discipline practices associated with preventing 339–54
Indians
child behavior 346, 348
child disclosure 326
moral behavior 219
Muslims 229
parenting 169
parents’ disciplinary practices 346, 348
parents’ monitoring behaviors 326
prosocial behaviors 169, 220
indifference 283
individualism 199, 218–19, 221
Indonesians
Muslims 188, 229
parenting 233–38
prosocial behavior 214–15, 220, 233
recommendations for future research 223
induction 251, 341, 378–79
guilt 5–6
parental 45–47, 59–60
inductive reasoning 340–42, 348
infants
caregiver-infant interactions 405
moral development 406
moral self 405
inquisitiveness 111
insecure attachment 101
instrumental helping 30
instrumental rewards 277–78
intentions: sensitivity to 30
intent participation 170
internalization
indicators of 329
of moral rules 153–55
positive features of 74
of values 84–85
Internet addiction 310
interpersonal stereotyped reasoning 75
intuitive morality 76–77
Iran 229, 233, 240
Iraq 229
Islam 229–30. See also Muslims
five pillars 229, 231
foundation of 233–34
and moral behavior 228, 230–33
and parenting 234
Islamic law or Sharia 229–30
Isma‘ili Muslims 230
Israelis 113, 115
Muslims and Christians 188
parenting 235
prosocial behavior 214–15
Italian Catholics 188
Italy 166–67, 343, 346
J
Jafari Muslims 230
Japan 150
Japanese 219, 221
disciplinary practices and child behavior 347
responses to misbehavior 379
within-culture studies 219
Jewish parents 188–89
Jordan 166–67, 235, 343
Judaism 229
judgments. See moral judgments
K
Kant, Immanuel 397
Kenya 166–68, 343, 346
kindness 272–73
knowledge
moral 76
parental 319–38, 322f
prudential 76
Kochanska, Grazyna 22
Kohlberg, Lawrence 21, 75, 398
Koran 229–34
Korea 171, 219
L
lactose intolerance 100
Latin Americans 152
Latino/as 11, 249
child disclosure 324
demographics 252–53
ethnic identity 256–57
history 252–53
immigrant families 220–21
mechanisms that promote prosocial behaviors 260–62
moral behaviors 257–60, 257f
moral development 253–57
moral socialization 252–57
parenting 167, 247–66
prosocial behaviors 167, 215, 253–60, 257f, 260–62
traditional cultural values 253–55
law, Islamic 229
learning 156, 277
cultural 168–69
experiential 48
guided 78, 81–82, 85
observational 60
by observing and pitching in 80–81
sociomoral 98
learning environments 168–69
Lebanon 235
legitimacy 155–57
legitimacy beliefs 329
LHT (life history theory) 94
liberals 399
Liberia 230
life event stressors 257–58, 257f
life history theory (LHT) 94
life narratives 273
Los Angeles, California 65
love withdrawal 47–48, 251, 340, 378
low tension faiths 189–90
loyalty, in-group 232–33
M
machismo 254
MacIntyre, Alasdair 394, 396–97
Malaysians
Muslims 188
parenting practices 237–38
prosocial behavior 214–15
recommendations for future research 223
Maliki Muslims 230
mammals 91
manners, good 399
marianismo 254
material rewards 251–52
maternal responsiveness 50
maternal social support 96
Mbuti 97
(p. 424) meaning construction 296
media monitoring 309–11
mediator effects 49–50
memory
autobiographical 35, 402–4, 412–13
reminiscing 290–93, 406
self-memory 403
meta-theory 92
Mexicans and Mexican Americans 65, 152, 261
ethnic identity 256–57
ethnic-racial socialization 305
history 252–53
immigrant families 221
proactive parenting 305
prosocial behaviors 167, 169–71, 256–57, 259–60
Miami, Florida 253
Middle East 239
mindset interventions 412–13
mindsets 407–9
mirroring 405–6
misbehavior. See also behavior
responses to 377–80
mistrust 305
modeling
of empathy 150
parental 6, 60–61, 340
model minority (concept) 213
moderator effects 50–52, 63–64
molecular genetic studies 114–17, 116t
monitoring, affective 405
monitoring, parental 252
and child disclosure 326
disciplinary 340
research advances and new directions 333–35
research waves 320–21
moral affect 181
moral behavior(s) 10–11, 109, 181
antecedents to 80
control and 83–84
ecocultural stress-based model of 257–60, 257f
future directions for research 65–66
heritability and environmental contributions to 112–14, 113f
Islam and 228, 231–33
in Muslim countries 227–45
parenting and 227–45, 366–67
predictors of 331–33
prosocial 227–45
religion and 230–31
research on 109–10, 112–14, 113f
socialization of 57–71, 152–53
moral character 406
moral cognition 9–10, 33
moral conflicts 294
moral crisis 172
moral development 34–35, 395, 400
in Asian and Asian American culture 218–20
cross-cultural 187–88
cultural differences 147–61, 188–89, 218–20
definition of 181, 397, 412
discipline relevant to 45
in diverse contexts 147–266
in emerging adulthood 361–64
evolution and 91–92
in family 393–418
future directions for research 368–69, 386–87, 396–97
genetic polymorphisms associated with 116–17, 116t
in infancy 406
mechanisms that encourage 406
as multidimensional construct 7–11
parental control and 362–64
parent-child interactions and 343
parenting ecology of 91–106
peer relationships as contexts for 384–85
proactive parenting and 301–18
relational 32–34, 97–98
religious differences 179–96, 180f
research on 74–77
socialization and 84–85, 377
as sociopersonality development 399–404
species-atypical 98–100
theoretical perspectives on 19–144
in US Latinos 253–57
moral dilemmas 7
moral education (educacion) 152
moral emotions 109
future directions for research 65–66
self-conscious 148
socialization of 57–71, 147–50
moral identity 34–35
morality 108–9, 397
affective component 109, 111–12, 113f
behavioral component 109, 112–14
children’s understanding of 376
cognitive component 109–11
environmental contributions to 110–14, 113f
genetics of 110–14, 113f, 115
intuitive 76–77
prosocial 227–28
moral judgments 397
genetics of 120
socialization of 375–90
variability in 377
moral knowledge 76
construction of 386–87
future directions for research 386–87
moral personality 181
moral reasoning 181
care-based 9
controlling parenting and 362–66, 363t, 365t
cultural-developmental perspective on 76
development of 348
heritability and environmental contributions to 110–11, 113–14, 113f
prosocial 9
research on 109–11, 113–14, 113f
rights-based or prohibitive 9
socialization of 375–90
stages of 75
moral reframing 282
moral regulation 348
moral rules 153–55
moral self
development of 34–35, 402–4
in infancy 405
moral sense 97
moral socialization
in everyday discourse 287–300
future directions for research 385–87
integrative approach to 252–57
recent approaches to 267–390
moral values
conversations about 252
and identity 10
Mormons 189
Moroccan-Dutch Muslims 188
Moroccans 231–32
mothers
Chinese 96, 152, 156
conversations with adolescents about volunteering 269–70, 272–84
disciplinary practices 342, 344–45
generativity 411
good-enough mothering 405
in Islam 234
in Muslim countries 235
parenting styles 203–7, 204t, 307. See also parenting
reasons for not volunteering 278–80
reasons for volunteering 274–78
reminiscing with children 291
responsiveness 50
social support for 96
motivation
autonomous 153–54
biological motives 405
external 153
intrinsic 154
introjected 153
social cognitive approach to 413
MRO (mutually responsive orientation) 25–26, 48–49, 80
Muhammad “the Prophet of Islam,” 229
Muslim countries. See specific countries
Muslims 228–30. See also Islam
parenting 188–89, 235, 237–38
prosocial moral behavior 230–41
(p. 425) mutuality 80
mutually responsive orientation (MRO) 25–26, 48–49, 80
N
narrative identity 273
narratives
personal 282, 402–3
natural selection 93–94
natural world 92
nature vs nurture 95
negative affect 51, 61
negative parenting practices 238–39
neglectful parenting 42–43, 250
negligent parenting 198, 202–6, 202t, 204t
neighborhood disadvantage 386
neo-Darwinian view 93–94
nest, evolved 95–97, 99–101
neurobiology 129–44
neuroception 99
neuroticism 117
neurotransmitters 108t
neutrality 308
New Delhi, India 153
nexus questions 190
NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD) 24, 49
Nigeria 229, 233
no-nonsense parenting 217, 258
non-sequiturs 283
norms 172
North America 148, 172–73
“not-too-nice” parenting 78–79
nurture vs nature 95
O
obedience 399
observational learning 60, 80–81
opportunity space 271
orientation, mutually responsive (MRO) 25–26, 48–49, 80
ostracism 149
oxytocin 98, 115
oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) 115–18, 116t, 120
P
pakikisama (getting along to promote harmony) 171
Pakistan
Muslims 229
parenting 233–34, 238–39
prosocial behavior 233, 239
view of divorce 230
Palestine 235, 239
Palestinian refugees 328
parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) 131–32, 134, 136–38
parental control. See control
parental discipline. See discipline
parental support. See support
parent-child conflict 293–94
parent-child relationship. See also conversations between parents and children
and child behavior 343
and child disclosure 327–28
in emerging adulthood 358
foundation of 78–80
interactions beyond discipline context 380–82
and moral development 343
and personal concept development 382–84
quality of 58–59
warm, supportive 381–82
parenting 58, 233–35. See also fathers; mothers
and antisocial behavior 319–38
Asian and Asian American 217–20
authoritarian 42, 151, 198, 217, 235–36, 250, 341–42
authoritative and competent 198
average 396
bidirectional relations 48–49, 64
characteristics of 406–12
and child disclosure 326
and child neurobiology 131–35
and child religiosity 180f, 182
children’s interpretations of parental behaviors 218
comparative studies 164–67
compassionate 130–31
contemporary issues 171–72
controlling 356, 362–67, 363t, 365t, 368–69
control procedures 59–60, 82–84
cross-cultural studies 163–77
cultural differences 188–89, 217–18
cultural studies 167–71, 187–88
cultural values and 170–71
culture-specific 247–66
demandingness 236
differentiated approach to 382
dimensions of 4–7, 42–44, 58–59, 181, 236, 250
directive 151
disciplinary practices 251, 339–54, 378
discussions 7, 32–34, 45–47
in diverse contexts 147–266
ecology of 91–106
of emerging adults 355–73
emotion socialization practices 61–63
by encouragement of experiential learning 48
ethnic-racial socialization 304–6
ethnotheories 170–71
features important for child outcomes 357–58
features that could bear further investigation 406
future directions for research 52–53, 311–13, 367–69, 385–87, 413
generativity 410–12
for group participation 80–81
by guided learning 81–82
Islam and 234
legitimacy of 155–57
low-power 166
media mediation 309
mediator effects 49–50
mindset with response to personality growth and traits 406
by modeling 6, 60–61
moderation by child age 51
moderation by child characteristics 63–64
moderation by child neurobiology 135–38
moderation by child sex 51
moderation by child temperament 50–51
moderator effects 50–52
monitoring behaviors 326
monitoring of children 320–21
monitoring of peers and media 307–11
and moral behavior 233–36
and moral development 3–18, 42–45, 74–77, 85, 107–27, 147–61, 179–96, 180f, 213–26, 412
and moral outcomes 362–64, 365t
in Muslim countries 227–45
negative practices 238–39
neglectful or uninvolved 42–43, 250
negligent 198, 202–6, 202t, 204t
neurobiology of 130–31
no-nonsense 217, 258
“not-too-nice” approach 78–79
permissive 42, 151, 198, 202–7, 202t, 204t, 237, 250
positive practices 237–38
proactive 301–18
and prosocial behavior 129–44, 163–77, 197–211, 202t, 227–45, 319–38
and prosocial development 213–26
of prosociality 247–66
prosocial practices 251–52
reactive 301–2
with reasoning 45–47, 60
recommendations 410
regulation 155–57
relational qualities of 4–5
religiosity and 180–87, 180f
religious differences in 188–89
research on 74–75
responses to children’s emotions 62
responsiveness 236
with rewards 48
and sexuality 306–7
socialization messages 385–86
theoretical perspectives on 19–144
tiger 217
traditional 41–56, 247–66
types of discipline 340–42
uninvolved or neglectful 42–43, 250
ways to engage in effective parenting 78–79
Parent Management Training 349
passive rGE (gene-environment correlations) 118
peer relationships
conflict avoidance 24
as contexts for moral development 384–85
discussions about 46
future directions for research 386–87
parental management of 308–9
proactive monitoring of 307–11
social problem-solving 24
perinatal experiences 95–96
permissive parenting 42, 151, 198, 250
demographic correlates 207
in Muslim countries 237
and prosocial behavior 202–5, 202t, 204t
persistence 399
personal concepts 382–84
personalismo (positive interpersonal and direct social skills) 254
personality
moral 181
social cognitive approach to 413
personality growth 406, 408
personal narratives 282
person feedback 408–10
perspective-taking 9–10, 111, 220
Philippines. See Filipinos
Piaget, Jean 21, 75, 396–97
plasticity 95, 135–36
play 96, 99, 406
PNS (parasympathetic nervous system) 131–32, 134, 136–38
policing 276
political-ideological orientation 406
positive affect
parental 61–62
shared 51, 80
positive parenting practices 237–38
positive touch 96
poverty 386
power assertion 33, 47, 240, 251, 340–42, 378
practice 393–95
praise 6–7, 408–10
pre-arming 6, 302–7, 309–11
premoral sensibility 29–32
proactive parenting 301–2
approaches 302–3
and ethnic-racial socialization 304–6
future directions for research 311–13
literature review 304–11
monitoring of peers and media 307–11
overview 302–4
and sexuality 306–7
problem-solving, social 24
process feedback 408–10
prohibiting friendships 308
prohibitive (rights-based) moral reasoning 9
Project READY (Researching Emerging Adults’ Developmental Years) 362, 363t, 367
prosocial behavior(s) 26–27, 247
advances and new directions 333–35
biological-related processes associated with 249
child disclosure 319–38
of children 163–77
comparative studies of 164–67
compliant 112–14, 113f
contemporary issues 171–72
cross-cultural studies 163–77
cultural differences 169–70
cultural studies 167–71
culture-specific mechanisms that promote 260–62
definition of 169–70, 197, 248–49
demographic correlates 206–8
ecocultural stress-based model of 257–60, 257f
genetics of 114–16, 120
heritability and environmental contributions to 113–14, 113f
vs inhibition of antisocial behavior 83–84
Islam and 231–33
learning 85
moral behavior 227–45
in Muslim countries 233–36
negative parenting practices and 238–39
neurobiology and 129–44
parental 60–61
parental control and 366–67
parental knowledge and 319–38, 322f
positive parenting and 237–38
rationale for study of 247–48
religion and 230–31
religiosity and 220
research on 112–14, 113f
self-initiated 112–14, 113f
sex differences 201–3, 202t, 206–7
social class differences 202t, 203
socialization of 171–72
of Spanish adolescents 199–206, 202t, 204t
teaching 169–70
theoretical perspectives on 228
types of 342
in US Latinos 253–57
Prosocial Behavior Questionnaire 201
prosociality
parental socialization of 135–38, 249–52
parenting of 247–66
religious 232
in US Latino/as 247–66
prosocial parenting practices 251–52
prosocial reasoning
care-based moral reasoning 9
levels of 75
prosocial reframing 282
protection 78–79
Protestants 184, 399
prudential knowledge 76
Psalms 229
psychological concepts 376
psychological control 5–6, 250
in emerging adulthood 359–60, 362
and moral behavior 367
and moral development 217, 362
and moral outcomes 362–64, 365t, 366
and prosocial behavior 202–5, 202t, 204t, 239
psychology, developmental 189–90
Puerto Ricans 253, 261, 324
punishment 410. See also love withdrawal
corporal 60, 235, 238–39, 340–41
in Muslim countries 235, 238–39
Q
quantitative genetic research 110–14, 113f
questioning, Socratic 297
R
racial differences 189
racial socialization 304–6
racism 220, 261
RDSMT (relational developmental systems meta-theory) 92
reasoning
controlling parenting and 364
ethical thought 76
hedonistic 75
inductive 340–42, 348
interpersonal stereotyped 75
parental 45–47, 60
prosocial 75
research on 75–76, 109–11, 113–14, 113f
socialization of 375–90
recent approaches 267–390
reciprocity 30–31, 78–80
in gift giving 172
warm responsive reciprocal caregiving 95–96
reflection 272, 281–82
refueling, emotional 405
regulation
(p. 427) behavioral 96
emotional 50–51
moral 348
parental 155–57
self-regulation 366, 405
reification problem 164
relational developmental systems meta-theory (RDSMT) 92
relational moral development 97–98
relations: moral understanding development in context to 32–34
religiosity 179–81, 220
family 187
parent 180–87, 180f
threshold effects of 190
religious beliefs and practices 399, 406. See also specific faiths
heritability of 110–11
high tension faiths 189–90
low tension faiths 189–90
and moral development 179–96, 180f
processes to achieve sacred purposes 188
and prosocial moral behavior 230–31
transmission of 186
religious differences 188–89
religiousness 254, 260–62
religious socialization 186
religious studies 189–90
reminiscing 290–93, 406
rephrasing 282
research
advances and new directions 333–35
agenda for 393–418
on antisocial behavior 109–10
on behavior 74–75
comparative studies 164–67
cross-cultural studies 157–58, 163–77, 218–19
cultural studies 157–58, 164–71, 173
genetic 109–14, 113f, 114–17, 116t
literature review 304–11
molecular studies 114–17, 116t
on moral behavior 109–10, 112–14, 113f
on moral development 74–77
on moral reasoning 109–11, 113–14, 113f
on parental monitoring 320–21
on proactive parenting 304–11
quantitative studies 110–14, 113f
on reasoning 75–76
recent approaches 267–390
recommendations for 222–23
transdisciplinary 91
within-culture 219–20
respeto (respect) 152, 215, 254, 260–62
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) 63, 138
responsibility 399
responsiveness
maternal 50
parental 4–5
warm responsive reciprocal caregiving 95–96
responsivity 99
restrictive monitoring 309
rewards 6–7, 48
material 251–52
social 251–52
rGE (gene-environment correlations) 108t, 118–19
evocative 118–19
future directions for research 120–21
passive 118
rights-based (prohibitive) moral reasoning 9
rituals 81, 232
Romanians 188
routines 80–81, 86
empathy 150
self-protective 99
social 402
RSA (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) 63, 138
rule-breaking behaviors 379–80
rules 153–55
rural areas 235
S
Salvadorans 253
Saudi Arabia 235, 239
SBHG (small-band hunter-gatherers) 97
SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) 112–13
secrecy 325
selection 271
self-belief 403
self-concept 410
moral self 402–5
parent-child interactions and 382–83
self-conscious moral emotions 148
self-directed social free play 96
self-disclosure 323
self-identity 382–83
self-initiated prosocial behavior 112–14, 113f
self-memory 403
self-protection 99
self-regulation 366, 405
self-representations 402–3
self-worth 305
sensitive discipline 349
sensitivity
to intentions 30
parental 4–5, 58–59
sequential elaborations 281
serotonin 115–16
serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) 115–17, 116t
SES (socioeconomic status) 312
settings 278
sex differences
in child disclosure 325–26
in links between parental discipline and child behavior 344–45
moderator effects 51–52
in parenting styles 207
in prosocial behavior 201–3, 202t, 206–7
sexuality 306–7
sexual values 306
Shafi‘i Muslims 230
shame 5–6, 8, 111, 148, 219
shame events 149
shaming 341
shared intentionality 30
shared positive affect 50, 80
shared procedural expectations 80
Sharia or Islamic law 229
Shi‘a Muslims 230
shyness 221
sibling relationships 386
silence about race 305
simpatía (agreeableness and politeness) 254
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 108t
Six Cultures Study 168
small-band hunter-gatherers (SBHG) 97
SNS (sympathetic nervous system) 131, 133–34
social brain 114
social class differences 202t, 203
social cognitive approach 413
social contexts 257–58, 257f, 377
social domain theory 156–57, 376–77
social fittedness 405
socialization
cognitive developmental approach to 395
constructivist approach to 376–77
cultural 305
domains of 77–85
of emotions 61–63
of empathy 150
ethnic-racial 304–6
in everyday discourse 287–300
family ethnic practices 259
future directions for research 65–66, 385–87
of moral behavior 80, 152–53
and moral development 84–85, 219
of moral emotions 147–50
of moral judgments and reasoning 375–90
prosocial 135–38, 171–72
reasons for 269–86
religious 186
self-directed social free play 96
socialization messages 385–86
social knowledge 76
socially acceptable behavior 74
socially desirable behavior 44–45
social mammals 91
social networking 311
social-opposition ethical orientation 99
social problem-solving 24
social rewards 6–7, 251–52, 277–78
social routines 402
social status 385
social support 96, 99
social-withdrawal ethical orientation 99
society 376
sociocultural theory 228
socioecological theory 228
socioeconomic status (SES) 312
sociomoral development 96
sociomoral learning 98
sociopersonality development 399–404
Socratic questioning 297
solicitation, parental 326
Sommerville, Jessica 406
soothing perinatal experiences 95–96
South Africa 166
South Asia 239
Southeast Asians
prosocial behavior 214–15, 218–19
recommendations for future research 222–23
Southeast Pacific Islanders 223
South Koreans 113
Spain 199–200
Spanish adolescents. See also adolescents
future directions for research 207–8
present study 200–204
prosocial behavior 199–208, 202t, 204t
Spanish families
parenting styles 165–66, 199–208, 202t, 204t
prosocial behavior 199–208, 202t, 204t
spanking 341. See also corporal punishment
species typicality 94–97
spiritual development 188
stability 206–8
“Standard North American Family Code,” 173
stereotyped reasoning 75
stereotyping 407
storytelling 152, 402–3, 411–12
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) 112–13
stress
acculturative 220–21, 255–56
ecocultural 257–60, 257f
structure, parental 181
sub-Saharan Africa 229
Sunnah 230
Sunni Muslims 230
support
mirroring 405
parental 202–3, 202t, 250, 357
and prosocial behavior 202–4, 202t, 204t
supportive relationships 381–82
Sweden 166–67
sympathetic nervous system (SNS) 131, 133–34
sympathy 7–8, 41–42
genetics of 115
parental 60–61
parental control and 363t, 365t, 366
Syria 233
T
Taiwan
media monitoring 310
socialization 11, 149, 152, 157, 219
teaching 169–70, 412–13
television (TV) 311
temperament, child 50–51, 135–36, 345–46
temporal context 171–72
Thailand
Buddhists 188
disciplinary practices and child behavior 346, 348
divorce rate 230
parent-child relationships 343
prosocial behaviors and parenting 166–67
theoretical perspectives 19–144, 228
evolutionary systems theory (EST) 94
evolutionary theory 92–94
life history theory (LHT) 94
parental ethnotheories 170–71
threshold effects 190
tiger parenting 217
tolerance 399
Torah 229
touch 99
affectionate 96
positive 96
traditional cultural values 253–55, 260–62, 393–95
traditional gender roles 254, 260–62
traditional parenting 41–56, 247–66
training (chiao shun) 151, 171
traits 92–93
transactions 186
transdisciplinary approach 101
transdisciplinary research 91
trust 305
Tunisia 233
Turkey
Muslims 188, 229
parenting 166–67, 233–40
prosocial behaviors 167, 233, 236–37
view of divorce 230
Turkish migrants 166
Turnbull, Colin 97
TV (television) 311
U
umbu jamo (strict father, benevolent mother) 171
uninvolved parenting 42–43, 250
United Kingdom 229
United States 11–12, 152, 156
Asians and Asian immigrants 213–26
demographics 252–53
immigration 252–53
Indians 156–57
Latino/as 247–66
Muslims 229
parent-child relationships 343, 383
parenting 165–67, 169, 213–26
personal concept development 383
prosocial behaviors 166–67, 169
prosocial/moral development 213–26
responses to misbehavior 379
socialization messages 386
utang na loob (debt of gratitude) 171
V
validation 282
values 399
controlling parenting and 366
conversations about 252
cultural 170–71, 260–62
heritability and environmental contributions to 110–11, 113–14, 113f
and identity 10
intergenerational transmission of 411–12
internalization of 84–85
moral 10, 252
and moral development 218–19
parental 170–71
religious 110–11
research on 110–11, 113–14, 113f
sexual 306
that promote prosocial behaviors 260–62
traditional 253–55, 260–62, 393–95
Western 221
victimization 385
Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) 349
video games 311
violence 93, 100, 386
(p. 429) VIPP-SD (Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline) 349
virtue 74, 397
volunteering 60, 248
adolescent 270–73
beneficiary consequences of 275
community benefits of 275
conversations between mothers and adolescents about 269–70, 272–84
conversations between parents and children about 7
instrumental rewards of 277–78
opportunity space for 271
reasons for not participating 278–80
reasons for participating 274–78
settings for 278
social rewards of 277–78
W
warm, supportive relationships 381–82
warm responsive reciprocal caregiving 95–96
warmth, parental 4–5, 44, 58–59, 181
Wentzel, Kathryn 412
Western values 221
Whites
mothers’ and adolescents’ conversations about volunteering 274
proactive parenting 305–6
Whiting, Beatrice 168
Whiting, John 168
work, hard 399
Y
Yeager, David Scott 407
Yemen 235
young children 404–6
Z
zuo ren 172