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date: 21 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Bullying and cyberbullying among youth continue to be major public health issues that are quite disruptive to healthy academic, social, and mental health development. This chapter identifies the prevalence of these forms of bullying and the adverse outcomes. A social–ecological framework is used to discuss why youth become victims or perpetrators of bullying. From a social–ecological approach, youth are placed at risk for involvement in bullying by multiple factors, including individual characteristics, family dynamics, school climate factors, peer influences, and influences from the larger community. Also, these ecological structures can create a protective shield from involvement in bullying. Subsequent to the review of research , what works to prevent bullying and cyberbullying is discussed.

Keywords: social–ecological framework, bullying, cyberbullying, family dynamics, school climate, peer influence

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