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date: 14 April 2021

(p. 553) Index

(p. 553) Index

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

ABC model, 34
Absorptive capacity, nature, 332
Acadian Consulting Group, 417
Accidents. See also specific types
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon, 5, 262, 266, 271, 274, 288, 440
Chernobyl, 528
on energy discourse, 394
fracking, 434
“normal,” 266, 270, 273–274, 275
nuclear power, 165, 262
Santa Barbara oil spill, 270
Three Mile Island, 266, 407, 465–466
Acid Rain Project, 230
Activism, energy. See also specific topics
anti–“dirty” energy, 405
anti– local power plant, 405
anti-nuclear power, 406–407, 465–466
government and utility responses, 406
proactive renewable energy campaigns, 411–415
pro–“clean” energy, 405–406
reactive opposition to energy projects, 406–411
Actor-network theory, 33
analyses, 8
transition strategies, 50
Actors, in public energy discourse, 389–391
Ad Hoc Group on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP), 23
Adjustment cost, geopolitical, 87
Adom, P. K., 189
Afonso, A. I., 352
Agency
energy transitions, 540
socio-technical transformation, energy systems, 49–50
Agenda setting, 381, 382
Agora, 384
Aitken, M., 346, 349
Ajzen, I., 204–205
Alberta Oil Sands, 275, 408, 418
Keystone XL pipeline from, 101, 409
oil production estimates, 275
Trans Mountain pipeline from, 408–409
Alberta Oil Sands opposition, 448–452
environmental organizations, 450–451
Idle No More movement, 450, 456
indigenous communities, 448–450
indigenous vs. environmentalist campaigns, 451–452
water pollution, 449
Alexievich, Svetlana, 395
Allende, Salvador, 280
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), 24, 28
Al-mulali, U., 193
Alshehry, A., 191
American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), 417
Anderson, B., 246
Andrews, J., 177
Anthracite
coal consumption, 125t
coal production, 124t
coal quality, 119
government subsidies, Germany, 524–525
reserves, 120t
Argentina
biodiesel, 279, 285–286
(p. 554)
biofuels, 281–286
Falklands War, 290, 293n3
oil and gas discovery, 279
oil energy supply chain, government control, 291
petroleum, 279
Repsol/YPF, 287, 288–290, 291
Argumentative model, 382
Arrighi, G., 115
Association of Issuing Bodies, 231
“AstroTurf” organizations, 417
Athabasca River Basin (Alberta, Canada), 448. See also Alberta Oil Sands
Atkinson, A. B., 331
Attitude-behavior connection models, 204
Australia
carbon capture and storage, 505
carbon-trading agreements, 19
coal (see Coal, Australia)
feed-in tariffs, 417
Gorgon gas fields, offshore, 96
resource wealth, 89–90
wind farm resistance, 349
Austria
citizen power plants on resources, 53
energy-poor households, 301
feed-in tariffs, 417
nuclear power protests, 407
nuclear technology absence, 227
renewable energy development, 345
solar collector self-building groups, 363
Automobiles
alcohol-fueled, 282–283
electric, 196–197, 547
single-owner, 245
Awâsis, S., 449
Bair, J., 117
Bali Plan of Action (2007), 21
Baltic Connector, 105
Barnett Shale (Texas), 426
water table pollution, 429
Barr, S., 205
BASIC countries, 21, 27
Beck, U., 548–549
Behavior, consumer, 161–162
attitude-behavior connection models, 204
energy consumption, 201–217 (see also Value–action gap, energy-efficiency)
energy consumption, literature review, 245–246
sustainable energy, 201–204, 215
Behavioral economics
energy consumption, 205, 211–212
value–action gap, 212
Behavioral wedge, 161
Belloumi, M., 191
Benkler, Y., 385
Ben Rejeb, J. B., 193–194
Berkhout, F., 50
Beyond Coal campaign, 114, 416
“Beyond the ABC: Climate Change Policy and Theories of Social Change” (Shove), 34
Bidwell, D., 350
Biel, R., 3
Biodiesel
Argentina, 279, 285–286
Brazil, 281–282
fall, 107
Spain, 290
Bioenergy. See specific types
Bi-oenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), 505, 507, 511, 512
Bio-ethanol. See Ethanol
Biofuels
Argentina, 279, 285–286
Brazil, 279, 281–285
ethanol and alcohol-fueled vehicles, 282–283 (see also Ethanol)
ethanol diplomacy, 283–284
petroleum discovery on, 284
sugar-energy sector, 283–285
sustainability indicators, 498n10
Biomass, 166
advanced utilization, 233, 414, 417, 418
bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, 512
biofuels from, 294 (see also Biofuels)
burning, harmful effects, 106
carbon capture and storage, 505
costs, 489, 489t
Europe, 470, 471, 472
(p. 555)
Germany, 466, 469
in global energy consumption, 319
global use, 319, 485, 487
industrial era fossil-fuel growth on, 166
Sweden, 463, 465, 469, 471
traditional, 88, 187, 305, 308
Blake, J., 204
Boardman, B., 301
Bolivia
Morales, Evo, 100, 101, 284, 292
oil energy supply chain, government control, 291
petroleum, 279
Border tax adjustments, 28
Bossel, H., 530
Boudet, H. S., 447
Bourdieu, P., 34
Bouzarovski, S., 298, 299, 310, 311
Brady, W. J., 428
Braungart, M., 548
Brazil
alcohol-fueled vehicles, 282
anti-dam movement, 411
biofuels, 279, 281–286
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 328f
ethanol, 279, 282–285, 294
National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel, 281–282
oil and gas (Petrobras), 279, 287–288, 291
oil energy supply chain, government control, 291
petroleum, 279
renewable energy capacities, 485, 485t
rural electrification, 306–308, 322t, 323
Brazilian Proposal, 336n4
Breitmeier, H., 496
Breukers, S., 350
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon, 270–273
explosion and oil spill, 5, 262, 265–266, 440
Brown, M. A., 205
Buchanan, K., 246
Building, green
barriers, 214
efficiency, Passive Houses, 234–235
urbanization and energy consumption, 181
Bunker, S. G., 115–116
Burney, N. A., 188
Business, public energy discourse, 390
Calculation, 212
California
fracking regulations, 429
high-efficiency appliance market transformation, 216
offshore drilling, 268–269
renewable energy boom, 96
renewable portfolio standards policy, 412
renewables and carbon reduction, 107
Cammaerts, B., 394
Campbell, B., 8
Campos, J. H., 320
Canada. See also Alberta Oil Sands
anti-oil protests, 447–448
fracking and offshore oil, 452–456
oil spills, 447
People’s Climate Plan, 415
renewable energy capacities, 485, 485t
tar sands protests, 408
Cape Wind, 409–410
Capital, marginal efficiency, 81
Carbon bubble, 3
Carbon capital, 448
Carbon capture and storage (CCS), 511–514
advocates and skeptics, 511–512
beyond, 513–514
bio-energy with, 505, 507, 511, 512
carbon capture utilization and storage, 507–508
definition, 504
demonstration, slow pace, 506
Europe research and development subsidies, 525
Global CCS Institute, 506
government investment, 505–506
technological and political lock-ins to fossil-fuel use, 512–513
technological optimism, 508–511
technology, introduction, 504–505
uncertainty and future, 512–513
Carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS), 507–508
(p. 556) Carbon complex, 447–448, 457
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, 15. See also Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
aviation and maritime industry, 17–18
consumer energy use, 201–202
Emissions Trading System, EU, 230, 524, 529, 533
sources, largest, 17–18
Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions, accumulated
countries with ecological debts, 332–333, 333t
by country, 332, 333t
polluters, top vs. lowest, 331–332, 331t
potentially fair historical emissions limit and, 334, 334f
Carbon emissions. See Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
Carbon intensity reduction, 327
Carbon lock-in, 244
definition and emphasis, 245
economic lock-in, 248–250
empirical examples, 248–254
literature review, 244–247
organizational lock-in, 250–252
societal lock-in, 252–254
Carbon sinks, conserving, 17
Carbon tax, 196, 466
Carbon trading
China and North America, 19
EU Emissions Trading System, 230, 524, 529, 533
United States, 507
Cardinal, J., 450, 451
Car-driver, 8
Carson, Rachel, 406
Cartagena Dialogue, 28
Cartagena Protocol to the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), 28
Casillas, C. E., 318, 322
Castells, M., 385
Catton, W. R., Jr., 7
Causality testing, of urbanization on energy consumption, 192–193
Chaos theory, 546
Chase-Dunn, C., 115
Chávez, Hugo, 281, 284, 286–287, 292, 293
Chernobyl disaster, on EU countries
antinuclear sentiment, 464, 467, 472, 528, 531
threshold effect, 465
Cherp, A., 496
Chew, S. C., 197n10
China
anti-dam movement, 411
carbon intensity reduction, 327
on climate policy, 27
coal (see Coal, China)
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 328f
energy consumption, 167, 167t, 172 (see also Energy consumption trends, global)
energy efficiency trends, 174
energy use per capita vs. energy intensity, 173–174, 175f
greenhouse gas regulation, 21
renewable energy capacities, 485, 485t
rural electrification, 322, 322t, 323
steel production, 125–129, 126t
total primary energy supply, 77–78, 78f, 78t
water and soil contamination, 488
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), ozone depletion discovery and regulation, 17
Ciccantell, P. S., 115–116, 261
CIF (coast, insurance, and freight),coal, 125–126, 132n3
Clamshell Alliance, 407
Clancy, J., 309
Clarke, L., 272–273
Clean Air Act, fracking and, 428
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19, 106
Clean Water Act, fracking and, 428
Cleveland, C. J., 66–67
Climate Alliance, 467, 468, 473, 528
Climate change. See also Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; Paris Agreement; specific topics
awareness raising, on renewables, 414
drivers, 18
effects, 317
social movement, global, 3
Climate change, energy and, 323–330
benefits and costs, between generations and countries, 330, 330t
(p. 557)
carbon intensity reduction, 327
climate justice, 327, 330–331, 332
common responsibilities, differentiated convergence, 325, 326f
contraction and convergence, 325–326, 326f
development and, 323–325, 326f, 328 [link] –329f, 330t
emissions, historical and projections, 327–330, 328 [link] –329f
energy consumption, 18 (see also Energy consumption)
fossil fuels, 325
Paris Agreement, 326–327
Climate justice, 263–264
definition and factors, 327
developed world payments, climate change, 21
in Global South, 16, 19
inequality reduction, 330–331
intergenerational, 332
normative demands, 10, 16, 19, 28
Paris Agreement, 24
Climate mitigation, technological optimism, 503–514. See also Carbon capture and storage (CCS)
Climate science, political manipulation, 3
Coal, 113–132. See also specific countries
background, 113–114
Beyond Coal campaign, 114, 416
decline, 113–114
disarticulations, 115, 117, 130
dis-economies of space, 115–116, 261
future, 129–132, 130t
generative sectors, 116
hegemony, 116–117, 128, 131 (see also China)
India, production, 131
industrialization and globalization, 121–123, 122t, 123t
material characteristics, 118–121, 120t
materialism, global commodity chain lengthening and, 115–118
materialism, new historical, 115, 132n1
materialism, raw, 115, 132n1
mountaintop removal coal mining protests, 408
output data, long-term, 121, 122t
price fluctuations, 120–121, 123
production, global increases, 124–125, 124t
renewable energy and, 113–114, 472
reserves, proven, 119, 120t
risk, 262
trade flows, 121–123, 123t
United States decline, 64, 125, 125t, 130–131
Coal, Australia, 120–127, 129, 131
China purchase and import of, 120–121, 127, 129
Chinese investment, 125, 126
for Chinese steel, 126
India on, 127
for Japanese steel, 122
price increase and future, 131
production, 131
reserves, proven., 119, 120t
Coal, China, 121, 124–132. See also under China
consumption, 124–132, 125t, 130t
in economic boom, 123–129, 124 [link] –128t
electricity generation, 127, 128t
history, 121
imports, 127, 127t
pollution, 128, 129, 132
production, 124, 124t
production vs. consumption, 77–78, 78f, 78t, 79, 81–82
reduction, government policy goal, 128–129
Coal, Germany, 472
anti-coal narrative, public articulation, 528–529
electricity from, embedding infrastructure, 523–525
exnovation, energiewende and, 525–529, 531, 532
exnovation, modeling, 526–528
mining legacy, 462
niche, destroying, 524–525
policymaking, 525–526
Coal consumption
China, 124–132, 125t, 130t
India, 125, 125t, 130t, 131
United States, 125, 125t
world per capita, 120, 130t
Coal-fired electricity, embedding infrastructure, 523–525
The Coal Question (Jevons), 70, 79
(p. 558) Coats, E., 449, 450, 451
Co-housing, 236
Colburn, Theo, 435
Coles, A.-M., 49
Collective representations, energy cultures, 224, 226–228
Collins, R., 213
Combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), natural gas–fed, 96
Commercial energy, 88
Commission for Sustainable Development, on energy services, 321
Commodity chain lengthening, raw materialism and, 115–118
Common responsibilities, differentiated convergence, 325–326, 326f
Communication. See also Media
individual, 382–383
international, 382
inter-system, 382
Community
energy, 370, 372t
sociotechnical energy systems, 8
Competencies, 36
Comprehensive energy plan (CEP), 196
Siemens Green City Index, 194, 195–196
Conceptual flexibility, 547–548
Conference of the Parties I (COP I), 19, 319
Conservation, energy, 243. See also specific types
Consumer. See also specific topics
demand, urbanization and energy consumption, 181
education for better choices, 244
energy consumption, 201–217 (see also Value–action gap, energy-efficiency)
“every little bit helps” narrative, 243
“locked in,” 244
Consumer behavior, 161–162
Consumer behavior, sustainable energy, 201–204
energy-efficient practices and behaviors, 202–203
energy-efficient purchases, 202
information deficits, 203–204, 215
policies facilitating, 201
understanding, increased, 201
Consumer-motivation theories, 204
Contraction and convergence, 325–326, 326f, 336n3
common responsibilities, differentiated convergence, 325, 326f
Control protocol, 17
Cooperatives, renewable energy, 413–414
Copenhagen (2009), 20–23, 27–28, 450, 451, 493, 526
Coping strategies, energy-poor households, 301–302
Cornue, Dave, 431
Corporate policy, on energy markets, 94
Corporate social responsibility (CSR), 94
Correa, Rafael, 292
Cottrell, W., 7
Counter-discourse, energy, 394–395
Counter-movement, fossil-fuel, 417–418, 419
Counter-power, political, 385, 394, 395
Crannell, J. P., 428
Creutzig, F., 190
Critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach, 384–386
Cruickshank, H., 325
Cuba
Paris Agreement, 28
total primary energy supply, 74–75, 76f
Cultures. See also specific types
comprehensive analyses, 227
energy, 8, 223–238 (see also Energy cultures)
perspectives, 224
Currency movements, energy in, 64
Cushing, J. M., 546
Dakota Access Pipeline protests, 4, 93, 409, 415
Dams. See also Hydropower
protests against, 410–411
da Silva, Lula, 287–288, 292
Data envelope analysis (DEA), 194
Davidson, D., 177
Day, R., 213, 310–311, 350
Deepwater Horizon, 270–273
explosion and oil spill, 5, 262, 265–266
De-futurization, 393
De Gaulle, Charles, 281
Demand, energy, 182, 542 (p. 559)
consumer, 181, 542
on markets, 542–543
renewables, rising, 487–489
de Mello, Collor, 283
Demographics, urbanization and energy consumption, 195–196
Denmark
2nd energy, 52–54
nuclear power protests, 407
Organization for Renewable Energy, 413
wind power, civil society engagement, 52–53
Deregulation
electricity markets, 414
energy systems, 246–247
natural gas, 92
Destination clauses, 142–143, 152
Development
Clean Development Mechanism, 19, 106
climate change, energy and, 323–325, 326f, 328 [link] –329f, 330t
Commission for Sustainable Development, 321
energy and, 88–90
renewable energy (see Renewable energy development; specific countries and types)
Sen on, 321
sustainable, energy equity, 319–322, 322t
Sustainable Development Goals, 263, 268, 304, 311, 312, 487
Development as Freedom (Sen), 321
Devine-Wright, P., 347
Dimitropoulos, J., 254
Direct rebound effects, 254
Disarticulations, 115, 117, 130
Discursive approach, 381–382
Dis-economies of space, 115–116, 261
Distributed and dispersed energy communities, 370–373, 372t, 373f
Distributive justice, renewable energy, 349–350
Divestment
coal and lignite, Germany, 528–529
fossil fuel, 520
Dornbusch, R., 280
Drake, Colonel Edwin, 267, 274
Dubash, N. K., 492, 495–496
Dunlap, R. E., 3, 7
Durban Platform, 22, 23
Dutch disease, 90
Earthship, 236
Eastern European energy security, 137–154. See also specific countries
destination clauses, 142–143, 152
Energy Charter Treaty, 141–142, 151
fundamentals, 137–138
Gronigen model, 142, 143, 148
hub trading, 142
spot-pricing mechanism, 143
“take-or-pay” clauses, 142, 143, 146, 149, 152
Eastern European energy security, gas
EU market development, 138–141, 139 [link] –140f
legal framework, gas trade and transit, 141–143
Russia supplies and Ukrainian transit, 144–147, 144f, 145f
Ukraine integration into EU market, prospects, 152–153
Eastern European energy security, Russia-Ukraine
gas dispute (2013-2014), 137–138, 149–152
gas relations (2006-2013), and 2013-2014 gas dispute, 145–148, 147f
political crisis (2013+), 148–149
Eaton, W. M., 426
Ecological debt, 332–333, 333t
Ecological modernization theory (EMT), 235, 238n1, 391
Ecological space
definition, 334
economic wealth and, 332
Economic efficiency, 330–331
Economic experts, public energy discourse, 390
Economic lock-in, 248–250
Economics
energy and development, 88–90
exergy and, 66–67
renewable energy rewards, 351–353
Economic wealth, ecological space and, 332
Economies of scale, 116
(p. 560) Economy
energy efficiency on, 89
energy productivity on, 79, 80t
energy yields and global stagnation, 80–83
fossil fuels on, 63–83 (see also National energy signatures)
monetary reserves, by country, 79, 80f
total primary energy supply, 71–79, 74 [link] –79f (see also Total primary energy supply (TPES))
Ecotricity, 413
Ecovillages, 236
Ecuador, petroleum, 279
Edwards, S., 280
Efficiency
economic, 330–331
on energy use and economic growth, 89
Egalitarianism, 331
Ehrlich, P., 173
El Dorado, 287
Electricity
China, generation, 127, 128t (see also Coal, China)
green, 230–233
nonrenewable source, 484–485
renewable, Germany and Sweden, 461–475 (see also Renewable electricity, Germany and Sweden)
rural electrification, 306–308, 322–323, 322t
sustainable development and energy equity, 320
transition to renewables, 486
Electric vehicles, 196–197
Electrocacy, 474
Ellis, G., 347
Emerging economies, 21. See also specific countries
Emergy, 7
Emissions
carbon dioxide (see Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions)
potentially fair historical, 332
quantified emissions limitation and reduction objectives, 19
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries, 23
Emissions, accumulated
countries with ecological debts, 332–333, 333t
by country, 332, 333t
polluters, top vs. lowest, 331–332, 331t
potentially fair historical emissions limit and, 334, 334f
Emissions Trading Scheme, 18, 19
Emissions Trading System, EU, 230, 524, 529, 533
Energetic sociology, 7, 424–425
Energiewende, 464, 492, 520–521, 531, 532
Energy, 1. See also specific types and issues
access, 6 (see also Energy poverty)
balance, global, 82
basic needs thresholds, 318–319
climate change and, 323–330, 326f, 328 [link] –329f, 330t (see also Climate change, energy and)
commercial, 88
community, 370, 372t
degradation, 298
demand, 182, 542
distributed and dispersed energy communities, 370–373, 372t, 373f
economic development, 88–90
energy-intensive lifestyles, 2
global trade and currency movements, 64, 64 [link] –66f
growth and, 63, 67
household use, 88, 243
hunger for, world’s, 2
for industrial sector, 88
markets, politics, and governance, 542–544
monitors, 246
national signatures, 63–83 (see also National energy signatures)
policy (see Policy)
producers, leading global, 66, 67t
productive use, 318
publics and, 341–342 (see also specific topics)
relationships, changing, 539
sociology on, early history, 1
(p. 561)
sociotechnical systems and innovations, 519
spatial location, resources, 543
study, 6
subsidies, 88–89
surplus, 64, 67–68, 70, 82
for survival, 318
technology, 544
vulnerability, 297 (see also Energy poverty)
yields, global stagnation and, 80–83
Energy access, 1, 2
Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), 141–142, 151
Energy communities, 371–372, 372t
Energy Community (EC), European, 141, 151
Ukraine in, 138, 152, 154
Energy conservation, 243. See also specific topics; specific types
individual, barriers, 31
Energy consumption. See also Urbanization, on energy consumption; specific topics
biomass (see Biomass; Wood)
consumer energy use, 201–202
declining, 89
definition, 182
electricity example, 182
regulation on, 89
socio-technical systems, 33
urbanization, 179–197
Energy consumption, social practices, 31–42
definition, 35–36
definition and role, 35–38
mobile phone management, 38–40
policy response, coordinated, 41
role, 36–38
social structuring, 14, 31, 41
sociology, practice turn, 33–35
socio-technical systems, 33
understanding, advances, 40–41
Energy consumption dynamics, 161–163
behavioral wedge, 161
consumer behavior, 161–162
urbanization on, 162
value-action gap, 161, 162
Energy consumption research, 31
early, 32
everyday life, 32–33, 41
individualized rational actor approaches, 32
mobile phone management, 38–40
practice theory and, 32–33
Energy consumption trends, global, 165–178
energy efficiency, 173–175, 174f, 175f
historical, 165–166
renewables, 175–177, 175f, 176f
Energy consumption trends, global shifts, 166–173
energy use and electricity consumption, 170–171, 171t
energy use growth and electricity consumption, 171–172, 171t
energy use growth rates and electricity consumption, 168, 169t, 172
Netherlands fallacy, 173
off-shoring on, 172–173
population, GDP, energy use, and electricity consumption, 166–168, 167t
population growth rates and GDP per capita, 168, 170t, 172
Energy cultures, 8, 223–238
energy systems as sociomaterial orders, 224–230
green electricity, 230–233
knowledge struggles, 237
perspectives, 224
sociotechnical infrastructures, 229
studies, 224
sustainable indoor climate, 233–237 (see also Indoor climate, sustainable)
Energy-economy leads and lags, 71–72, 72f
Energy efficiency. See also specific types and topics
on economy, 89
for energy poverty, EU, 301–302, 303–304
energy use per capita vs. energy intensity, 173–174, 175f, 174f
heating system, 233–237
Jevons paradox, 173–175
trends, global, 173–177, 174 [link] –176f
value–action gap, 201–217 (see also Value–action gap)
Energy epistemics, 228–229
Energy equity, 261–262. See also Energy poverty
generational, 298
global, 318
sustainable development, 319–322, 322t
(p. 562) Energy-focused global movement, 415–417
Energy imaginaries. See also Sociotechnical imaginaries
alternative, rationale, 437–441
contesting, 424
definition and concept, 423–424
fracking, struggle, 441–442
Energy imaginaries, shale gas
development, 423–424
fracking, U.S., 426–429 (see also under Shale gas)
fracking, U.S., framing, 429–437
Energy independence argument, 427, 443n1
Energy inequalities. See also Energy poverty
reduction, 330–331
Energy markets, 87–93. See also specific types
on climate friendly energy, 87
corporate policy on, 94
deregulation, 246
domestic factors, 92
in economic development, 88–90
on energy problems, 386
evolution, 90–93, 91f
failure, free rider problem, 16
institutional, 92
integration, trade relationships and, 100–103
public policy, 93–94, 95f
renewable energy on, 87
supply and demand shifts on, 542–543
technological innovations, 90–92
Energy Policy Act, 428, 437
Energy poverty, 263, 297–336
common condition, global, 298
concept and main issues, 297
cross-sectoral, 311
definition, 298
in developed countries, 297–298
energy degradation, 298
equity, generational, 298
as fuel poverty, 297
policy, 311
social structures and power relations, 311
sociological perspective, 298–299
sustainability, 298, 304, 310
Energy poverty, climate change and, 317–336. See also Climate change, energy and
biomass use, traditional, 88, 187, 305, 308, 319, 485, 487
consequences, 318–319
discussion and metrics, 331–334
emissions, accumulated, 331–334, 333t, 334f
equity and sustainable development, 319–322, 322t
global warming, 317
Human Development Index and other indicators, 323, 324t
inequalities, reducing, 330–331
rural electrification, 306–308, 322–323, 322t
Energy poverty, in developed countries, EU, 299–304
causes, 299
coping strategies, energy-poor households, 301–302
definitions, 299, 300t
discussions and policy perspectives, 302–304
efficiency strategies, 301–302, 303–304
measurement, 300–301
Vulnerable Consumer Working Group, 303
Energy poverty, in developing countries, 304–310
challenges and progress, 304–306
future prospects, 310
gender, 308–309
rural electrification, 306–308, 322–323, 322t
Energy production. See also specific types
boom, U.S., 67–68, 68 [link] –69f
decentralized, small-scale renewable, 361 (see also Small-scale renewable energy technologies (S-RET))
economic growth and, 70–72, 71t, 72f
environmental trade-offs, 87, 93
fossil-fuel, divestment, 520
in greenhouse gas emissions, 317
protests against, 406
Energy research. See Energy consumption research; specific topics
Energy resources. See also specific types
resource curse, 89–90
Energy return on investment (EROI), 69–70, 82, 86n5
(p. 563) Energy security
Eastern European, 137–154 (see also Eastern European energy security)
media and, 388
Energy–society relations, 1–12
carbon bubble, 3
consumer attitudes, 8
epistemiological realities, 6–8
funds and flows, 7
greenhouse-gas emission transition, 2
material realities, 5–6
political realities, 3–5
prosumers, 3–4
social analysis of, history, 6–8
Energy–society research, 6–7, 540. See also specific types
Energy sufficiency. See also Energiewende; Renewable electricity; Renewable energy
local initiatives, 235–237
Energy supply, 541–542. See also specific countries and types
total primary energy supply, 67, 68f, 71–83 (see also Total primary energy supply (TPES))
Energy surplus, 64, 67–68, 70, 82
Energy systems
culture and, 223–238 (see also Energy cultures)
socio-technical transformation, 45–56 (see also Socio-technical transformation, energy systems)
transformation, 223
“energy” to “Energy,” 539–550
demand, 182, 542
energy relationships, changing, 539
energy–society scholarship, 540
energy transitions, 540–541
markets, politics, and governance, 542–544
social science contributions, 544–550
supply, 541–542
technology, 544
Energy trading. See Trading, energy
Energy transition: Growth and Wellbeing Without Crude Oil and Uranium (Krause et al.), 530
Energy transitions, 16, 223, 391. see also Energy cultures
actor-network-theory, 50
change agents, 540
energy-production systems and innovations, sociotechnical, 519
entropy from, 5
fossil-fuel technology and production divestment, 520
Germany (see Germany)
innovation paradigm, 519–520
international relations of environment, 16
media, 388, 391–394
mediating factors, 540–541
power plants, 5
processes, conceptual approaches, 46–47
renewables, electricity, 486 (see also Renewable electricity)
renewables, global, 483–498 (see also Renewable energy transition, global)
social dimensions of change studies, debates, 50–51
social science contributions, 544–550
socio-technical transitions, 47–49
sustainability, 46
technology, 544
trajectories, past vs. future, 540
uncertainty, 545–547
Entropy
degradation, 85n2
energy transformation, 5
Environment. See also specific topics
climate friendly energy, 88, 89 (see also Renewable energy)
energy production and environmental trade-offs, 87, 93
vs. production interests, on public lands, 92
shale gas production on, 101
Environmental determinism, 115
Environmental health, renewable energy on, 350–351
Environmentalists. See also specific topics
inadvertent, 213
religious, 247, 252–253
(p. 564) Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs), 388, 390
Epistemics
communities, 382
energy, 228–229
objects, 229
Epistemiological realities, new, 6–8
Equity
energy, 261–262, 298, 318 (see also Energy poverty)
social, 321
Ethanol, 107
Brazil, 279, 282–285
diplomacy, 283–284
EuroMaidan movement, 148
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), 523–524
European Union (EU). See also specific countries and topics
coal, 130–131 (see also Coal; Coal, Germany)
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 329f, 330
energy consumption (2013), 167, 167t (see also Energy consumption trends, global)
green electricity energy cultures, 230–233
Kyoto Protocol, 471
European Union (EU), gas
imports, by source, 145, 145f
imports, from Russia, 104–105, 108n1, 144–145, 144f, 145f
legal framework, trade and transit, 141–143
LNG imports, 104, 144, 144f, 145f
market development, 138–141, 139 [link] –140f
natural, suppliers and use, 137
nuclear power protests, 407
renewable energy, 104
shale gas, 105
European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), 230, 524, 529, 533
EU Third Energy Package, 152
EVALUATE project, energy poverty, 298
“Every little bit helps” narrative, 243
Exchange rates, oil on, 64
Exemptionalism, human, 7
Exergy, economic activity and, 66–67
Exnovation, in energy transitions, 519–533
of coal and lignite-fired electricity system, embedding infrastructure, 523–525
of coal-fired energy, German energiewende, 525–529, 531, 532
complex sociotechnical systems, analyzing, 522–523
definitions, 521–522
discussion, 529–532
energy-production systems and innovations, sociotechnical, 519
innovation paradigm, 520–521
niche destruction, 532
as normative, 523
systemic function, 521–522
“Exxon knew” petition drive, 416
Fang, W. S., 189
Fantasy document, 272–273
Feedback
energy use, 246
urbanization and energy consumption, 195
Feed-in tariffs (FIT), 412, 416–417, 463
Germany, 465, 466, 473
Felt, U., 227
Figueiredo, E., 353
Firewood, 319. See also Biomass
combined heat and power plants, 468, 469, 471
cooking and heating, 88, 94, 106, 121, 165, 166, 187, 297, 298, 308, 319
on environment, 305
on health, 305
Fischer, F., 395
Fishbein, M., 204–205
Fleck, L., 549
Fletcher, J. J., 193
Flexibility, conceptual, 547–548
Florini, A., 492, 494, 495–496
Flows, 7
Former Soviet Union, total primary energy supply, 76–77, 77f
Fossil capitalism, 447, 457
Fossil fuel. See also specific types
carbon bubble, 3
counter-movement, 417–418
(p. 565)
developing economies, 2
divestment, 520, 528–529
dominance and market share, global, 485
economic costs, 2
on economy, global, 63–83 (see also National energy signatures)
environmental and social costs, 2
favoritism towards, 4
geopolitics, 4, 61 (see also specific topics)
greenhouse gas emissions (see Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions)
high-surplus, 85n3
lower quality, toxification from, 6
oil roads and pipelines, 4
“peak,” 5, 549
political realities, 3–5
producing states, new, 4–5
reliance on, 2
renewables and, 4, 466–467
resistance to, 543–544
risk on use, 262
trends, global, 176, 176f
uses, 3
Fossil fuel–free municipality, 463–464
Fossil fuel power, protests
hydraulic fracturing, 409
mountaintop removal coal mining protests, 408
pipelines, 408–409
tar sands, Canada, 408
U.S., 408
Fossil fuel reserves, 2
anthracite, 120t
coal, 119, 120t
shale gas, 427, 429, 430
Fossil fuels, unconventional, contested framing, 423–443. See also Hydraulic fracturing; Shale gas
energy imaginaries, 424, 437–442
energy imaginaries, shale gas fracking, 426–437 (see also Shale gas)
framing sociotechnical imaginaries, 425–426
shale gas development, 423–424
sociotechnical imaginaries, 423
Foster, J. B., 115
Fracking. See Hydraulic fracturing
Frames
definition, 425
media discourse, 387–389
Framework convention, 17
Framing, 382, 425–426
fossil fuels, unconventional, 423–443 (see also Fossil fuels, unconventional, contested framing)
fracking, 425–426, 429–437 (see also Fracking)
risk, energy discourses, 389
France, nuclear power protests, 407
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (IES), 468
Freeman, R., 229
Freeman, S., 365, 369, 370
Freiburg im Breisgau, 467–468, 473
Freudenburg, W. R., 265, 267–268, 270, 452, 549–550
Friedrichs, J., 3
Fritz, M., 311
Fröhndrich, S., 548
Fuchs, C., 385
Fuchs, N., 474
Fudge, S., 213
Fuel poverty, 297. See also Energy poverty
Fukushima, on EU, 225
anti-nuclear sentiment, 472, 520, 528, 529, 531
policy after, 140–141
Funds and flows, 7
The Future Is Not What It Used to Be (Friedrichs), 3
Futurization, 393
Galvin, R., 37
Gam, I., 193–194
Gamson, W., 387
García, Alan, 280
Garud, R., 53
Gas. See also Liquefied natural gas (LNG); Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, propane); Shale gas
consumption, per capita, 94, 95f
Eastern European, 137–154 (see also Eastern European energy security)
shale (see Shale gas)
(p. 566) Gas, European Union
imports, by source, 145, 145f
imports, from Russia, 104–105, 108n1, 144–145, 144f, 145f
LNG imports, 104, 144, 144f, 145f
natural, 137
Gas, European Union market development, 138–141, 139 [link] –140f
electricity and heat generation, by fuel, 138–139, 139f
future, 140–141
industrial and residential energy consumption, by fuel, 138–139, 140f
primary energy supply, by fuel, 138, 139f
total energy and natural gas consumption, 139–140, 140f
Gas, natural
deregulation, 92
US production, 70f
Gasland, 409, 440
Gas-on-gas competition, 142
Gas trade
Australia and Israel, 96
EU legal framework, 141–143
movements, 96, 98f
Gaworecki, M., 429
Gazprom. See also Eastern European energy security
contract negotiations (2014), 143
destination clause, 143
European Commission anti-monopoly investigation, 142–143
gas transit, 144–145
Naftogaz dispute, 145–153
take-or-pay clause, 143
Geels, F. W., 4, 48
Geisel, General, 282
Gellert, P. K., 261
Gender, energy poverty, 308–309
Generative sectors, 115, 116
Genus, A., 49
Geopolitics. See also specific topics
energy trading patterns, 103–105
fossil fuel, 4, 61
Geopolitics, renewable electricity, 464–467
fossil fuel alternative, 466–467
nuclear alternative, 465–466
Georgescu-Roegen, N., 7, 66, 86n5
Geothermal energy, 93
barriers, 252
cost competitiveness, 488–489, 489t
as critical issue, 387
deep heat, 362
heat pump, new German, 479
installed capacities, 484, 485t
from Mexico to California, 107
negative effects, 93, 108, 547
subsidies, 252–253
Germany
anthracite, government subsidies, 524–525
coal (see Coal, Germany)
Energiewende, 464, 492, 520–521, 531, 532
energy transition, 520–521
feed-in tariffs, 412, 465, 466, 473
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 468
green electricity market, 231–232
housing, energy sufficiency, 235–237
nuclear power protests, 407
Öko-Institut, 464, 468, 470, 530
total primary energy supply, 73–74, 75f, 86n9
Germany, lignite
anti-lignite narrative, public articulation, 528–529
electricity from, embedding infrastructure, 523–525
exnovation modeling, 526–528
mining legacy, 462
niche, destroying, 524–525
policymaking, 525–526
Germany, renewable electricity, 461–475. see also Renewable electricity, Germany and Sweden
Hanover, 468–469
solar power, Freiburg im Breisgau, 467–468, 473
Germany, renewable energy. see also specific types
capacities, 485, 485t
political history, 463–464
wind energy, 413, 466
Giddens, A., 34, 545
Gilg, A., 203
(p. 567) Gill, Brad, 430
Glance, Dereth, 436
Global CCS Institute (GCCSI), 506
Global climate governance, 15–16
Global commodity chains (GCCs)
generative sectors, 115, 116
lengthened, raw materialism and, 115–118
Global Ecovillage Network, 236
Global energy governance, 401–403
Global energy governance, renewable energy, 490–497
challenges, 492n17, 494–497
climate protection, 492, 492n16
IRENA creation, 491–492
IRENA creation, politics, 492–494, 492n17
Global Environmental Facility, World Bank, 16
Global environmental governance, 15–16
Globalization. See also specific topics
coal, 121–123, 122t, 123t
Global Stock-Take, 25, 29
Global warming, 317
Goldthau, A., 496
Good Energy, 415
Gottweiss, H., 395
Governance, energy, 401–403. See also specific topics
global climate and, 15–16
shifts, 543
Government. See also specific countries
public energy discourse, 390
Gram-Hanssen, K., 36, 41
Gramling, R., 265, 267–268, 270
Granger, C. W. J., 193
Granger causality
energy consumption and urbanization, 192
limits, 193
reciprocal, 86n7
test, energy production and economic growth, 70–71, 71t, 72f
Grant, D., 173
“Grassroots for hire,” 417
Green building
barriers, 214
efficiency, Passive Houses, 234–235
urbanization and energy consumption, 181
Green Climate Fund (GCF), 16, 22
Green electricity, 230–233, 461–475. See also Renewable electricity
Green energy consumption, 201–217. See also Value–action gap, energy-efficiency
Greenfield investments, raw materials, 117
Green fleet, 282–283
Green homeowners, 247, 251–252, 253
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 2
China, 21, 27
Conference of the Parties, 319
consumption, 18
consumption patterns, 201
energy production, 317
European Union Emissions Trading System for, 230, 524, 529, 533
fossil fuel, 2
historical and projections, 327–330, 328 [link] –329f
potentially fair historical emissions, 332
UN Millennium Goals, 321–322
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accumulated
countries with ecological debts, 332–333, 333t
by country, 332, 333t
polluters, top vs. lowest, 331–332, 331t
potentially fair historical emissions limit and, 334, 334f
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction
agreements, 93
Paris Agreement, 23–27 (see also Paris Agreement)
required 80+%, 45–46
Greenhouse gases (GHGs)
discovery and regulation, 17–18
regulation definitions, 23–24
Green on green controversy, 345
Greenpeace
anti-coal protests, 528
consumer greenpower campaigns, 412
Germany, 411–412
proactive renewable energy campaigns, 411–412
from protests to solutions, 411–412
Stop Acid Rain demonstration, 408
Greenpeace Energy, 232
Greenpower Market Development Group, 412
(p. 568) Gronigen model, 142, 143, 148
Gross, C., 349
Gross domestic product (GDP)
population, energy use, electricity consumption, and, 166–168, 167t
population growth rates and, 168, 170t, 172
total primary energy supply and, 71, 86n8
Grove-Nielsen, Erik, 413
Growth. See also specific types
energy and, 63, 67
total primary energy supply, 80–81
total primary energy supply, world GDP and, 71, 72f
Guarantees of origin (GOs), 230–231
Halicioglu, F., 193
Halliburton loophole, 428, 435
Hämäläinen, S., 204
Hans Böckler Foundation, 527
Hansen, J., 323
Harada, T., 213
Hargreaves, T., 35
Hassler, U., 214
Hayward, T., 332, 334
Health
firewood on, 305
renewable energy on, 350–351
Heating, techno-optimism vs. downsizing, 235
Heating systems
efficiency, 233–237
energy sufficiency, 235–237
techno-optimism vs. downsizing, 235
Heat-or-Eat Dilemma, 301
Hecht, G., 227
Hegemony ,coal, 116–117, 128, 131. See also China
Heiskanen, E., 350, 353
Henderson, J., 143
Henrique, Fernando, 287
High Ambition Coalition, 23, 28
High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, highway, 245
Hinderer, G., 474
Hitchings, R., 213
Holdren, J., 173
Holtedahl, P., 188
Hölzinger, O., 524–525, 530
Hossain, M. S., 193
Household change, incentives, 245
Household change, limits, 243–256. See also Individual consumption, structural influences
carbon lock-in, 245, 248–254 (see also under Carbon lock-in)
consumer choices, 244
“every little bit helps” narrative, 243
literature review, 244–247
systems change, 255–256
Household energy use, 88, 243
Housing
energy sufficiency, 235–237
Passive Houses, 234–235
Howe, J., 385
Howe, M., 452–453
Howell, E., 545
Huber, M., 470
Hubert, W., 386
Hub trading, 142
Human exemptionalism, 7
Human rights
climate justice, 16, 19, 21, 24, 28, 263–264, 327, 330–331, 332
energy, 261–264
indigenous peoples, 107, 109n3
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking), 6, 90, 177, 275
Canada, 452–454
controversy and safety, 423–425, 428–429, 432–437
energy imaginaries, 424, 426–437, 441–442 (see also Shale gas)
framing sociotechnical imaginaries, 425–426
hazardous waste and groundwater contamination, 427–428, 435–436
process and applications, 427
protests against, 409, 452–454
shale gas, 423–424 (see also Shale gas)
sociotechnical imaginaries, 423
water usage, 431–432, 433
Hydrofluorocarbon chemicals (HFCs)m stratospheric ozone–friendly, 20
Hydropower
capacities, global, 486
(p. 569)
cost competitiveness, 488–489, 489t
installed renewable capacities, 484
large-scale projects, 105–106
protests against, 410
Sweden, 462
Hyysalo, S., 365, 367–368, 369, 370
ICLEI Europe, 467, 473
Idle No More movement, 450, 456
Ignorance, 546–547
Iles, A., 228
Inadvertent environmentalists, 213
India
anti-dam protests, 410
carbon intensity reduction, 327
coal, 125, 125t, 130t, 131
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 328f
energy poverty and gender, 308
renewable energy capacities, 485, 485t
rural electrification, 322, 322t, 323
Indigenous rights, 107, 109n3. See also specific issues
Individual consumption, structural influences, 243–256
carbon lock-in, 245, 248–254 (see also under Carbon lock-in)
consumer choices, 244
energy-efficiency value–action gap, 201–217 (see also Value–action gap, energy-efficiency)
“every little bit helps” narrative, 243
literature review, 244–247
systems change, 255–256
Individualized rational actor approaches, 32
Indoor climate, sustainable, 233–237
energy sufficiency initiatives, local, 235–237
heating, techno-optimism vs. downsizing, 235
innovative technologies and novel practices, 233–235
Industrializing countries, as new energy consumers, 279–294
biofuels, 281–286 (see also Biofuels)
macroeconomic populism, 280–281
petroleum and national identity, 279, 286–293 (see also specific countries)
petroleum populism, 291–292
pink tide and petroleum populism, 280, 290–293
Industrial Revolution, 2
Industry
coal and, history, 121–123, 122t, 123t
energy for, 88
public energy discourse, 390
Influence, 212
Information. See also Knowledge
consumer deficits vs. self-assessment, 383, 395n1
deficits and value–action gap, 203–204, 215 (see also Value–action gap, energy-efficiency)
media, as main source, 383
Infrastructure, 63
Cuba, 75
energy-efficiency value–action gap, 214
urbanization and energy consumption, 181
Innovations
energy systems, sources, 392
paradigm, 519–520
research, 532
sustainable indoor climate, 233–235
system, 48
technology, on energy markets, 90–92
user, small-scale renewable energy technologies, 362, 363–370
Institutions
energy-efficiency value–action gap, 214
energy markets, 92
techno-institutional lock-in, 244
Interdependencies, transboundary, 495
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 16
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 18
International Energy Agency (IEA), 16
golden rules, 93
on Paris Agreement, 26
Internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs), 19
International Maritime Organization (IMO), 18
International Negotiating Committee (INC), 17
(p. 570) International relations of environment, 15–29. See also specific topics
Copenhagen (2009) and search for new agreement, 20–23, 27
energy transition, 16
global climate governance, 15–16
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 16
International Energy Agency, 16
International Renewable Energy Association, 16
Kyoto Protocol, 19–20, 25
market failure and free rider problem, 16
Paris Agreement, 16, 23–29 (see also Paris Agreement)
pollutant movements, transboundary, 16
research and technology transfers, 16
shared understandings, of principles, 16–17
state governments, 16
study, 15
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 15–16, 17–19
International Renewable Energy Association (IRENA), 16, 483, 491–492
creation, 491–492, 497
creation, politics, 492–494, 497
member states, 491, 498n11
International Solar Energy Society (ISES), 467–468
Internet discourse
analyses, 385
on energy problems, 386
small-scale renewable energy technologies, 368–370, 371, 372, 374, 375
Inter-system communication, media in, 382
Iraq War, 4
Japan
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 329f, 330
energy use per capita vs. energy intensity, 174, 174f
steel production and coal, 121
total primary energy supply, 74, 76f, 86n9
Jasonoff, S., 227, 423–424, 425
Jenkins, H., 385
Jevons, W. S., 8, 66, 70, 79, 82, 114, 173, 254
Jevons paradox, 173–175, 254
Jewell, J., 496
Johnson, M., 367–368
Jolivet, E., 350, 353
Jones, C. F., 228
Jones, D. W., 187
Josko, E., 204
Joutz, F. L., 188
Juntunen, J. K., 365, 367–368, 369, 370
Justice
climate (see Climate justice)
procedural and distributive, renewable energy, 349–350
Kammen, D. M., 318, 322
Kaneko, S., 188–189
Karnœ, P., 53
Kennedy, C. A., 190
Keynes, J. M., 81
Keystone XL Pipeline protests, 93, 118, 409
Kharkiv Accords, 147, 150
Kim, S.-H., 227
Kim, S. H., 423–424, 425
Kimberly, J. R., 521–523
Kirchner, A., 526–527
Klein, N., 395, 457
KLIMP (klimatinvesteringsprogram), 469, 470
Knowledge
explicit, 228
implicit and tacit, 228
information deficits, 203–204, 215
practices, energy cultures, 224, 228–230
Koch, Bill, 410
Koch, M., 311
Kovacevic, G., 195–196
Krause, F., 530
Krauss, W., 353
Krey, V., 189
Küchler, S., 524–525, 530
Kuhn, T., 549
Kyoto Protocol, 19–20, 25
Clean Development Mechanism, 19, 106
on EU, 471
(p. 571)
European Union Emissions Trading System, 230, 524, 529, 533
on renewable energy, 26
Labussière, O., 349
Laclau, E., 281, 292–293
Lafrance, G., 188
Landscape, renewable energy on
benefits, 353–354
concerns, 347–349
Landscape, socio-technical, 47, 48–49
Larivière, I., 188
Lauffer, Scott, 436
Lean, H. H., 193
LEED certification
green homeowners, 247, 251–252
urbanization and energy consumption, 181
Less developed countries (LDCs), 24
Paris Agreement on, 24
Lewis, B., 89
Liddell, C., 302
Liddle, B., 188, 193
Life expectancy, 320
Lignite, Germany
anti-lignite narrative, public articulation, 528–529
electricity from, embedding infrastructure, 523–525
exnovation modeling, 526–528
mining legacy, 462
niche, destroying, 524–525
policymaking, 525–526
LIP (Lokala investeringsprogrammen), 469, 470
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) market
EU imports, 104, 144, 144f, 145f
export restrictions, 102
Japan, 94
re-gasification facilities, 101
shale gas on, 96, 98f, 99, 101
technology improvements on, 96
trade, global, 98f
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, propane)
entitlements, 319
market, 94
subsidies, Egypt, 88
wood vs., 325
Lithium recycling, and global market, 106, 108n2
Liu, Y., 193
Lock-in
carbon (see Carbon lock-in)
consumer, 244
economic, 248–250
organizational, 250–252
societal, 252–254
socio-technical, 244
techno-institutional, 244
Lockwood, A., 386
Long tail approach, 374
Lost decade, 292
Luhmann, N., 393
Lung,S., 193
Lutzenheiser, L., 33–34
Luz Para Todos (LPT), 306–307
Ma, B., 190–191
Macey, S. M., 205
Macondo drilling rig explosion, 5, 262, 265–266, 270–273
Macroeconomic populism, Latin America, 280–281
Mainstream media, public energy dialogues, 385–387
Maller, C., 36
Malthus, T. R., 64
Marcellus Shale (New York State), 429–437
drilling, gas rush and new landowner controls, 429–432
New York shale gas ban, 424
reserves, estimated recoverable, 429, 430
responsible development, slowing down for, 432–437
Marchildon, G., 386
Marginal efficiency of capital, 81
Market
energy (see Energy markets)
failure, free rider problem, 16
integration, trade relationships, 100–103
Marketing, on energy problems, 386
(p. 572) Marriott, J., 4–5
Marx, K., 335
Mason, K., 350
Materialism
new historical, 115, 132n1
raw, 115, 132n1
Materiality, in social life, 36
Material realities, new, 5–6
Materials, 36
Mattinen, M. K., 365
McAdam, D., 447
McCright, A. M., 3
McGee, J. A., 173, 547
McGonough, W., 548
McKibben, Bill, 528
McNutt, K., 386
Meadowcroft, J., 49
Meadows, D. H., 255
Meanings, 36
Media
as agora, 384
critical approach to analysis of, 384–385
packages, 387
Media, on public energy dialogues
actors, 389–391
agenda setting, 381
argumentative model, 382
critical discourse analysis approach, 385
discursive approach, 381–382
energy transition, 388, 391–394
environmental non-governmental organizations, 388
epistemic communities, 382
global-local balance, 387
individual, communication with, 382–383
international communication, 382
inter-system communication, 382
lack of interest in, 383
as main information source, 383
mainstream and social media, 385–387
post-hegemonic discourse, 394–395
public sphere, 383–385
sociological constructivism, 382
topics and frames, 387–389
Mendes, C., 352
Meyer, B., 524–525, 530
Meyer, L. H., 330, 332
Michieka, N. M., 193
Milbourne, P., 350
Miller, C. A., 228
Minerals Management Service (MMS), 270, 272–273
Minio-Paluello, M., 4–5
Minsk Agreement, 149
Mishra, V., 188
Mitrova, T., 143
Mobile phone management, energy consumption, 38–40
Model Germany, 526
Modernization, ecological, 235, 238n1
Modigliani, A., 387
Molotch, H., 268
Monetary system
declining returns and, 63
energy productivity on, 79, 80t
energy yields and global stagnation, 80–83
exchange rates, oil on, 64
monetary expansion, US central bank policies, 81, 86n10
monetary reserves, by country, 79, 80f
money, geometric growth, 64–65
total primary energy supply, 71–79, 74 [link] –79f (see also Total primary energy supply (TPES))
Montreal Protocol, 17
Moore, J. W., 5–6, 115
Morales, Evo, 100, 101, 284, 292
Motivation, 212
Mountaintop removal (MTR) coal mining, 6, 10, 118, 177
protests, 408, 418, 543
Muller-Reissmann, K.F., 530
Multilevel perspective (MLP)
definition, 47
socio-technical transitions, 47–49
Nadai, A., 349
Naftogaz
gas imports, non-Russian, 145–153
Gazprom dispute, 145–153
National energy signatures, 63–83
balance, global, 82
declining returns and monetary system, 63
(p. 573)
energy-economy leads and lags, 71–72, 72f
exergy and economic activity, 66–67
fuel and mineral trade, global monetary value vs. production, 69, 86n4
in global trade and currency movements, 64–66, 64 [link] –66f
growth and, 63, 67
oil production growth trends, 64–66, 64 [link] –66f
patterns over time, 73–80, 74 [link] –80f, 78t, 80t
petroleum and coal products, U.S., 64
production boom, U.S., 67–68, 68 [link] –69f
renewable energy, technology efficiency, 70
return on investment, 69–70, 82, 86n5
surplus, 64, 67–68, 70, 82
systemic causation and ecological approach, 70–72, 71t, 72f
yields and global stagnation, 80–83
National identity, petroleum and, 286–290. See also specific countries
biofuels, 279
Brazil Petrobras oil and gas discovery, 279, 287–288, 291
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), 21
Nationally determined contribution (NDC), 24–25
National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB), 281–282
National Resources Defense Council (NRDC), 406
Naturskyddsföreningen, 463
Netherlands fallacy, 173
Net Metering, 417
New historical materialism, 115, 132n1
Niches
destruction, 524–525, 532
socio-technical, 47, 48, 55
strategic management, 47
user innovation, 362, 363–370
NIMBY (“not in my backyard”), 341, 389, 410
Nongovernmental groups, public energy discourse, 390
Non-knowledge, 546–547
Non-problematicity, social construction, 452
“Normal accidents,” 266, 273–274, 547
Nuclear power
accidents, 165, 262
Austria, 227, 407
as nonsustainable, 488
Project Independence, 269–270, 406
renewables alternative, 465–466, 472
risk, 262
Sweden, 462
Nuclear power protests
Bodega Bay, 406
Europe, 407
Three Mile Island, 407, 465–466
Nuclear technology, on culture, 227
Nye, D. E., 227
Objects, epistemic, 229
Ockwell, D. G., 392
Odum, H. T., 7, 66, 71, 85n3
Offshore oil drilling, 267–275. See also Oil drilling, offshore
Oil
deposits, structure, 266–267
non-problematicity, social construction, 452
North Dakota production, 67, 69f
origins, 266
production growth trends, 64–66, 64 [link] –66f
trade movements, 96, 97f
Oil, U.S.
crisis (1973), 1
dependence, 267
drilling, early days, 266–267
field production, weekly, 68, 69f
prices, imports and, 72, 72f
production boom, 67–68, 68 [link] –69f
Texas production, 67, 68f
Oil drilling, offshore, 267–275
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon, 5, 262, 265–266, 270–273
Canada, Atlantic, 454–456
disaster aftermaths, 447
fossil capitalism and petrocapitalism, 447, 457
origins, 267–269
Santa Barbara spill, 268–269
Oil drilling, risks vs. supplies, 265–275
British Petroleum, Deepwater Horizon, 5, 262, 265–266, 270–273 (p. 574)
cost-cutting measures, 266, 268, 272
“normal accidents” and disasters, 266, 273–274
Project Independence, 269–270, 406
Union Oil Alpha platform Santa Barbara spill, 268–269
Oil opposition, 447–457
Alberta Oil Sands, opposition, 448–452
Canada, Atlantic, fracking and offshore oil, 452–456
carbon capital, 448
carbon complex, 447–448, 457
Oil sanctions, government, 104
Öko-Institut, 464, 468, 470, 530
Old Harry project, offshore oil, 454–456
Ominayak, B., 449, 451
Ominayak, Lubicon Cree Chief Bernard, 449
O’Neill, B. C., 189
O’Neill, S., 203–204
On Ethics and Economics (Sen), 321
Open pre-configuration, 374
Open Utility, 415
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), coal consumption, 125, 125t, 130, 130t
Organizational lock-in, 250–252
Organization for Information about Nuclear Power (OOA), 407
Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE), 413
Ornetzeder, M., 363
Orr, D. W., 214
Ortner, S. B., 34
Osborne, George, 102
Ostwald, W., 7
Ottinger, G., 349
Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), 268
Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act, 270
Övertornea, 463
Ozone-depleting substances (ODS), 17
Pantzar, M., 34, 36, 37, 38, 226
Paradigms, challenging, 548–550
Parikh, J., 187–188
Paris Agreement, 16, 23–27, 326–327, 416. See also International relations of environment
achieving and sustaining, 27–29
climate change and energy, 326–327
global energy system transformation, 486–487
renewable energy for implementing, 486
Passive Houses, 234–235
Path creation, 391–393, 464
Path dependency, 391–393
Pellet burning heating systems, 233, 362, 364
People’s Climate March, 415
People’s Climate Plan, 415
Perception, 212
Pereira, M. G., 323, 335
Pérez Companc, 289
Peron, Juan, 280
Perrow, C., 266, 273, 275, 546
Persson, Göran, 470
Pesonen, H.-L., 204
Peters, M., 213
Petrobras (Brazil), 279, 287–288, 291
Petrocapitalism, 447, 457
Petroleum
contents, 443n2
industry subsidies, 4
national identity and, 286–290
populism, 280, 290–293
Petrova, S., 298, 299, 310, 311
PIMBY (“please in my backward”), 351
Pink tide, 280, 290–293
Pipeline protests, 408–409. See also specific pipelines
Place
attachment, renewable energy, 347
transition studies, 51
Plato, 331
Policy, corporate, on energy markets, 94
Policy, public
on consumer behavior, sustainable energy, 201
on energy, Europeanization, 470–472
on energy consumption, social practices, 41
energy-efficiency value–action gap and, 201
on energy markets, 93–94, 95f
(p. 575)
on energy poverty, 311
on renewable energy, 94
small-scale renewable energy technologies on, 373–375
on solar power, disincentivizing, 246–247
transboundary interdependencies, 495
urbanization on energy consumption and, 195–197
Political economy, Eastern European energy security, 137–154. See also Eastern European energy security
Politics, energy, 401–403, 542–544. See also specific topics
climate change, international, 26, 27, 28 (see also International relations of environment; Paris Agreement)
climate science manipulation, 3
counter-power, 385, 394, 395
energy–society relations, 3–5
fossil fuels, 3–5
new realities, 3–5
politicians and public energy discourse, 389
renewable electricity, Germany vs. Sweden, 462–464
renewable energy, Germany, 463–464
shifts, 543
Pollutants. See also specific types
transboundary movements, 16
Populism
Latin America, 280
macroeconomic, Latin America, 280–281
petroleum, 280, 290–293
Poroshenko, Petro, 148
Portes, A., 549
Post-hegemonic discourse, energy public discourse, 394–395
Potentially fair historical emissions (PFHE), 332
accumulated emissions and, 334, 334f
Poumanyvong, P., 188–189
Poverty, energy. See Energy poverty
Power. See also specific types
export, for developing countries, 100
transition studies, 50–51
Power plants. See also specific types
energy transformation, 5
Practices. See also specific types
definition, 224–225
energy consumption, 31–42 (see also Energy consumption, social practices)
energy cultures, 224–226, 228–230
energy-efficiency, 202–203
energy-efficiency, value-action gap, 201–217 (see also Value–action gap)
as entities vs. performances, 37–38
social (see Social practices)
Practice theory, 31–42. See also Energy consumption, social practices
energy consumption research and, 32–33
Priming, 382
Proactive campaigns, renewable energy, 411–415
Proalcool, 282
Procedural justice, renewable energy, 349–350
Production tax credits (PTC ), 412, 417
Products, energy-efficient
consumer purchases, 202
trade-offs, 213
Project Independence, 269–270, 406
Prosumers, 3–4
Protective space, 48
Public, energy and, 341–342. See also specific topics
Public energy dialogues, media on, 381–395. See also Media, on public energy dialogues
Public opinion, media on, 383, 384, 395n1
critiques on, 384
Public relations, on energy problems, 386
Public sphere
definition, 383
energy discourse, 383–385, 395n1
Putin, Vladimir, 105, 149
Quantified emissions limitation and reduction objectives (QELROs), 19
Rafiq, S., 191
Raven, R., 48, 55
Rawls, J., 330
Raw materialism, 115, 132n1
global commodity chain lengthening and, 115–118
(p. 576) Reactive opposition, to energy projects, 406–411
Real-world experiment, 542
Rebound effect, 547
Reciprocal Granger causality, 86n7
Reckwitz, A., 34, 35–36, 224–225
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+), 23
Regime, socio-technical, 47–48
Religious environmentalists, 247, 252–253
Renewable electricity
feed-in tariffs, 463, 465, 466
installed, global, 484, 484f
Renewable electricity, Germany and Sweden, 461–475
centralized vs. decentralized, 467–470, 473
coal and lignite mining legacy, 462
development and ownership, 462
energy resources and settlement patterns, 461
energy section transformation, 461–462
Europeanization of energy policies, 470–472
geopolitics, 464–467
Germany and Sweden compared, 472–475
Hanover, Germany, 468–469
political differences, 462
political history, 463–464
Sweden, Växjö fossil fuel–free city, 463–464, 469–470
territorial energy management, 474–475
Renewable energy. See also specific types
activism against, 409–410
California boom, 96
demand, rising, 487–489
on energy markets, 87
EU, 104
expansion, on fossil fuel use, 4
Germany and Renewable Energy Sources Act, 231–233
investments, 498n5
Kyoto Protocol, 26
national targets, 484–485
non-hydro, on energy trade, 105–107
“peak coal” from, 113–114
political history, Germany and Sweden, 463–464
proactive campaigns, 411–415
public policy, 94
regulation, 89
small-scale technologies, 361–375 (see also Small-scale renewable energy technologies)
technology efficiency, 70
trade, 99
trends, global, 175–177, 175f, 176f
Renewable energy certificates, 463
solar, 252
Sweden, 471
Renewable energy cooperatives, 413–414
Renewable energy development, local responses, 343–355
case 1, solar farm, 343
case 2, wind farm, 344
drivers, 344, 354–355
renewables paradox, national support vs. local opposition, 345–346
support, 351–354, 355
Renewable energy development, local responses, opposition rationale, 346–351, 355
environmental and health impacts, 350–351
inverse NIMBY syndrome, 346
landscape concerns, 347–349
literature review, 346–347
NIMBY syndrome, 346, 389, 410
place attachment, 347
procedural and distributive justice, 349–350
Renewable Energy Sources Act (RS Act), 231–233
Renewable energy transition, global, 483–498
capacity additions, 492, 498n14
expansion, underestimates, 492, 498n15
expansion and trends, 483–490, 485t, 489t, 484f
hydropower share, 484
installed renewable capacities, 484, 484f
solar power share, 484
wind energy share, 484
Renewable energy transition, global governance, 490–497
challenges, 492n17, 494–497
climate protection, 492, 492n16
(p. 577)
IRENA creation, 491–492
IRENA creation, politics, 492–494, 492n17
Renewable portfolio standards (RPS), 412
Reosik, 279
Repsol/YPF (Argentina), 287, 288–290, 291
Research. See also specific types
energy consumption, 31–33, 38–41 (see also Energy consumption research)
transfers, 16
Residential energy, 88
change, limits, 243–256 (see also Household change, limits)
use, U.S., 243
Resource curse, 89–90
Rights, human
climate justice, 16, 19, 21, 24, 28, 263–264, 327, 330–331
energy, 261–264
indigenous peoples, 107, 109n3
Rinkinen, J., 392
Rio Earth Summit, 18–19
Risk, 262
amplification, 389
coal, 262
distribution of, 261
vs. energy poverty, 262
framing, energy discourses, 389
nuclear power, 262
Rochracher, H., 363
Rockefeller, John D., 267
Rodriguez, E. B., 353
Roser, D., 330
Rural electrification, 306–308, 322, 322t
Russia
emissions, historical and projections, 327, 329f, 330
EU gas imports, 104–105, 108n1, 144–145, 144f, 145f
liquefied natural gas exports, 104, 144, 144f, 145f
Russia-Ukraine
gas dispute (2013-2014), 137–138, 149–152
gas relations (2006-2013), and 2013-2014 gas dispute, 145–148, 147f
political crisis (2013+), 148–149
Russo, R., 246
Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) SolarShares program, 414
Sadorsky, P., 189–190, 191
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Halliburton loophole, 428, 435
Salim, R. A., 190
Santa Barbara oil spill, 268–269
Sarlamanov, R., 299, 311
Save the Narmada River, 410
Scale, transition studies, 50
Scaling up, 522
Schatzki, T. R., 34, 36, 37, 41
Scheer, Hermann, 232, 470
Schiemann, G., 549
Schloss Tempelhof, 236
Schot, J., 47
Scientific revolution, 549
Scrase, I., 392
Seabolt, Grant, 430
Sen, Amartya K., 321, 330
Services, energy-efficiency value–action gap, 202
Seyfan, G., 203–204
Shadow price, 85n1
Shafiei, S., 190
Shahbaz, M., 191, 193
Shale gas, 90–93
on environment, 101
in EU, 105
on LNG market, 96, 98f, 99, 101
on oil imports and energy trade, 101–102, 103
Shale gas, as energy imaginary, 423–424, 426–429
U.S., 426–429
U.S., framing of, 429–437 (see also Marcellus Shale (New York State))
Shale gas fracking, 423–425
Marcellus Shale, New York, 429–437 (see also Marcellus Shale (New York State))
New York ban, 424–425
as U.S. energy imaginary, 426–429
Shared understandings, of principles, 16–17
Sheller, M., 8
Shove, E., 32, 34, 36, 37, 38, 41, 49, 226
Shukla, V., 187–188
Siemens Green City Index, 194, 195–196
Silent Spring (Carson), 406
(p. 578) Silent Valley protests, 410
Simcock, N., 310–311
Simplicity Institute, 235
Simplifiers, voluntary, 247, 248–250, 253
Skirky, C., 385
Slcktivism, 385
Small Island Developing States (SIDs), Paris Agreement on, 24
Small-scale renewable energy technologies (S-RET), 361–375
community energy, 370, 372t
decentralized energy production, 361
design and policy implications, 373–375
diffusion, users’ roles, 361
distributed and dispersed energy communities, 370–373, 372t, 373f
Internet forums, 368–370, 371, 372, 374, 375
user innovations, 362, 363–370, 368f
user innovations, expansion phase, 364–367, 366f
user innovations, formation phase, 363–364
Smart meters, 246
Smil, V., 540
Smith, A., 48, 49, 55, 364
Smith, J. R., 453
Snell, C., 302
Social energetics, 7
Social equity, 321
Social Forces (Freudenburg), 550
Social groups, energy-efficiency value–action gap, 212–213
Social media, public energy discourse, 385–387
Social movements, energy and, 405–420
energy-focused global movement, 415–417
fossil-fuel counter-movement, 417–418
proactive campaigns, renewable energy, 411–415
reactive opposition, to energy projects, 406–411
Social norms, energy-efficiency value–action gap, 205, 209 [link] –210t
Social practices. See also specific types
bodies, 36–37
competencies, 36
connections, 37
constituents, 36
dynamic character, 37
energy consumption, 31–42 (see also Energy consumption, social practices)
as entities vs. performances, 37–38
materials, 36
meanings, 36
value–action gap, energy-efficiency, 202–203
Social practices theory, 31, 33–35
Social science contributions, energy transitions, 544–550
challenging paradigms, 548–550
conceptual flexibility, 547–548
future, 550
supply vs. conversion, 544–545
uncertainty, 545–547
Social science research, 46
on change processes, 46
energy consumption and practice theory, 32–33
sustainability transitions, 46
Social structures, in energy consumption, 14, 31, 41. See also Energy consumption, social practices
Societal lock-in, 252–254
Sociological constructivism, 382
Sociology. See also specific topics
of energy consumption, practice turn, 33–35
Sociotechnical imaginaries, 227, 423
framing, 425–426
Socio-technical lock-in, 244
Socio-technical niches, shielding, nurturing, and empowering, 48, 55
Socio-technical regime, 47–48
Socio-technical systems, in energy consumption, 33
Socio-technical transformation, energy systems, 45–56
agency, power, and place, 49–50
energy generation and use, 45
landscapes, 47, 48–49
multilevel perspective, 47–49
niches, 47, 48
regimes, 47–48
studying transition processes, conceptual approaches, 46–47
wind energy development, international comparison, 50–56 (see also Wind energy)
(p. 579) Socio-technical transitions, 46–47
Soddy, F., 64
Solarin, S. A., 193
Solar power
capacity additions, significant, 498n2
cooperatives, 413–414
cost competitiveness, 488–489, 489t
distributed and dispersed energy communities, 370–373, 372t, 373f
financing, newer, 253
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 468
installed renewable capacities, 484
policies disincentivizing, 246–247
rooftop and battery storage, 196–197
subsidies, 252
on water use, 488
Solar power, local response