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date: 23 October 2020

Index

Index

(p. 785) Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.

A
Abbott, A. 776
Abernathy, W. 290
absorptive capacity 236–37, 440, 448–49, 454
Academy of Management Journal 517
Academy of Management Review 44
accelerators
and competition 96
functions of 48, 95
mentor-driven 30
start-up 692
and venture growth 737
acquisitions
about 275
and exit strategies 227, 237
and family founding teams 741–42
and intellectual property 268, 271–72, 279–80
of joint ventures 274
and mergers 62–70 (See also mergers and acquisitions)
and venture capital firms 321–24
action, entrepreneurial. See entrepreneurial action
active knowledge creation 614–15, 617–18
Acumen Fund 547, 552, 564
adaptive capability 420
Admati, A. 356
Adner, R. 205, 580
Adrià, Ferran 543–44
adverse selection
in small firms 450
and start-up exit strategies 229, 230–31
technology alleviating 230–31
and venture capital firms 319–22
Afuah, A. 71
Agarwal, R. 228, 448, 499, 618, 638
agency
duality of structure and 137, 159
of entrepreneurs 100, 161
for institutional entrepreneurship 123, 124
and markets 89
and material place/space 94
of non-human entities 104
problem 203, 317, 353, 374, 693–94
risk 26
and start-ups 103
theory 22, 23, 29, 592
and venture capital 203–4, 353
agent management 687
agent pools 645
agglomeration theory 117–18, 121–22, 129t, 671
Ahuja, G. 402, 413, 415
Airbnb 292, 299, 300
airline industry 296
Albert, Heidi 685
Alchian, A. A. 592
Aldrich, H. E. 99
Alexy, O. 68
Allain, M. L. 234, 236
Allen, Paul 144
alliances 59–75
arrangements of 438
and asset remix 60–66
constellations of 296, 297f, 397
and creation of joint value 66–69
defined 292
dyadic 293–96, 302
dynamic capabilities in 61
experience of 449
forms of 292–93
and governance 70–73
(p. 786)
governance of 473
implications of 439
and intellectual property 272–75
management of 471
as management of incomplete contracts 71–73
motivations for 439
multipartner 293
networks of 296–97, 298t, 299–300
performance of 439
risks of 439
and sharing value 73–75
and spin-out firms 496–97
Allison, T. H. 337
All Things Considered (NPR) 555
Alter, T. 124
Alvarez, S. A. 465, 469
AMD 494
American Community Survey 138
Amit, R. 580
amphibian (term) 542
amphibious entrepreneurship 541–64
and boundary-spanning roles 560–62
case studies on 547–59
characteristics of 561t
defined 542–44
future research, directions for 563
interstitial spaces for 560
invention in 542
and mavericks 561–62
other boundary-spanning roles vs. 560–62
and reputation 545
research related to 544–46
Anand, J. 407
Anderson, A. 119
Android operating system 63, 68
Ang, J. S. 697
angel investors 27
business angels 27
and technology parks 385b
and venture capital 387b, 388b
antisolicitation clauses 639
Apex (firm) 166
Apple 60–61, 63, 273, 275, 300, 600, 684
appropriability regimes 232
appropriation, risk of 469–70
Apture 233
Aqualife 335
Argyres, N. 69, 208
Arkadium 747
ARM system 68
Arora, A. 224, 227, 230, 236, 239
Arrow, K. J. 43
Ashcraft, K. L. 94
asset remix
in agile strategies 63–64
mergers and alliances 60–66
Association of Brewers 292
Association of University Technology Managers 245
AstraZeneca 233
asymmetric
asymmetrical information 25, 294, 590, 592
asymmetric information 117, 252, 259, 319, 335, 339
asymmetric constellations 473
asymmetric dependence 470–71
asymmetric partnerships 397–431
antecedents of 398–406, 421t425t
architectural vision for 404
balance of power in 409
causal relationships between 420
and compatibility of resources 401
cooperation in 409
coordination challenges in 408
defined 397–98
and direct ties 403
exercise of power in 416
and financial capital 400
and firm performance 412–17, 428t431t
future research, directions for 417–20
indirect ties in 403
internal reorganization in 411
managing 409–11
and market fluctuations 407
misalignment in 397
organizational arrangements in 419
organizational design in 419
organizational routines in 397
and organizational theory 397
(p. 787)
performance stream of 398
power dynamics in 419
process dynamics of 406–12
resource complementarity 402
and resource endowments 397
and resource overlap 402
and “shark” behaviors 401–2, 403
and social bonding 409–10
strategic actions in 404–5
symbolic action in 404
three streams of 398, 399t
Atlanta Braves 542
A-to-Z Textile Mills 553
AT&T 61
attentional challenges 517–18
attentional scarcity 528–30
attitudes
and prosocial behavior by entrepreneurs 707–8
in regulatory focus theory 209–10, 215
toward cooperation 202
toward IP ownership 105
Audia, P. G. 773
Audretsch, D. 124
Augustine, D. 124
Aula, P. 101
autonomous user-industry spin-outs 495, 500
autonomy 589, 590
autonomy-sponsorship 597–98
Avarind Eye Hospital 553
Azmat, F. 189
Azoulay, P. 249
B
Bae, J. 280
Baert, C. 20
Bagozzi, R. P. 719
Baptista, J. 84
bargaining power
in asymmetric partnerships 407
and equity alliances 274
and large-firm performance 416
in mergers 63
Barley, L. 359
Barnard, C. 66
Barney, J. B. 465
Baron, R. A. 722
Barretto, Ray 554
barriers to entry 225, 300, 589t
Battilana, J. 123
Baum, J. 470
Baum, J. A. C. 464–65
Bayesian estimation 646
Bayh-Dole Act 249, 251, 501
Beane, Billy 542–43, 544
Becker, G. S. 43
Beckman, C. M. 633
Beerkens, B. 439
Belderbos, R. 439
Bell Laboratory 122
Benford, R. D. 546
Bengtsson, O. 204, 515–16
Benson, D. F. 101
Bercovitz, J. 442
Berkovich, I. 771
Berle, A. A. 203
Bernhardt, D. 515–16
Betamax 297
Bezos, Jeff 682
BF Goodrich 121
Bhide, A. V. 491, 515
biases
dysfunctions of 514
and heuristics in alliance collaboration 514, 519–20
big five model 90
Big Pharma 547, 555–59
Big Philanthropy 552
bilateral collaboration 612
bilateral contract-based alliances 496–97
BIND 224
Bingham, C. B. 514, 519, 522, 523, 524, 532
biopharmaceuticals 451
biotechnology
alliance networks 201
firms 412
markets for technology 230, 237
in Silicon Valley collaborations 201
Birkinshaw, J. 404
Black, F. 543
Blanchflower, D. G. 686
Blank, Arthur 718
Blue Ribbon Sports 526
Boeker, W. 400
boilerplate contracts 515
Borgatti, S. P. 296
Bosse, D. A. 465
Boston Red Sox 542
Boulder thesis 125
boundary objects 97
boundary-spanning roles 560–62
Bourdieu, Pierre 178
Bowling Alone (Putnam) 118
Boxenbaum, E. 123
Brandenburger, A. 74
Branscombe, N. 722
Branson, Richard 157, 718
Brau, J. C. 101
Breitzman, T. 227
Brem, A. 378
Breschi, S. 249
Bretschneider, U. 378
Bridges Ventures 553
Brighton, H. 521
Brin, Sergey 144
Bruni, A. 92
BumpTop 233
Bureau van Dyk 374
Burgers, K. 254
Burt, R. S. 44
business combinations 62–63
business model innovation (BMI) 569–82, 573t
and adaptation 580–81
and content 574
defined 569
design of models 575–78
and exploitation alliances 578–80
and network structure 570
operating of models 578–81
prior research on 570–74
structure of 574
business ownership 135, 136
business-to-business (B2B) platforms 578
business-to-consumer (B2C) platforms 578
Buttice, V. 27–28
buyer-supported user-industry spin-outs 495, 500
buyouts
secondary management 18, 22–23
C
Cagetti, M. 138
Calabrese, T. 464–65
Calgene 233
“California effect,” 204
Cambridge high-tech cluster 123
Camerer, C. 44
Campbell, A. 518
Campbell, B. A. 634
Campion, M. A. 716
Carayannis, E. G. 94
Cardinal, L. B. 634
Cardon, M. S. 206
Casamatta, C. 318
Case, Steve 718
cash-based alliances 442
Castellucci, F. 415
Catmull, Ed 547–50, 559, 564
causal initiation 46
Ceccagnoli, M. 622
Celera Genomics 558
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research 556
Chase Manhattan Bank 550–51, 564
Chen, J. 688
Chez Panisse 163–65
chief executive officer (CEO)
agent-CEO 681–97
founder as 13, 254
replacement of 254, 355
and secondary management buyouts 23
Chomsky, N. 525
Christensen, C. M. 461
Cicon, J. 101
Cisco 747
Clark, K. 61
Clark M. 290
clusters and clustering 205
and dyadic interactions 597
of firm networks 615
geographical factors in 122
high-technology clusters 123, 128
in shoe manufacturing 120
(p. 789) Coase, Ronald 63, 72
Coates, T. 127
Cockburn, I. M. 231
codification of knowledge 231
Coff, R. 233, 587, 589, 595
cognitive heuristics. See heuristic decision making
cognitive processes 770
Cohen, David 126
Cohen, W. M. 142, 227
cohesion argument 662
Cole, R. A. 697
Coleman, James 178, 761
collaborating for innovation 587–605
and dyadic interactions 597–99
interorganizational collaboration 588–93
and interplay of complementarities 594–97
primary configurations of 599–602
structural complementarities perspective on 593–94
collaboration 612
in asymmetric partnerships 410
barriers to 63–64
bilateral 612
and business model innovation 575–81
and cooperative commercialization strategies 2
coordination vs. 86
defined 569
as grounding 86
internal collaboration, future researchdirections for 743–45
and mergers/alliances 61
resource constraints in 591–92
risks of 478t484t
as source of advantage 69
and technology entrepreneurship 2
temporal architecture of 51t
collaboration-enabling platforms 569
collaboration in entrepreneurial finance 373–89
angel investors and 378, 379, 381t, 385t, 386, 387t388t
crowdfunding 377, 378, 379–380, 381t, 382t
future research, directions for 386–88
and Google Scholar research trends 374–76
key study summary 377–86
private equity and 377, 378, 379–380, 383t384t, 386t, 387t388t
technology parks and 378, 379, 382t, 383t, 385t
theoretical perspectives on 376–77
venture capital and 377, 378, 379–380, 383t384t, 387t388t
collaboration inside the firm 681–99
and finding managers 690–93
and growing relationships 693–97
and hiring managers 683–90
collaboration risks 472–73
collaboration stalemates 243–60
future research on 258–60
with inventors 248–49
with licensing firms 249–51
and milestone payments 256
resolving 257–58
strategies for avoiding 254–57
in technology commercialization 248–52
in technology licensing 252–54
collaborative entrepreneurship 758
collaborative market making 291, 292
collaborative networks 46, 571
collective entrepreneurship 758
collective producer identities 290
Colombo, M. 27–28
commercialization stage 733f
external collaboration during 739–40
and family founding teams 738–40
internal collaboration during 738–39
commercially viable academic spin-offs 21–22
common good social capital 179
communication
constitutive character in 85
defined 84
and dialogue 85
intersubjective 85
practices of 97
reaffirming 84–88
communicative accomplishment 88
constitutive/dialogic perspective in 88–89
and identity organization 88
and managerialism 89
and professionalism 89
communicative ambidexterity 84
(p. 790) communicative constitution of entrepreneurship 83–106
and communicative practices 96–102
and entrepreneurial ecosystems 92–96
and identity 88–92
and interorganizational relationships 98–102
and materiality 93–95
networks and collaboration in 95–96, 99–100
and representation vs. constitution 84–88
storytelling 100–102
and time/space coordination 97–98
communicative constitution of organization (CCO) 103–4
community social capital (CSC) 177–95
communitarian perspectives on 178–85
defined 179
and dynamic networking 177–95
and economic growth 179
empirical analysis of 185–88
and entrepreneurial outcomes 180
future research, directions for 188–89
and institutional entrepreneurship 193
measurements in 187–88, 188t
and nascent entrepreneurship 181
and networking 181
as sociocultural institution 193–94
studies in 182t, 183t, 184t
and trust 180
comparative approach 446–47
competitive dynamics 418–19
complementarity(-ies) 593, 599t
and asymmetric partnerships 400
and compatibility 405–6
and joint value 66–67
knowledge 448–49
resource 402, 416
CompuStudy 144
computer industry, market formation in 293
constellations, alliance 296, 297f, 397
contingent effect. See team composition and contingent effect
contract design 69, 209
contracting 514
barriers to 515–16
and heuristics in alliance collaboration 515–18
heuristics vs. 528–30
contracts
and asymmetric information 365–66
and collaboration in Silicon Valley 203–5, 208–9
formal and informal vs. 697
relational 364–65
theory of 202
control, paradox of. See paradox of control
convertible securities 203
Coolest Cooler 340–41
coordination 416
activity 97
in asymmetric partnerships 397, 409, 419
time and space 97–98
coordination frictions (venture capital syndicates) 353–68, 354t
asymmetric information 356–57
choice of partners 364–65
divergent incentives 359–60
entrepreneurs, effects/implications for 367–68
investment horizon/fundraising, differences in 361–62
and market cycles 362–63
mitigation strategies 364–67
nonlinear incentives 360–61
systematic differences in strategy 357–59
Cope, J. 158
corporate entrepreneurship 758
corporate logic 414
corporate sharks 619
corporate venture capital (CVC) 474
Corsten, D. 409, 441
Covin, J. G. 269
Crama, P. 256
creativity
and crowdfunding 332, 341, 342
and global networks 145
neuroscience of 525–26
and regulatory focus theory 202–3, 209, 216
Creativity, Inc. (Catmull) 550
Crosetto, P. 332
(p. 791) Crowdcube 336
crowdfunding 27–28, 329–46
and angel investors 381b
and capability development 342
debt-based 334
defined 330–31
equity-based 335
future research, directions for 342–45
Google Scholar trends in 375f
and market uncertainty 344
motives in 337f, 338t
other forms of financing vs. 338–42
and other funding models v. 339t
research on 336–38
rewards-based 331–34, 377
and social capital 28
and technological uncertainty 343
and technology parks 382b
and venture capital, advantages over 377–78
and venture capital equity 379b, 380b
Crunchbase 378
culture
of creativity 596
entrepreneurial 193, 376
family 761
founding, in firms 90
hunter-gatherer 163–64
interstice in 560
micro 769
national 756, 761–62
organizational 90, 471–72, 603, 735
of poverty 551
Cumming, D. J. 378, 386
customer relationships 635–36
quality of 638
research in 637t
customer transfer
and entry into entrepreneurship 638
and founding teams 640
and start-up performance 638–39
cutting partnerships 407
D
Dahl, M. 687
Dahlander, L. 517
Damasio, Antonio 520
Das, T. K. 472, 496, 500
Davis, B. C. 337
Davis, J. P. 522, 523
Dawes, R. M. 44
Debruyne, M. 20
Dechenaux, E. 256
decision heuristics. See heuristic decision making
decision rights 226, 233, 454 n.1, 602
De Clercq, D. 204–5
de-committing partnerships 407
decomposable problems 442
dedicated biotech firms (DBFs) 544
Deeds, D. L. 465, 471
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 281
defensive patenting 269
deliberate heuristics 522–23
in alliance collaboration 514, 523–27
effectiveness of 531
from experience 524
from theorizing 524–27
Dell 274
Delmar, E. 757
Deloitte 452
DeMers, J. 83
Demsetz, H. 592
DeNardi, M. 138
Dessein, W. 71
development paths 496
Dhanaraj, C. 412–13, 467, 765
dialogic engagement 97
cognitive effects of 775
defined 774
and knowledge exchange 775
as social mechanism of opportunity 774–76
Díaz Garcia, M-C. 92
Didi Chuxing 224
Diestre, L. 401
digital animation 547–50
digital mobility 576
Di Minin, A. 249
Dinckol, D. 295, 300
Ding, W. 249
(p. 792) Disney Animation 547
disruptive technologies 290
distributed negotiation strategy 254
diversification 357, 359, 376, 491
diversity, team. See team diversity
Doganova, L. 101
Dowling, M. 466, 470
Downing, S. 90
Doz, Y. L. 413, 471, 765
drag-along rights 367
Drori, I. 105
Dushnitsky, G. 230
Duysters, G. 439
DVD technology 278
dyadic alliances 293–96, 294t, 302
large–large firm alliances 295–96
large–small firm alliances 294–95
and market formation 293
dyadic relationships 597–99
brainstorm 601
contest 600
dictatorship 600
primary configurations of 599
suggestion-box 601–2
Dyer, J. 62, 440
dynamic capabilities, in mergers/alliances 61
dynamic capabilities framework 465
dynamic networking 157–72
case examples of 162–67
and drivers of change 161–62
future research, directions for 170–71
prior research on 159–62
Dyson, James 162
Dyson Technologies 162, 165–67
E
eBay 682
Ebel, P. 575
Ebers, M. 410
EBSCO database 571
ecological momentary assessment 777
ecological rationality 520, 531
economic growth
and division of innovative labor 227
reverse engineering as driver of 105
in Silicon Valley 117
spin-outs and 489
syndicates and 335
economic theory of the entrepreneur 66, 71
economies of scale 64, 67, 75, 302, 468
ecosystems
entrepreneurial (see entrepreneurial ecosystems)
promotion-focused 209–14
in Silicon Valley 205–6
Edmondson, A. 772, 776
Eesley, C. 205
effectuation 36, 171
of control 38–41
and goals 36
of incubators 48–50
initiation, effectual 46
of networks 39–41, 40f, 168, 171
paradoxes in 37–38
theory of 3
Einstein, Albert 547
Eisenhardt, K. M. 61, 69, 144, 169, 233, 295, 401, 403, 404–5, 410, 519, 522, 523, 524, 525, 532
El Bulli restaurant 543–44
Electrolux 167
Elfring, T. 99, 159
Eli Lilly 412–13, 467, 765
Ellison, Larry 682
emerging organizations 99, 187
EMI 270
employee autonomy 588
employee spin-outs 494–95, 499
empowered communicators 84
endogeneity 346, 420, 594, 641, 646
endorsements
and asymmetric partnerships 400
and larger firms 465–66
enterprise discourse 89
enterprise risk 317
entrepreneurial action
and bonding 768
and emotion 766
and external factors 761
future research, directions for 766–68
and habit 767
(p. 793)
macro-to-micro methodology 768–69
sense of commitment 767
entrepreneurial behavioral intentions 709–10, 709f
entrepreneurial clusters 120–22
existing entrepreneurs, role of 123
and incumbent firms 120–22
entrepreneurial ecosystems 95, 125
antecedents for 756
cultivation, methods of 95
entrepreneurial exploration 665, 668
entrepreneurial finance
collaboration, forms of 376–77
Google Scholar trends in 374–76, 375f
entrepreneurial firms 489
attentional challenges for 517–18
barriers to trust-based alliances in 516–17
and liquidity events 321–22
entrepreneurial image 705
entrepreneurial impression management 100
entrepreneurial networks 95–96
entrepreneurial process
antecedents of 762
macro-Level inducements of 762–66, 763t, 764t
and venture capital 765
entrepreneurial recycling 125–26
entrepreneurship
and building institutions 122–28
and charitable donations 706, 719
and client relations 635
as collaborative phenomenon 755
and customer relationships, research in 637t
and customer transfer 638
as disruption 139
embedded in place 118–20
and geographic location 93–94
as heroics 17
individual and collective research in 757–58
“lone wolf” entrepreneur 681
and materiality 93–95
nascent 178
non-western conceptions of 104–5
and reciprocity 714–15
rural 94
social 126
and social capital 118–19
and spin-out firms 491, 502–4
entrepreneurship theory
and communication 87
and incubators 49
entrepreneur value capital 620f
entry
barriers to 225, 300, 589t
and customer transfer 638–40
and intellectual property 275
and internal collaboration 738
and start-up exit strategies 225
and technology 231–32
timing of 341–42, 344
environmental dynamism 522, 669
Eppler, M. J. 575
equity investments 25
and crowdfunding 335
and equity alliances 274
and multiple partners 278
partial 293
and venture capital syndication 25–26
equity joint ventures 496
equity partnerships 442
equity providers 26
Ertug, G. 415
Esparza, N. 292
European Private Equity and Venture Capital Association 316
Evans, David 547
evolutionary perspective 45, 52, 126, 575
Ewens, M. 362
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation 185
exit policies 203
exit strategies 223–39
and commercialization strategies for start-ups 226t
and early collaboration 237, 238t
and markets for technology 230–31
and patents 231–32
and profiting from innovation 225–26
and technology market failure 228–29
and timing of selling out 232–38
types of 224
exogenous shock 123, 420, 693
experimentation strategy 358
(p. 794) exploitation alliances 469, 578–80
exploration, exploitation vs. 663
exploration alliances 469
expropriation risks 230
external collaboration, future research directions for 745–46
external investors
and family founding teams 739–40
and family founding teams, establishing trust with 745–46
external resources
of asymmetric partnerships 400
and large-firm performance 415
external stakeholders 579
Eyquem-Renault, M. 101
F
Fabrizio, K. R. 249
Facebook 233, 275, 553
Fadell, Tony 275
failure 41, 101, 206, 209–13, 603–4, 776
Fairchild Semiconductor 127, 494–95
family founding teams 731–48
and advisers to 746
changes in 738–39
commercialization, collaboration during 738–40
decision making 735
and early venture advisers 737–38
and external investors 739–40
and external investors, establishing trust with 745–46
and family conflict 738
future research, directions for 734t, 743–47
growth and exit, collaboration during 740–43
and mergers and acquitions 741–42
and personal ties 735
professionalization of 739
research methodology on 746–47
seed stage, collaboration during 732–38
and shared experiences 735
fast and frugal heuristics 514, 520–22
FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) 555
Feld, Brad 125
Feldman, M. P. 123
Felin, T. 524, 525, 526
Fern, M. J. 634
Ferris, S. P. 101
Figueiredo, O. 119
Filippelli, M. 475
filmmaking 547–50
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) 335
financial performance 413
financial scarcity 529
FINRA (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority) 335
firm embeddedness 475–76
firm performance
and asymmetric partnerships 412–17
as stream 398
firms
founding culture in 90
as resources 68
and scientists, collaboration with 646
spin-out 489–505
firm size 9, 437, 443, 453
first-mover advantages 64, 419
Fisher, Donald 144
Fisher, Doris 144
Fisher, G. 545
Fitbit 329
Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. 296
Flickr 747
Fligstein, N. 300
Folta, T. B. 407
Ford, Henry 121
foreign markets 554, 615, 684, 687, 694–95
Forman, C. 622
Formula One 415
Fosfuri, A. 227, 228, 236
Foss, N. J. 776
foundations
founder-manager 681, 686, 689
founders
and contracts 697
defined 683
(p. 795)
and familial/marital ties 731
female 692
and foreign businesses 695
and hired management, conflict with 693
hiring management, motives for 688
and hiring management 687f
lead founders 643
management relationships 694
psychological preferences of 692
Founders Collective 359
Founders Fund 358
founding teams
changes in 738–39
and customer transfer 640
decision making 735–36
family and friends 142–43
and global exposure 145–46
and interpersonal trust 736
and local control 145–46
and professional services 635
recruiting 733–35
social relationships in 142–43
Foursquare 232–33
Fox (network) 274
Fox, J. T. 646
Foxconn 275
Francis, J. 123
Frankenberger, K. 577
freedom to operate 271
free-rider problem 365
Friedman, L. M. 204, 208, 209
Frydrych, D. 345
funding
and collaborative efforts 18
diffused 339
G
Gaissmaier, W. 514, 518, 522
Galunic, D. C. 61
Gambardella, A. 224, 227–28
GameChanger 494
Ganco, M. 634, 690
Gans, J. S. 225, 226t, 229, 230, 235, 237, 270
Gao, J. 24
Gap, The 144
Gargiulo, M. 280
Garicano, L. 71
Gates, Bill 144
Gates Foundation 553, 557
Gauthier, D. 43
Genentech 556
generalized complementary assets 622
generic assets 616
George, G. 517
Gertner, R. 71
Gescheit, Illai 683
Gherardi, S. 92
Ghoshal, S. 178
Giarratana, M. S. 228
Gibbons, R. 72
Gigerenzer, G. 514, 518, 520, 521, 522, 526, 529, 530
Gilead 233
Gill, R. 91
Giuri, P. 227–28
givers, matchers, and takers model 722
Gjerløv-Juel, P. 684, 688, 689
Glancee 233
globalization 268
Global Payments 275
Glynn, M. A. 292
goal-driven networking 157
goal-oriented networking 168
GoFundMe 331
Gollwitzer, P. M. 713, 719
Gomes-Casseres, B. 68, 297
Gomez-Mejia, L. R. 687
Gompers, P. 362, 634
Google 63, 144, 233, 274, 275, 278, 281, 300, 543, 601, 682
Google Ventures 274
governance
and business model innovation 574
mechanisms of 472–73
with mergers and alliances 70–73
and small firms and alliances 441–43, 446f, 447f, 450f
and spin-out firms 496
government
competitions sponsored by 281–82
market-augmenting 43
trust in 42
governmental resources 24
Graebner, M. E. 233
grandstanding 362
Grant, A. M. 714, 722
Greenwood, R. 124
Grégoire, D. A. 770
Grigoriou, K. 415
growth, economic. See economic growth
growth and exit stage 733f
and initial public offering 742–43
mergers and acquisitions during 741–42
and strategic partnerships 740–41
growth-oriented policy 136
Groysberg, B. 638
guanxi 24
Guimaraes, P. 119
Gulati, R. 161, 292, 364, 414, 416, 741
Gurses, K. 299, 301
H
Haas, M. R. 517
Hale, Victoria 547, 555–59
Hallen, B. L. 169
Hamilton, K. 227
Hardy, C. 86
Harrison, R. T. 125, 127
Hart, Oliver 72
Harvard Business Review 550
Harvard Business School 550
Haveman, H. 299
Hayek, F. A. 590
He, I. Y. 472
Heeley, M. B. 269
Hegde, D. 232, 237
Heidl, R. 615
Helfat, C. E. 580
Hellmann, T. 357, 359
Henderson, R. 61
Henkel, J. 251
Hennart, J. F. 72
Herding behavior 336
Hernandez, Pacini 555
Hesterly, W. S. 296
heuristic decision making 519t, 529f
challenges in studying 531–32
contracts and trust vs. 528–30
employing 530
negative view of 519
heuristics in alliance collaboration 95, 513–33
attentional challenges with 515–18
and biases 519–20
contracting challenges with 515–18
deliberative heuristics 522–23
fast and frugal approaches to 514, 520–22
and origins of deliberate heuristics 523–27
research agenda for 527–32
trust challenges with 515–18
Hewlett Packard 119
Hicks, D. 227
hierarchies in small firms and alliances 442
Higgins, M. C. 403–4, 414
high-technology clusters 123, 128. See also Silicon Valley
Hill, C. W. L. 270, 465, 471
Hills, G. E. 722
hired top manager 683
Hirsch, P. M. 545, 561–62
Hirschfeld, James 735
Hitt, M. A. 735
Hoang, H. 466
Hobbes, Thomas 43
Hodgson, G. 760
Hoffman, R. 686
Hoffmann, F. 575
Hollywood 120, 545, 550
Holman, R. 127
Holmstorm, Bengt 72
Honig, B. 105
Honoré, F. 634, 690
Hooker, John Lee 554
Hoover 167
Hopkins, Lightnin’ 554
hotel associations 299
Howard, M. 412–13, 467, 765
HSBC 275
Hsiao, R-L. 98
Hsu, D. H. 225, 235, 237, 321, 368, 407
Huang, J. 84
Huang, P. 622
Hulsink, W. 99, 159
Hulu 274
human capital 20, 201, 542, 561, 631, 649, 775
human resource management (HRM) 489
(p. 797) Huy, Q. N. 404
Hybels, R. C. 466
hybrid networking 158, 168
I
IBM 61, 273
idea generation
and incentives 593
quality and quantity vs. 592
Silicon Valley collaborations 208
ideas, brand new 60
identification
756 401
of agglomeration economies 121
group 42
partner 401
of potential buyers and sellers 230
identity and communicative constitution of entrepreneurship 88–92
Im, H-G. 98
imagination 525
Imagination Technologies 273
incentives 121
absence of 228
aligning 366–67
and alliances 441
at Apple 596
and asymmetric partnerships 407–8, 414
autonomy 598
divergent 359–60
and hired managers 694
importance of studying 324
inspiration through 592–95
and mergers 71
nonlinear 360–63
and relational contracts 364
and technology 231
venture capital 8, 318–19, 355
incentives-sponsorship 597–98
inclusion 771
incubator(s) 501
best practices for 94
blueprint for effectual 48–50
“bottom-up,” 126
cultivation of nascent companies by 95
and parent-backed spin-outs 494
Western strategies for 105
Indiegogo 331
individual action mechanisms 760
individual entrepreneurial conjectures
creation of 769
and relational engagement 771–72
individuals, as organizational actors 47
individual spin-out firms 489
industrial organization perspective 59, 66
industry architecture 404
industry spin-out firms 489
informational scarcity 529
Ingram, P. 299
initial public offerings (IPOs) 100, 413, 503, 547, 741–42
and larger firms 466
and liquidity events 321–22
and Silicon Valley collaborations 204
Inman, C. 299
inner-circle 164
innovation
in amphibious entrepreneurship 542
barriers to 225, 300, 589t
and collaboration 11–12
and efficiency 598
exit strategies and profiting from 225–26
inspiring efforts in 592–93
knowledge problems in 590–91
and sponsorship 591 See also collaborating for innovation
innovation-related value creation 621
innovative labor, markets for technology and trends in 227–28
innovativeness 603
Institute for One World Health (IOWH) 556–58
Institute of Brewing Studies 292
institutional entrepreneurship 123, 124, 193
institutional logics
in asymmetric partnerships 397
in large firms 414
institutional theory 43, 193, 346, 774
institutions 117–30
entrepreneurs embedded in 118–20
entrepreneurs involved in building of 122–28
and role of incumbent firms 120–22
(p. 798) integrative negotiation strategy 254
Intel 68, 274, 494
intellectual property (IP) 267–82, 616
and acquisitions 275
and alliances 272–75
and appropriation 617
and collaboration stalemates 247–48, 251
and equity alliances 274
and freedom to operate 271
future research, areas for 282
and globalization 268
and joint ventures 274–75
and management 281–82
managerial implications 281–82
and markets for technology 225
patent strategies 272–75
protection mechanisms of 473
protection of 618
research implications 279–81
and spin-out firms 495–96
strategic considerations with 275–79
strategic objectives of 268–71
intentionality 191
intentions and theory of planned behavior 713
intentions-based model of prosocial behavior 705–26
contributions of, to practice 724
contributions of, to theory 721–23
and coping with guilt 716–17
effects of delay in 718–19
future research, directions for 724–25
and gaining social status in 717–18
intentions vs. behavior in 713–20
“overrewarded,” reducing feelings of being 715–16
prior research 709–10
reciprocity in 714–15
and theory of planned behavior 711–13
intention-to-behavior relationship 713–14, 718–19
interactive perspective of entrepreneurial opportunity 759
intercollaboration rivalry 470
internal capabilities 413, 415
internal collaboration, future research directions for 743–45
internal reorganization 411
international strategy theory 699
interorganizational relationships
managing 98–99
networking 99
storytelling 100
interpersonal dynamics 663
intersubjective communication 85
Intille, S. S. 768
intra-industry spin-offs 495, 634
intrapreneurship 139, 590
inventions 223
inventors, collaboration stalemates with 248–49
IOWH (Institute for One World Health) 556–58
iPad 60, 300
iPhone 60, 300
iPod 60, 300
Itenbert, O. 378
iTunes 61
J
Jack, S. 119
Jahera, J. S. 378
Jain, N. 269
Jap, S. D. 442
Jefferson Airplane 554
Jensen, M. C. 590, 592
Jensen, M. R. H. 378
Jensen, P. H. 255
Jobs, Steve 60–61
Johan, S. 378, 386
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions 555
Johnstone, H. 94
joint value 66
competitive advantage of 67
and complementarity 66
creation 75
creation of 66–69
governing 76
in mergers and alliances 66–69
sharing 76
joint ventures and intellectual property 274–75
(p. 799) Jones, C. 296
Jones, Elvin 554
Joplin, Janis 554
Josefy, M. 336
Joshi, A. 269, 659
Jumpstart Our Business Startups act 330
K
Kahneman, D. 514, 519, 520, 530
Kaiser Permanente 600
Kalaignanam, K. 466
Kale, P. 409, 440, 441
Kaplan, S. N. 317, 682
Kapoor, R. 205
Kargon, R. 122
Katango 233
Katila, R. 400–401
Katz, J. 94
Kauppila, O-P. 441
Keiller, T. 252
Kelly, S. 468
Kerr, W. 359
Kesan, J. P. 251
Khanna, T. 448
Khosla, Vinod 685
Kickstarter 329, 331
Kim, J. W. 403–4
Kim, P. H. 99, 256
Kim, Y.-C. 258
King, B. B. 555
Kirzner, I. M. 141
Kiva.com 334
Kleiner, Eugine 127
Kleiner Perkins venture fund 127
Klueter, T. 230
Knight, F. H. 141
Knight, Phil 526, 530
knowledge
appropriation of 617–19
complementarities of 448–49
dispersion of 267
industries, knowledge-intensive 469
relatedness of 615
transfer of 633–35
Knudsen, T. 760
Kogut, B. 441, 467–68
Koh, J. 468, 470
Kondratiev, N. D. 665
Kondratiev’s wave 665
Korsgaard, S. 94
Kotha, R. 256, 258
Kotha, S. 545
Kramer, R. M. 746
Kroyer, Victoria 164
Kulchina, E. 682, 683, 684, 688, 689, 692, 694, 696
L
labor markets and geographical boundaries 647
Lahiri, A. 545
Lam, P. T. I. 378
large-firm performance
in asymmetric partnerships 414–16
growth in 417–18
large firms
cost benefits of 468
critical resources of 464–65
and division of labor 467–68
and legitimacy 465–66
small firms and alliances vs. 397–98, 443–51
larger partners, collaboration with 461–84
benefits and risks of 463f
benefits of 464–68
future research, directions for 472–77
methodology 462–64
risks of 468–72
Larson, A. 409
“late mover,” “first mover” vs. 419
Law, A. O. K. 378
Lawrence, T. 86
lead founders 643
learned behavior 766
learning 467. See also knowledge transfer
Leca, B. 123
Lechner, C. 466, 470, 475
Lee, B. H. 301
Lee, C-F. 98
Lee, K. 639
Lee, L-E. 638
legal costs 514
Leiblein, M. J. 439, 441, 442
Leimeister, J. M. 378
Lenovo 63
(p. 800) Lerner, J. 407, 634
LeRouge, C. 716
Leslie, S. 122
leveraging approach to patenting 269–70
Levinthal, D. A. 142
Lewicki, R. J. 746
Lewis, Michael 542–43
Lewis, P. 91
license-based alliances 442
licensing
collaboration stalemates in 252–54
and markets for technology 226–28
limited liability corporations 553
Lin, J. W. 697
Lindenberg, S. 776
LinkedIn 223–24
Linux 300
Lionais, D. 94
Lissoni, F. 249
Local Motors 282
Lorenzoni, G. 68
Los Lobos 555
Lucas, George 549–50
Lucasfilm 549–50
Lufthansa 296
Lumpkin, G. T. 709
Lunar Xprize 281
Luo, H. 232, 237
Luzzi, A. 227–28
Lyles, M. 412–13, 467, 765
Lyons, T. 124
M
Ma, Yo-Yo 560
MacGarvie, M. J. 231
Macharia, M. 84
Macher, J. T. 442
Madsen, T. L. 439
Maertz, C. P. 716
Maine, E. 224
Makadok, R. 587, 589, 595
mall firms and alliances 444, 446
malperformance 471
management teams
finding 690–93, 691f
and homogenous teams 690
managerial burden, with larger firms 471–72
Mann, Michael 560
Mantere, S. 101
March, J. G. 561
market-augmenting government 43
market formation 289–304
and alliance forms 292–93
alliance forms and 292–93
alliance networks and 296–300
and collaborative actions 300–302
collective action and 300–302
and collective producer identities 290
dyadic alliances and 293–96
and market uncertainty 291t
and regulatory uncertainty 290, 291t, 292
“market for partnerships” view 418
markets for technology 6–7, 223–39
adverse selection problem in 230
appropriability regimes in 232
and codification of knowledge 231
current directions in 230–31
expropriation risks in 230
future research, directions for 238–40
intermediaries in 231
and labor 227–28
moral hazards in 229
and patents 231–32
problems with 247–48
problem with 247–48
and protection of knowledge 231
and selling out 232–38
and semiconductors 230
supply side 227, 290, 291t, 292
and technology market failure 228–29
and timing 233–37
and trends in innovative labor 227–28 See also exit strategies
market uncertainty
and crowdfunding 344
and market formation 291t
supply uncertainty 290, 291t, 292
Marlow, S. 96
Marshall, B. B. 378
Marx, M. 235, 407
Mason, C. M. 125, 127
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 224
(p. 801) matching model estimation
future research, directions for 647
knowledge and customer transfer 648t
and team assembly 641
usage 641–44, 642t, 643f
materiality
capabilities 94
and entrepreneurship 93–95
MathWorks 282
Mattersight 279
Matusik, S. F. 269
Maurer, I. 410
maximum score estimator 646
Mayer, K. 69, 208
McAdam, M. 96
McDonalds 146
McKeever, E. 119
McNamee, T. 163
Means, G. C. 203
Meckling, W. H. 590, 592
medical device firms 412
mentor relationship 160
mergers and acquisitions 59–75, 741–42
and asset remix 60–66
and creation of joint value 66–69
dynamic capabilities in 61
and family ownership 741–42
and governance 70–73
and sharing value 73–75
and socio-emotional wealth 742
Metropolitan Statistical Area 645
Meuleman, M. 20
microbreweries 292
microfoundations of collaboration 755–77, 761f
and collective antecedents of individual action 762, 765–69
and creation of individual entrepreneurial conjectures 769–72
and multilevel mechanisms 760–62, 763t764t
and need for network 756–57
and opportunity exploitation 772–77
prior research 756–59
micro-level cognitive processes 755
Microsoft 144, 224, 275, 300
micro-to-micro mechanisms 756
Middle Market Services 452
Migicovsky, Eric 329
milestone payments and collaboration stalemates 256
Milgram, S. 527
Milgrom, P. 66, 592
Mindruta, D. 448, 646
minority equity alliances 496
Minshall, T. 470, 472
Mintzberg, H. 517, 525
Mitchell, W. 465
Mitra, S. 234–35, 237
Mitsubishi 274
MIT Technology Licensing Office 245
Mobifile 683
Moeen, M. 228, 448
Moghaddam, K. 465, 466, 471
Mohlmann, M. 299
Mollick, E. 332
Moneyball (Lewis) 542–43
Montobbio, F. 249
Moore, J. F. 205
Mora, G. C. 546
moral hazards 229
Mortara, L. 470
Motorola 63, 275
Mowery, D. A. 440
MP3 players 300
Muendler, M-A. 636
Müller, E. 231
Muller, S. 94
multilevel 74–75, 192, 756, 760–62
multinational corporations (MNCs) 404
multipartner alliances 293
Musk, Elon 718
mutual dependence 470
Myint, Y. M. 123
N
Nahapiet, J. 178
Nalebuff, B. J. 74
Nanda, R. 332, 359, 362
nascent entrepreneurship 178
nascent markets, market formation and 290
National Center for Charitable Statistics 186
National Center for the Middle Market 452
National Crowdfunding Association 330
(p. 802) National Federation of Independent Businesses 437
National Public Radio 555
National Science Foundation 185
National Venture Capital Association 366, 367
Navis, C. 292
NBC 274
negotiation strategies 254
Nelson, R. R. 122
neoliberal economic policies 89
neoliberal heroes 94
Nerkar, A. 269
Nest 275, 278
Netflix 281, 294
net-present value (NPV) 363
networks and networking
actions of 160–61
and community social capital 181
effectual 168
goal-driven 157
goal-oriented 168
hybrid 158, 168
and personality 161
serendipitous 164
and social capital 4–6
and start-ups 147
strategic 159
structure of 579 See also dynamic networking
New, M. J. 123
Newell, S. 84
new firms 40f, 117–22, 157, 187, 355, 636
new years resolutions 718
New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) 548
New York Yankees 542
Nickerson, J. A. 442
Nike 526
Nobel Prize 72
Noel, M. 269
Nokia 300
nonequity alliances and intellectual property 273–74
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 99, 558
nonmanaging founder 682, 686
non-monetary contributions from venture capital firms 318–19
nonmonotonic curvilinear relationships 656
nonpecuniary benefit motive 689
nonpredictive control 48
nonprofit pharmaceutical firms 555–59
nonprofit venture capital 550–54
Norbäck, P. J. 235
Nortel 275
North, Douglas 43
Novogratz, Jacqueline 547, 550–54, 559, 564
NYIT (New York Institute of Technology) 548
O
Oakland A’s 542, 543, 544
Olivastro, D. 227
Omidyar, Pierre 682
Omidyar Network 553
O’Neill, H. M. 634
one-off collaboration 570
one-off entrepreneurial acts 20
Onitsuka 526, 530
online forums 194
open innovation in mergers/alliances 61
opportunism 473
in asymmetric partnerships 397
defined 42
and trust 42–45
opportunity
costs 13, 52, 362, 685, 688–89
generation and exploitation of 759
identification process 755
refinement 773–74 See also opportunity development
opportunity development
cognitive mechanisms of 769–71
knowledge structures in 770
and presentness 772
and relational engagement 771
theories of 770
optimal matching analysis 776
options theory 65
Oracle 682
(p. 803) organizational citizenship behavior 707, 708, 723
organizational forms 22–23, 72, 564, 588, 723
organizational learning 467
organizational spin-out firms 489
organizational theory 397
organization formation 19
Orlikowski, W. 98
Ornati, O. A. 68
Orsenigo, L. 122
Oswald, A. J. 686
overdependence 470
overlap in small firms and alliances 440
overpayment inequity 715
overreward 715–16
Oxley, J. 694
Ozcan, P. 69, 292, 295, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301, 404–5, 410
P
Padgett, John 563
Page, Larry 144, 682
Pahnke, E. C. 414
Palangkaraya, A. 255
Palmieri, Eddie 554
Palo Alto, California 204
Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) 178, 181, 186t
paradox of control 35–53
and control as strategy 38
and control through collaboration 39–42
examples of 37–38
overcoming 53
prior research on 35–37
research agenda for 50–52
and trust vs. opportunism in human behavior 42–45
paradox of embeddedness 124
parent-backed spin-outs 494
parented-backed spin-out-parent relationship 497–99
Park, H. D. 414
partnerships, asymmetric. See asymmetric partnerships
partnerships, evolution of 407
partner-specific absorptive capacity 448–49
passive knowledge flows 613–14
“patent chits,” 269
patents (patenting)
defensive 269
and exit strategies 231–32
leveraging approach to 269–70
pools, patent 274, 278
proprietary 268–69
publications vs. 248–49
return on 267
strategies for 272–75
Patriotta, G. 545, 561–62
Patzelt, H. 759, 760
“pay it back” mentality 715
pay-to-play 366–67
PDAs 297
PE (private equity) 23, 377
Pebble Watch 329
Pennings, J. M. 639
Penrose, Edith 63, 72
People Analytics (Google) 543
performance
financial 413
large-firm 414–18
levels of 449
mal- 471
small firm 412–18, 474
personal identity
cultivation of 90–91
and entrepreneurial activities 89–90
and gender 91–92
and networking 161
person-to-person (P2P) platforms 578
Persson, L. 235
Pfleiderer, P. 356
pharmaceutical firms 415
pharmaceutical sector 295
Phelps, C. 615
Phillips, D. J. 636
Phillips, N. 86
Piazza, A. 546
PIGS nations 136
(p. 804) Pisano, G. P. 451
Pitchbook 374
Pixar 447, 550
planned divestments 491
platform-based collaboration 569
platforms 205, 299–300
Poggio, B. 92
Polanyi, M. 614
portfolio-based loans 334
portfolio diversity 415
Posco 602
Potter, D. R. 206
Powell, W. W. 467, 468, 577
power asymmetry 415
Prahalad, C. K. 67
Prashantham, S. 404
precommitment 46–47, 158
applications in collaboration 48–50
and decision making 47
and nonnegotiable constraints 48
preemptive strike 65
prevention focus 206–7
PricewaterhouseCoopers 316
principal-agent relationships 211–12, 693, 695, 697
prior employment and spin-out firms 491–92
private equity (PE) 23, 377
Probert, D. 470
problem-solving perspective 446
process dynamics
of asymmetric partnerships 406–12, 426t427t
as stream 398
process dynamics stream 398
Procter & Gamble 279, 600
product development 412, 471
productive capabilities and small firms and alliances 444, 445t, 448
professional networks 448
promotion focus 206–7
promotion-focused ecosystems 209–14
property rights 712
proprietary patenting 268–69
prosocial behavior
contributions to practice of 724
entrepreneur engagement in, reasoning for 720–21
and entrepreneurs 705–7
future research, directions for 724–25
and gaining social status 717–18
and guilt 716–17
and intention-to-behavior relationship 718
theory contributions to 721–22
Prosper.com 334
Provance, M. 465
Pruthi, S. 24
public sector 550, 571–72
Puente, Tito 554–55
Punchtab 359
Puranam, P. 68
Putnam, R. D. 118, 179
Q
Qin, F. 24
Qualcomm 273
R
Raffiee, J. 632, 634, 639
Ragozzino, R. 321–22
Rajagopalan, N. 401
random-interruption diary methods 768
randomized control trials (RCTs) 259
Ransbotham, S. 234–35, 237
Rauch, J. E. 636, 638
Ravid, S. A. 204
Reagans, R. E. 146
Receptos 233
reciprocity 714–15
recognition heuristic 521
Reddit 194
Redford, Robert 545
Reed, Jimmy 554
regional growth 124, 126, 203
regional industry 120
Regner, T. 332
regulatory focus theory (RFT) 202, 206–7
regulatory uncertainty 290, 292
(p. 805) Reitzig, M. 68
relational capital 773
relational contracts 364
relational engagement 771
relational resources 640
relational view 69–70, 516, 576
relationship advantage 69
relationship management 69, 410, 471
remix strategy 62
and governing collaboration 70
options in 65–66
and resource combination 67
Remix Strategy (Gomes-Casseres) 59
Renz, D. 127
reputational networks 466
research and development (R&D) 442, 451
for amphibious entrepreneurship 544, 559
and collaboration 472
intensity of 614
and larger partners 464–65
and organizational learning 467
and spin-out firms 494
resource access explanation 465
resources
allocation of 454 n.1, 592
combination of 69
complementarity of 416
dependency theory 293
endowments of 417
interdependence of 398–402
overlap of 402
providers of 22, 95, 404
scarcity of 529–30
returnee omnipotence 23–25
and informal networks 24
myth of 23–25
Reuer, J. J. 321–22
Rhee, M. 258
Rhodes-Kropf, M. 362
rights allocation 415–16
Rigtering, J. C. 292
Ring, P. S. 410
risk aversion 253, 253f
risk of appropriation 469–70
risk sharing 468
rival capabilities 64
rivalry, intercollaboration 470
Rivkin, J. W. 522
Robbins, C. 224
Roberts, J. 66, 592
Rochford, E. B. 546
Rockefeller Foundation 552
Roh, H. 659
Rønde, T. 236
Rosas, Cesar 555
Rose, N. 89
Rossman, G. 292
Roth, A. E. 228
Rothaermel, F. T. 400, 415
Roundy, P. T. 233
Rousseau, D. M. 44
Roxas, H. B. 189
Royal College of Art 165
rural entrepreneurship 94
S
SageTV 233
Sahlman, W. A. 204
Sakakibara, M. 227
Sampson, R. C. 439, 441, 442
San Diego CONNECT program 127
San Francisco, California 201. See also Silicon Valley
Santana, Carlos 547, 554–55, 559, 563
Santos, F. M. 296
Sapienza, H. J. 204–5
Sarasvathy, S. D. 514
Satell, G. 83
scale economies 439
Scanlan, T. J. 561
scarcity
attentional 528–30
financial 529
informational 529
resource 529–30
SCF (Survey of Consumer Finance) 137
Schankerman, M. 269
Scharfstein, D. 634
Schelling, T. C. 47
Schildt, H. 101
Schilling, M. 63–64, 280
Schoen, A. 251
Scholes, M. 543
(p. 806) Schoonhoven, C. B. 144, 401, 403
Schreiner, M. 409, 441
Schumpeter, Joseph 3, 61, 146, 461
and business combinations 63
and business ownership 139
and entrepreneurship 59, 65
and governing collaboration 70
Schumpeterian entrepreneurs 147
Schure, Alex 548
Schure, P. 359
Schwartz, B. 531
Scott, Michael 682
search heuristics 521
Sea Truck 165
Sebrek, S. 228
secondary management buyout (SMBO) 22–23
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 335
seed stage 733f
attracting experience during 733
collaboration during 732–33
and uncertainty 732
Seibert, S. E. 709, 722
selection phase, of collaboration 577–78
self-employment 136
and labor force detachment 137
selling out 232–38
Sen, A. 43
sensemaking 206, 745–46
Sensoy, B. A. 682
sequential attention in asymmetric partnerships 410–11
Sequoia Capital 358
Serrano, C. J. 231
Sewell, W. H. 564
Shan, W. 467–68
Shankar, V. 466
shared asset for value creation 620f
shared language 504
sharing economy, and market formation 292
Sharing Economy Trade Association (SEUK) 299
sharing value
issues in 74
and mergers/alliances 73–75
“shark” behaviors 401–2, 403
Sharp 275
Shaw, J. D. 84
Shell 494
Shepherd, D. A. 171, 533, 714, 759, 760, 770
Shockley Laboratories 127
Short, J. C. 337
Shrieve, Mike 554
Siemens 494
Silicon Valley 93, 201–16
Boston vs. 201
Chicago vs. 201
ecosystems in 205–6
facilitative law in 204
future research, directions for 215–16
information technology collaborations in 201
and promotion-focused ecosystems 209–14
and regulation 202
and regulatory focus theory 206–7
relationship/contractual differences in 208–9
and risk mitigation 213
staged financing in 203
and venture capital contracting 203–5
and venture capital ecosystems 205–6
Silicon Valley collaborations
agency in 204
and coaching 205
and convertible securities 203
covenants in 203
Silva, O. 119
Silverman, B. S. 464–65
Simon, H. A. 45, 46, 517, 525
Simonin, B. L. 448
Simple Rules (Eisenhardt and Sull) 525
Sine, W. 299, 301
Singh, H. 62, 440
Singh, K. 465
Sirmon, D. G. 735
Sitkin, S. M. 44
situational or downward causation mechanisms 760
small firm performance
an asymmetric partnerships 412–14
growth in 417–18
and larger firms 474
(p. 807) small firms and alliances 437–54
future research, directions for 453–54
government agencies of 452
large firms vs. 397–98, 443–51
organizational attributes of 444, 448
and productive capabilities 444, 445t, 446
special capabilities of 439–41
theoretical background 438–43
smartphones 300
SMBO (secondary management buyout) 22–23
Smith, Adam 42, 43, 46
Smith, E. E. 378
Snihur, Y. 577
Snow, D. A. 546
social bonding, in asymmetric partnerships 409–10
social capital 27
and collaborative relationships 619
and crowdfunding 28
and entrepreneurship 126
and firm dissolution 639
and generic complementary assets 619–20
and knowledge flows 619
and regional resources 126
and social position 123 See also community social capital
Social Capital Index 185
social construction 126, 344
social diversity 141
benefits of 141
risks of 141
social embeddedness and market formation 293
social entrepreneurship 126
social movements and market formation 292, 301
social networks
and asymmetric partnerships 402–4
and heuristics in alliance collaboration 527, 530
social psychology 419, 722
social relations and start-up performance 135–49
founding teams 142–47
prior conceptualizations of 138–40
social diversity, risks/benefits of 141
social/material factors 140–41
social reputation 475
socio-emotional wealth 741
software industry 471
Somaya, D. 268
Soppe, B. 470
Sorenson, O. 687, 773
Soule, S. A. 545–46
The Sources of Social Power 560
Sparrow 233
spillovers 562
entrepreneurial 758
knowledge 117, 451, 503, 614, 620
measuring 563
spin-out firms 489–505, 493t, 498t, 638
academic spin-outs 501–2
and collaborative relationships 496
and corporations 492
and entrepreneurship research 502–4
future research, directions for 502–5
and interorganizational collaboration 496
and interpersonal collaboration 496
oversight of 497
parent, relationship with 496–500
parent companies, relationship with 496–500
and prior employment 491–92
spinoff vs. 491
spin outs defined 490–91
typology of 492–96
Spiro, J. 527
sponsorship and autonomy 597–99
Srivastava, S. B. 161
standard-setting consortia 297
Stanford Office of Technology Licensing 245
Stanford Social Innovation Review 556
Stanford University 258, 526, 551
Star Alliance 68, 296
start-up(s)
adviser/investor networks 147–48
complementary assets in 615–16
and customer transfer 638–39
and customer transfer to 635–36
and external assets 611
(p. 808)
and external knowledge 617
and informal contracts 694
and interorganizational collaboration 611–23
knowledge assets in 613–15
and knowledge transfer 633–35
and network of relationships 615
operation of 615, 621
performance and customer transfer 638–39
and social capital 143, 619–20
and value capture 617–20
and value creation 613–16
Star Wars franchise 549–50
status gains and larger firms 465–66
Steensma, H. K. 412–13, 414, 467, 765
Stern, S. 225, 226t, 230, 237, 270
Stevens, C. E. 206
Steyaert, C. 94
Stigler, G. J. 43
Stinchcombe, A. L. 142
stopping heuristics 521
streaming media 294
Strebulaev, I. 362
Strom, R. 127
Strömberg, P. 317, 682
structural complementarities 587
Stuart, H. 74
Stuart, T. 249, 413, 466
Stytch, M. 71
Suddaby, R. 124
Sull, D. 525
Sumner, L. W. 47
Sundance Film Festival 545
Supercell 224
Survey of Consumer Finance (SCF) 137
Sutherland, Ivan 547, 548
Swedberg, R. 766
Sykes, T. A. 84
Symbian 297, 300
syndication
and drag-along rights 367
and entrepreneurial performance 353
friction in 355
growth process of 356–57
Sytch, M. 416
T
tablets 300
tacit knowledge 226, 232, 274, 293, 504, 591, 614, 775
tactical innovation 545–46
Tanvig, H. W. 94
Tatarynowicz, A. 71
Taylor, M. L. 127
team(s)
as bundles of transferred resources 633
collaboration in, over time 20
entrepreneurial 657
performance of 658, 661–62, 669
role of, in entrepreneurship 631
and technological ventures 631 See also team assembly; team composition; team diversity; team knowledge
team assembly 631–51
Bayesian estimation, use of 646
and customer transfer to start-ups 635–36
distinct pools of agents in 645
future research, directions for 647–48
and knowledge transfer to start-ups 633–35
and matching model estimation 641–44
maximum score estimator, use of 646
research agenda for 636–40
and resource transfer 649–51
and transferred resources 633
team composition 655–73
and adaptive diversity 665–69
and duplicated team knowledge 661–62
heterogeneous and homogeneous vs. 663, 664f
incompleteness of 660
and nature of tasks 662–65
and operationalization of diversity 669–70
and success 655
and team diversity 659–61
theory development in 657–58
team diversity 664f
adaptive 665–68
and content of tasks 659, 659f
(p. 809)
defined 658
flexibility 666, 666f, 669
and human capital 666
and nature of tasks 662–65
operationalization of 669–70
and performance 657, 669
practical implications of 672–73
team knowledge 670f
breadth 667
duplication in 661–62
fragmentation 667
and opportunity discovery 663
practical implications of 672–73
technical issues 471
technological frame, and market formation 290
technology
entrepreneurship 2
licensing, collaboration stalemates in 252–54
market failure, and exit strategies 228–29
sharing, and spin-out firms 500
transfer of 232
transfer offices (TTOs) 245, 248, 251–52 See also biotechnology; markets for technology
Technology Accelerator 494
Technology Venture 494
TechStars 126
Tee, R. 297
Teece, D. J. 225, 580
telecommunications, markets for 230
temporality and collaboration in ownership and finance 17–31
entrepreneurial finance 25–28
traditional entrepeneurial activities vs. 19–21
Tencent 224
Teng, B-S. 496, 500
Terman, Frederick 119
Thaler, R. H. 44
theory of planned behavior 711–13
defined 711
entrepreneurship, behavior in 712
Theory of the Growth of the Firm, The (Penrose) 68
Thomas, V. J. 224
Thompson, P. 688
Thomson SDC 374
3M 601
Thursby, J. G. 256
Thursby, M. C. 256
TiVo 277
Tjemkes, B. 254
Todd, P. M. 521
Tolbert, P. 299
Tomczak, A. 378
top management teams (TMTs) 24, 408
Tower, Jonathan 738
Toyota 293
Toy Story (film) 547, 550, 564
trade associations 292, 299
transaction cost economics (TCE) 42
transaction costs 43, 72, 121, 191, 229–31, 267, 274, 320–21, 471
transactive memory systems 661, 662
transfer difficulties 449
transformational mechanisms 760
transnational entrepreneurs (TEs) 24
transposition 542
trial and error 525–26
trust
in asymmetric partnerships 409
barriers to creating 516–17
of clients 316
and collaboration 254–55, 579
within communities 180, 191–93
in family founding teams 744
and heuristics in alliance collaboration 515–18
heuristics vs. 528–30
initiatives for building 473
interpersonal 736
and networking 160
and opportunism 42–45
and relational contracts 695–96
and shared activities 98
in start-ups 143, 145
Tsai, D-H. 98
Tsoukas, H. 773
Tundis, E. 475
Turner, Ted 718
Tushman, M. L. 561
Tversky, A. 514, 519
Twitter 553
U
unbalanced relationships
and larger firms 469, 476
and small firms 476–77
underpayment inequity 715
“unicorns,” 223
unidirectional team growth 19
unilateral contract-based alliances 497
United Airlines 296
United Nations Children’s Fund 551
universities
and collaboration stalemates 245–47, 246t
as incubators 501
and spin-out firms 492
university-backed academic spin-outs 495–96, 501–2
University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) 555
University of Maryland 555
University of Washington 558
University of Wisconsin 245, 251
unrestrained academic spin-outs 496, 502
US Agency of International Development (USAID) 558
US Bureau of the Census 186
US Census microdata 634, 645
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 555
Uzunca, B. 292, 299
Uzzi, B. 527
V
Vaara, E. 101
Valli, R. 470
valuation of firms 465–66, 471
value, sharing 73–75. See also joint value
value appropriation 267, 416, 417, 580, 615, 618, 619
Vandaie, R. 413
Van de Ven, A. H. 410
Vanhaverbeke, W. 439
Van Knippenberg, D. 517
van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, B. 251
van Witteloostuijn, A.